Above: Map of England in 878
Image in the Public Domain
ALFRED THE GREAT (849-OCTOBER 26, 899)
King of the West Saxons
An old saying tells that power wears down those who do not have it. That is certainly true in the Turkish Republic. Even before the recent failed coup President (previously Prime Minister) Recep Tayyip Erdogan used the judiciary to imprison journalists whose reporting was critical of him. He thereby proved that he lacked respect for the freedom of the press. Now, after the coup, he is targeting not only soldiers but journalists, judges, academics, and civil servants en masse. It is a witch hunt. The republic is really a dictatorship. Erdogan’s power wears down those who do not have it. Patriotism and law and order are the last refuges of a scoundrel, to paraphrase Dr. Samuel Johnson (1709-1784).
Power need not wear down those who lack it, however. If the right person uses power for proper purposes it builds up the nation–or, in the case, of King Alfred the Great, the only monarch in English history to be “the Great,” the kingdom as a whole.
Alfred the Great was the last King of the West Saxons (alternatively, the King of Wessex) and the first King of the Anglo-Saxons (from 878). His mother was Osburh/Osburga (died in 854), a noblewoman. Our saint’s father was King Aethelwulf (reigned 839-858). Alfred, born in 849, was the youngest of five children who survived to adulthood. Aethelwulf sent his four-year-old son to visit Rome, where Pope St. Leo IV (reigned April 10, 847-July 17, 855) sponsored the prince at his confirmation. Two years later Alfred accompanied Aethelwulf on a pilgrimage to Rome. The prince learned to read English prior to his twelfth birthday. He did not learn to read Latin until 887, when he had been king for some time. Aethelwulf’s three elder sons succeeded him, in order, prior to Alfred’s accession:
- Aethelbald (reigned 858-860),
- Aethelberht (reigned 860-865), and
- Aethelred I (reigned 865-871).
Alfred’s public life spanned 866-899. That public life began with Alfred assisting his elder brother, Aethelred I, resist Danish invaders, a persistent threat for generations. In 868 the prince married Ealhswith/Ealswitha (died 902), from the Mercian royal family. Alfred succeeded Aethelred I in 871, becoming the King of the West Saxons (alternatively, the King of Wessex). The fight against Danish invaders continued throughout his reign. One phase of that struggle ended in 878, when Alfred took the title “King of the Anglo-Saxons.” In that year Alfred did not kill Guthrum, the leader of the Danish invaders; no the monarch forced Guthrum to convert to Christianity and stood as his godfather. Another stage of that struggle ended in 896. Alfred left behind a military legacy, including a naval fleet and reorganized militias. He was, in fact, the “Father of the English Navy.”
Alfred did more than maintain the independence of his realm and became one of the greatest early English monarchs. He also built up his realm and improved the lives of his subjects. The monarch, for example, issued a law code, joining the ranks of Hammurabi (reigned 1792-1750 B.C.E.) and Justinian I (reigned 527-565 C.E.). He also encouraged art, architecture, education, and monasticism. Alfred recruited experts from the continent of Europe to revitalize learning. He also ordered that children in his court learn both English and Latin. Furthermore, the king, in 892, began to translate major Latin texts in theology and philosophy. Other also translated major Latin texts. Over time confusion regarding which of these Alfred translated has developed. The monarch also founded a convent and a monastery. His attempt to revive monasticism failed, however, due to a lack of public interest. Alfred was ahead of his time in that regard.
Alfred died on October 26, 899. He was about 50 years old. His son, Edward the Elder (reigned 899-924), succeeded him.
George P. Knapp, late Professor of English at Columbia University, wrote:
It should be borne in mind, however, that it is not the magnitude of Alfred’s military achievements, nor the extent of the country which he governed, that lift him into the ranks of the world’s great men, but the beauty and moral grandeur of his character. In him were combined the virtues of the scholar and the patriot, the efficiency of the man of affairs with the wisdom of the philosopher and the piety of the true Christian. His character, public and private, is without a stain, and his whole life was one of enlightened and magnanimous service to his country.
–Quoted in The Encyclopedia Americana (1962), Volume 1, page 380
KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR
JULY 28, 2016 COMMON ERA
THE FEAST OF FLORA MACDONALD, CANADIAN STATESWOMAN AND HUMANITARIAN
THE FEAST OF NANCY BYRD TURNER, POET, EDITOR, AND HYMN EDITOR
THE FEAST OF THE PIONEERING FEMALE EPISCOPAL PRIESTS, 1974 AND 1975
O Sovereign Lord, you brought your servant Alfred to a troubled throne that he might
establish peace in a ravaged land and revive learning and the arts among the people:
Awake in us also a keen desire to increase our understanding while we are in this world,
and an eager longing to reach that endless life where all will be made clear;
through Jesus Christ our Lord, who lives and reigns
with you and the Holy Spirit, one God, for ever and ever. Amen.
Wisdom 6:1-3, 9-12, 24-25
2 Thessalonians 2:13-17
—Holy Women, Holy Men: Celebrating the Saints (2010), page 653