(Image in the Public Domain)
Per this link: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ricciportrait.jpg
SAINT MATTEO RICCI (OCTOBER 7, 1552-MAY 11, 1610)
Roman Catholic Missionary to China
To say or write that we stand on the shoulders of giants has become cliched. Yet often the sentiment is accurate. Certainly it applies to many Chinese Christians and Christians of Chinese descent. For, despite the best efforts of Chinese authorities from the 1700s forward to suppress Christianity, the faith has never died there. And a giant of faith–St. Matteo Ricci–a saint on my Ecunemical Calendar–did much to establish the church there.
Ricci, born to Italian nobility in Macarata, studied law at Rome. There, in 1571, our saint, against his father’s wishes, joined the Society of Jesus. Ricci volunteered for missions in India in 1577. He arrived in Goa the following year.
Ricci’s greatest work, however, was in China, where St. Francis Xavier had labored faithfully yet not successfully. (As Mother Teresa of Calcutta said, God calls us to be faithful, not successful.) Yet, in 1583, Ricci arrived at Chowkingfu (near Canton), from where he worked as a missionary for about six years. From 1589 to 1595 our saint served as a missionary based at Chaochow. His next stations were Nan-changfu (until 1598) then Nanjing then Beijing (fro 1601).
Ricci’s life as a missionary in China was challenging, for how does one adapt properly to a different culture? How to dress was a major issue. Our saint learned to adopt the wardrobe of a Confucian scholar. He and his fellow Jesuits in China adapted to Chinese culture, becoming fluent in Mandarin, mastering Chinese classics,and speaking with Chinese scholars–working from the top of society down. The fact that Ricci had prisms, clocks, and geographical, astronomical, and musical knowledge impressed many Chinese elites greatly, opening doors for his mission.
So, despite challenges, Ricci and his fellow Jesuits were able to make inroads at Beijing, with the emperor and the imperial court. Jesuit knowledge of astronomy made members of that order useful to the Son of Heaven, whose duties included maintaining an accurate calendar showing the locations of heavenly bodies. They were more skilled at that difficult task than were the people attempting it. And the emperor, coming under Christian influence, did not convert, but some courtiers and members of the imperial family did.
The Jesuit mission in China, by working within Chinese culture–a tactic appropriate in the Middle Kingdom–opened up China to Catholic missionaries. And the Jesuit mission created a cultural exchange. Not only did Jesuits learn much about China, but Chinese elites gained knowledge about the West, learning Euclidian geometry and seeing an clavichord, for example. Ricci’s detailed volume about Chinese geography expanded knowledge about that subject in Western Europe also.
The saint died at Beijing on May 11, 1610.
Unfortunately, political pressures sabotaged the Jesuit mission in China. Had the Jesuits accommodated to Chinese culture too much? Some Franciscans, Dominicans, and Augustinians thought so. Their tactics of working among the common people instead alienated leading elements in China, making life more difficult for the Jesuits. And Confucian opposition to Christianity, grounded in xenophobia, cultural misunderstanding, and doubts about major doctrines, encouraged the imperial suppression of Christianity which began in 1722.
I wonder what would have happened if more missionaries had done as Ricci did.
KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR
OCTOBER 4, 2013 COMMON ERA
THE FEAST OF ALL CHRISTIAN ENVIRONMENTALISTS
THE FEAST OF SAINT FRANCIS OF ASSISI, FOUNDER OF THE FRANCISCANS
God of grace and glory, we praise you for your servant Saint Matteo Ricci,
who made the good news known in China.
Raise up, we pray, in every country, heralds of the gospel,
so that the world may know the immeasurable riches of your love,
and be drawn to worship you, Father, Son, and Holy Spirit,
one God, now and forever. Amen.
—Evangelical Lutheran Worship (2006), page 59