Archive for the ‘April 17’ Category

Feast of Daniel Sylvester Tuttle (April 17)   Leave a comment

Above:  Daniel Sylvester Tuttle

Image in the Public Domain



Presiding Bishop of The Episcopal Church


We were most civilly and courteously treated in this call, but I was not asked to call again.  I did not detect any violation of grammar or of good sense or of good taste on his part during our call.  He is so powerful a man in everything here, and so unscrupulous a man, I fear, in most things, that my policy will be to have as little as possible to do with him.  With his keensightedness he must know, that if not in will yet in reality, by our services and our school, we are putting our clutches to his very throat.

–Bishop Tuttle, writing to his wife, after meeting Brigham Young, July 10, 1867


Daniel Sylvester Tuttle was a bishop for nearly 56 of his 86 years–about 65 percent of his lifetime.

Tuttle, who studied to become a teacher, joined the ranks of Episcopal priests.  He, born at Windham, New York, on January 26, 1837, graduated from Columbia University, New York, New York, in 1857.  He taught at the Columbia College Grammar School and worked as a private tutor in New York City before matriculating at the General Theological Seminary, from which he graduated in 1862.  Our saint, ordained a deacon in 1862 and a priest the following year, served at just one congregation–Zion Church, Morris, New York–first as the Curate then as the Rector.  He married Harriet Minerva Foote (1841-1899) in 1865.  The couple had children.

In late 1866 the House of Bishops elected the 29-year-old Tuttle the Missionary Bishop of Montana, with responsibilities also in Utah and Idaho.  On May 1, 1867, at the age of 30 years (the minimum age for an Episcopal bishop) he commenced his episcopate.  Our saint proceeded to establish Episcopal churches and other institutions–including St. Mark’s Cathedral (the first non-Mormon church in Utah), St. Mark’s School, and St. Mark’s Hospital in Salt Lake City–on the frontier.  Life for Tuttle and his family in the West was primitive, certainly compared to conditions in New York City.  In 1880 his title changed to Missionary Bishop of Utah and Idaho; Montana became the responsibility of another bishop.  Tuttle, who, after meeting Brigham Young, considered the Mormon leader “unscrupulous” and someone to avoid, built up The Episcopal Church in his jurisdiction in such a way as to win the respect of many Mormons.  An official Latter-day Saints source called the bishop “a consistent adversary.”  His task, as he understood it, was to build up The Episcopal Church, not to tear down the Mormon Church:

My plan for dealing with Mormonism, and for putting down Mormonism, immoral as it is, infidel as it is, heathenish as it is, in God’s own time, is by preaching the full truth of the everlasting Gospel, as contained in the Holy Bible and embodied in the Church, and by striving constantly, with His help, to do unto others as I would that others should do unto me.

Tuttle translated to the Diocese of Missouri in 1886.  There he remained for the rest of his life.  During his tenure the diocese, out of necessity, divided, giving birth to the Diocese of West Missouri  in 1890.  Our saint was a busy man, for he doubled as the acting Missionary Bishop of Salt Lake (with responsibilities in Utah and parts of Nevada and Wyoming) from late 1903 to late 1904 and as the Presiding Bishop of The Episcopal Church from 1903 to 1923.  He was the last man to serve as the Presiding Bishop on the basis of seniority; the General Convention changed the system in 1919.

Tuttle died in St. Louis, Missouri, on April 17, 1923.





Heavenly Father, Shepherd of your people, we thank you for your servant Daniel Sylvester Tuttle,

who was faithful in the care and nurture of your flock;

and we pray that, following his example and the teaching of his holy life,

we may by your grace grow into the stature of the fullness of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ;

who lives and reigns with you and the Holy Spirit, one God, for ever and ever.  Amen.

Ezekiel 34:11-16

Psalm 23

1 Peter 5:1-4

John 21:15-17

–Adapted from Holy Women, Holy Men:  Celebrating the Saints (2010), page 718


Feast of Max Josef Metzger (April 17)   Leave a comment

Above:  Max Josef Metzger

Image in the Public Domain



Roman Catholic Priest and Martyr


It is honorable to die for one’s country, but still more honorable to die for righteousness and peace.

–Max Josef Metzger


Father Metzger comes to my Ecumenical Calendar of Saints’ Days and Holy Days via Robert Ellsberg, author of All Saints:  Daily Reflections on Saints, Prophets, and Witnesses for Our Time (New York, NY:  The Crossroad Publishing Company, 1997).

Max Josef Metzter, born in the German village of Schopfheim on February 3, 1887, discerned his priestly vocation at an early age.  He, ordained the priesthood in 1911, served as an army chaplain in 1914-1915, leaving military service during World War I due to ill health.  The lasting effect of the Great War upon our saint was to transform him into a pacifist.  He devoted the rest of his life to the cause of peace and disarmament, among other causes.  He worked with the White Cross, a mission to the downtrodden.  Our saint also founded the World Peace League as well as the World Congress of Christ, an ecumenical peace movement.  He was also a pioneering ecumenist, for he promoted Lutheran-Roman Catholic dialogue and reconciliation.

Metzger opposed Nazism from the beginning.  The Gestapo asserted him several times, the final time being in June 1943.  His specific offense was to write foreign bishops to ask them to help secure a negotiated settlement of the war.  The courier, unfortunately, was an agent of the Gestapo.  Metzger, convicted of treason, went to his fate (martyrdom via beheading) on April 17, 1944.  His final spoken prayer was

Now, Lord Jesus, I come.

Our saint was 57 years old.

The example of Father Metzger raises some challenging issues.  As Voltaire reminds us down the corridors of time,

It is dangerous to be right when the government is wrong.

Likewise, to quote The Use of Force in International Affairs (1961),

If what your country is doing seems to you practically and morally wrong, dissent is the highest form of patriotism.

I rank Metzger among the German patriots.  Patriotism does not necessarily entail supporting the government or the administration.  This is especially true when the government is a genocidal dictatorship.

To praise those who resisted the Third Reich is easy in North America in 2017.  After all, finding someone, regardless of political affiliation, who looks upon Nazi Germany with moral revulsion is a simple task.  More challenging is to ask how one, if one had been in Nazi jurisdiction at the time, would have acted.  One might hope that one would have had the moral courage to resist the Third Reich, but one might be inaccurate.  How easy is it after all, to go along and get along, to keep one’s head down and be passive?  Yet, as the late Howard Zinn reminded us, one cannot be neutral on a moving train.

Father Metzger took a moral stand and paid the ultimate price.  His conscience did not permit him to attempt to be neutral on a moving train.  Many of us are so fortunate as not to have to take such risks.  Others, however, must, due to their circumstances, make such decisions.





Holy and righteous God, you created is in your image.

Grant us grace to contend fearlessly against evil and to make no peace with oppression.

Help us, like your servant Max Josef Metzger,

to work for justice among people and nations,

to the glory of your name, through Jesus Christ,

our Saviour and Lord, who lives and reigns with you

and the Holy Spirit, one God, now and forever.  Amen.

Hosea 2:18-23

Psalm 94:1-15

Romans 12:9-21

Luke 6:20-36

–Adapted from Evangelical Lutheran Worship (2006), page 60


Feast of Emily Cooper (April 17)   Leave a comment

Above:  Flag of the Commonwealth of Kentucky

Image in the Public Domain


EMILY COOPER (1839-APRIL 17, 1909)

Episcopal Deaconess

The Episcopal Church added the commemoration of the life of Emily Cooper to the calendar of saints in 2015.

Discussions regarding the establishment of the female diaconate in The Episcopal Church began in 1868 and terminated with the approval of the germane canon at the General Convention in 1889.  Prior to 1889, however, some women had already become deaconesses.  One of the earliest Episcopal deaconesses was our saint, part of a group of four women who became deaconesses during a ceremony at St. Mary’s Episcopal Church, Brooklyn, New York, in June 1873, after two years of preparation.

Cooper, a 44-year-old widow in 1873, returned to her native Kentucky to serve as a deaconess.  In 1880 she became the director of the new Home of the Innocents, Louisville, a diocesan home for cast-off children–the abused, the sick, the dying, and the abandoned.  For about 24 years our saint led her staff in this good work.  Some of the abandoned children lacked even names; she named them.  Cooper also assisted at the baptisms of 244 children.  Our saint retired in 1904.  She spent her final years at the Orphanage of the Good Shepherd.  She died, aged about 70 years, on April 17, 1909.

The Home of the Innocents continues to operate as it expands its facilities and services.





God of the holy innocents, we thank you for the motherly witness of your deaconess

Emily Cooper, who, in naming and baptizing did not forget the children:

Draw our hearts and minds also to the plight of little ones,

always remembering your Son’s teaching that in receiving a little child in his name,

we receive Christ himself, who lives and reigns with you

and the Spirit, as one, caring for ever and ever.  Amen.

Zechariah 8:3-12, 16-17

Psalm 146 or 22:22-27

1 Peter 4:7-11

Mark 10:42-52

A Great Cloud of Witnesses:  A Calendar of Commemorations (2016)


Feast of Lucy Larcom (April 17)   1 comment

Above:  Lucy Larcom

Image in the Public Domain


LUCY LARCOM (MARCH 5, 1826-APRIL 17, 1893)

U.S. Academic, Journalist, Poet, Editor, and Hymn Writer

Lucy Larcom came to my attention when I found her name in a hymnal.

Larcom was a woman ahead of her time, for she was a pioneering academic.

Larcom, born at Beverly, Massachusetts, on March 5, 1826.  Her father, a sea-captain, died when she was a juvenile.  Therefore she had to leave her school in 1837 and go to work at the Lowell Mills, Lowell, Massachusetts, until 1845.  She also took classes at Lowell.  During her final two years at Lowell Larcom contributed to the Lowell Offering, the first magazine in the United States edited exclusively by women.  Our saint taught at a rural school in Looking Glass, Illinois, from 1846 to 1849.  Then, for three years, the studied at Monticello Female Seminary, graduating in 1852.

Larcom chose professional life over marriage.   She did have a romance, but she kept the details private.  From 1854 to 1863 our saint taught English literature and composition, history, logic, botany, and moral philosophy at Wheaton Female Seminary, Norton, Massachusetts.  In 1855 she founded The Rushlight, the college’s literary magazine.  Larcom reduced her teaching schedule, due to health issues, and returned to the college in 1865-1867 then at other times as a visiting lecturer.  Larcom contributed prose and poetry to various publications.  She also edited Our Young Folks (as Assistant Editor from 1865 to 1866 and as Editor-in-Chief from 1866 to 1873).  She also published works of prose and poetry in book form.  From some of these volumes came hymns.

Larcom, who grew up a Congregationalist, spent much of her life as a Christian not affiliated formally with any church.  She attended Trinity Episcopal Church, Boston, Massachusetts, throughout the 1880s, finally accepting confirmation in 1890.  Larcom had to work through her Puritan upbringing and her complicated relationship to organized religion.  Anglican influences on her changing religious opinions included Frederick Denison Maurice (1805-1872) and Phillips Brooks (1835-1893).

Larcom died, aged 67 years, at Boston, on April 17, 1893.





O God, you have endowed us with memory, reason, and skill.

We thank you for the faithful legacy of [Lucy Larcom and all others]

who have dedicated their lives to you and to the intellectual pursuits.

May we, like them, respect your gift of intelligence fully and to your glory.

In the Name of God:  Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.  Amen.

Deuteronomy 6:4-9

Psalm 103

Philippians 4:8-9

Mark 12:28-34






Feast of Wilbur Kenneth Howard (April 17)   Leave a comment

Flag of Canada Current

Above:  The Flag of Canada

Image in the Public Domain



Moderator of The United Church of Canada

Wilbur Kenneth Howard followed Jesus and resisted racism.

Howard was a native of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.  He entered the world on February 29, 1912.  His father and brother were railway porters, for that profession was among the limited range of careers open to African Canadians in the early part of the twentieth century.  Our saint, educated at Brock Public School then at Bloor Collegiate School then at Victoria College (B.A., 1938) then Emmanuel College (B.D., 1941), all in Toronto, pursued a different path.  When he was younger a White family had invited him to attend church with them.  He had accepted, and therefore found his path into The United Church of Canada.

Howard was in a difficult situation in 1941.  He had graduated from seminary yet not one congregation offered him a position.  The reason was racism.  The denominational officialdom at the General Council Office hired Howard to be the Boys’ Work Secretary of the Ontario Religious Education Council.  For the next 24 years our saint worked in the field of Christian education.  In 1949 he became the Christian Education Secretary for the Manitoba Conference of The United Church of Canada.  Four years later he accepted a new position, Associate Editor of Sunday School Publications for the denomination.  That work lasted for 12 years, during which he influenced the content of the curriculum.

From 1965 to 1980 Howard worked on the parish level and found acceptance there.  For five years he was one of three ministers at Dominion-Chalmers United Church, Toronto.  In late 1970 he transferred to Emmanuel United Church, Toronto, where he remained for about ten years.  Our saint also served beyond the parish level, first as the President of the Montreal-Ottawa Conference in 1972 and 1973.  On August 19, 1974, the General Council of The United Church of Canada made history by electing Howard to the office of Moderator.  He was the 26th Moderator and the first one to be African-Canadian.  During our saint’s three years as the denominational moderator he worked part-time at Emmanuel United Church.  He retired from active ministry in 1980.  He was 68 years old.

Howard received degrees subsequent to his seminary program.  In 1969 he received the Doctor of Divinity degree from Victoria University, Toronto.  Six years later the University of Winnipeg, Winnipeg, Manitoba, granted him the Doctor of Letters degree.

Howard was a quiet man who lived simply, demonstrated his willingness to listen to others, and considered the ministry of the church to be a matter best suited to teamwork, not obedient minions following the orders of a dominant figure or figures.  His concerns included evangelism, social justice, environmental stewardship, and the needs of third-world countries.  He also abhorred inter-religious hostility and favored mutual understanding and, when possible and proper, cooperation.

Our saint, who received the Order of Ontario in 1991, received the diagnosis of Parkinson’s Disease and moved into a retirement community in the early 1990s.  He died in Toronto on April 17, 2001.  He was 88 years old.  The city council observed a moment of silence in his honor, as they should have done.

I can only imagine how much spiritual fortitude Howard must have had to muster to endure the racist indignities to which others subjected him.  I have endured trials much less difficult and struggled with grudges.  Our saint, however much he struggled with others and himself, emerged as a man of much grace.  That fact warrants high praise.









Almighty God, we praise you for your servant Wilbur Kenneth Howard,

through whom you have called the church to its tasks and renewed its life.

Raise up in our own day teachers and prophets inspired by your Spirit,

whose voices will give strength to your church and proclaim the reality of your reign,

through Jesus Christ, our Savior and Lord, who lives and reigns

with you and the Holy Spirit, one God, now and forever.  Amen.

Jeremiah 1:4-10

Psalm 46

1 Corinthians 3:11-23

Mark 10:25-45

–Adapted from Holy Women, Holy Men:  Celebrating the Saints (2010), page 60


Saints’ Days and Holy Days for April   Leave a comment


Image Source = WiZZiK

1 (Frederick Denison Maurice, Anglican Priest and Theologian)

  • Giuseppe Girotti, Roman Catholic Priest and Martyr, 1945
  • John Gray, Scottish Presbyterian Minister, Mythologist, Biblical Scholar, and Professor of Hebrew and Semitic Languages
  • Ludovico Pavoni, Roman Catholic Priest and Educator
  • Syragius of Autun and Anarcharius of Auxerre, Roman Catholic Bishops; and Valery of Leucone and Eustace of Luxeuit, Roman Catholic Abbots

2 (James Lloyd Breck, “The Apostle of the Wilderness”)

  • Carlo Carretto, Spiritual Writer
  • John Payne and Cuthbert Mayne, Roman Catholic Priests and Martyrs, 1582 and 1577
  • Joseph Bernardin, Cardinal Archbishop of Chicago
  • Sidonius Apollinaris, Eustace of Lyon, and his descendants, Roman Catholic Bishops

3 (Luther D. Reed, U.S. Lutheran Minister and Liturgist)

  • Burgendofara and Sadalberga, Roman Catholic Abbesses, and Their Relatives
  • Marc Sangnier, Founder of the Sillon Movement
  • Mary of Egypt, Hermit and Penitent
  • Reginald Heber, Anglican Bishop of Calcutta, and Hymn Writer

4 (Benedict the African, Franciscan Friar and Hermit)

  • Alfred C. Marble, Jr., Episcopal Bishop of Mississippi then Assisting Bishop of North Carolina
  • Ernest W. Shurtleff, U.S. Congregationalist Minister and Hymn Writer
  • Martin Luther King, Jr., U.S. Civil Rights Leader, and Martyr, 1968 (also January 15)
  • Sidney Lovett, U.S. Congregationalist Minister and Chaplain of Yale University

5 (André, Magda, and Daniel Trocmé, Righteous Gentiles)

  • Emily Ayckbowm, Foundress of the Community of the Sisters of the Church
  • Mariano de la Mata Aparicio, Roman Catholic Missionary and Educator in Brazil
  • Pauline Sperry, Mathematician, Philanthropist, and Activist; and her brother, Willard Learoyd Sperry, Congregationalist Minister, Ethicist, Theologian, and Dean of Harvard Law School
  • William Derham, Anglican Priest and Scientist

6 (Marcellinus of Carthage, Roman Catholic Martyr, 413)

  • Benjamin Hall Kennedy, Greek and Latin Scholar, Bible Translator, and Anglican Priest
  • Daniel G. C. Wu, Chinese-American Episcopal Priest and Missionary
  • Emil Brunner, Swiss Reformed Theologian
  • Milner Ball, Presbyterian Minister, Law Professor, Witness for Civil Rights, Humanitarian
  • Nokter Balbulus, Roman Catholic Monk

7 (Tikhon of Moscow, Russian Orthodox Patriach)

  • George the Younger, Greek Orthodox Bishop of Mitylene
  • Jay Thomas Stocking, U.S. Congregationalist Minister and Hymn Writer
  • Montford Scott, Edmund Gennings, Henry Walpole, and Their Fellow Martyrs, 1591 and 1595
  • Randall Davidson, Archbishop of Canterbury

8 (Henry Melchior Muhlenberg, Patriarch of American Lutheranism; his great-grandson, William Augustus Muhlenberg, Episcopal Priest, Hymn Writer, and Liturgical Pioneer; and his colleague, Anne Ayres, Foundress of the Sisterhood of the Holy Communion)

  • Dionysius of Corinth, Roman Catholic Bishop
  • Hugh of Rouen, Roman Catholic Bishop, Abbot, and Monk
  • Julie Billiart, Foundress of the Congregation of the Sisters of Notre Dame
  • Timothy Lull, U.S. Lutheran Minister, Scholar, Theologian, and Ecumenist

9 (Dietrich Bonhoeffer, German Lutheran Martyr, 1945

  • Johann Cruger, German Lutheran Organist, Composer, and Hymnal Editor
  • John Samuel Bewley Monsell, Anglican Priest and Poet; and Richard Mant, Anglican Bishop of Down, Connor, and Dromore
  • Lydia Emilie Gruchy, First Female Minister in the United Church of Canada
  • Mikael Agricola, Finnish Lutheran Liturgist, Bishop of Turku, and “Father of Finnish Literary Language”

10 (Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, Roman Catholic Priest, Scientist, and Theologian)

  • Fulbert of Chartres, Roman Catholic Bishop
  • Henry Van Dyke, U.S. Presbyterian Minister and Liturgist
  • Howard Thurman, Protestant Theologian
  • William Law, Anglican Priest, Mystic, and Spiritual Writer

11 (Heinrich Theobald Schenck, German Lutheran Pastor and Hymn Writer)

  • Charles Stedman Newhall, U.S. Naturalist, Hymn Writer, and Congregationalist and Presbyterian Minister
  • George Augustus Selwyn, Anglican Bishop of New Zealand, Primate of New Zealand, and Bishop of Lichfield; Missionary
  • George Zabelka, U.S. Roman Catholic Priest, Military Chaplain, and Advocate for Christian Nonviolence
  • Henry Hallam Tweedy, U.S. Congregationalist Minister, Liturgist, and Hymn Writer

12 (Henry Sloane Coffin, U.S. Presbyterian Minister, Theologian, and Hymn Translator; and his nephew, William Sloane Coffin, Jr., U.S. Presbyterian Minister and Social Activist)

  • David Uribe-Velasco, Mexican Roman Catholic Priest and Martyr, 1927
  • Godfrey Diekmann, U.S. Roman Catholic Monk, Priest, Ecumenist, Theologian, and Liturgical Scholar
  • Julius I, Bishop of Rome
  • Zeno of Verona, Bishop

13 (Joseph Barber Lightfoot, Bishop of Durham)

  • Henri Perrin, French Roman Catholic Worker Priest
  • John Gloucester, First African-American Presbyterian Minister
  • Martin I, Bishop of Rome, and Martyr, 655; and Maximus the Confessor, Eastern Orthodox Monk, Abbot, and Martyr, 662
  • Rolando Rivi, Roman Catholic Seminarian and Martyr, 1945

14 (Edward Thomas Demby and Henry Beard Delany, Episcopal Suffragan Bishops for Colored Work)

  • Anthony, John, and Eustathius of Vilnius, Martyrs in Lithuania, 1347
  • George Frederick Handel, Composer
  • Wandregisilus of Normandy, Roman Catholic Abbot; and Lambert of Lyons, Roman Catholic Abbot and Bishop
  • Zenaida of Tarsus and her sister, Philonella of Tarsusl and Hermione of Ephesus; Unmercenary Physicians

15 (Olga of Kiev, Regent of Kievan Russia; Adalbert of Magdeburg, Roman Catholic Bishop; Adalbert of Prague, Roman Catholic Bishop and Martyr, 997; and Benedict and Gaudentius of Pomerania, Roman Catholic Martyrs, 997)

  • Damien and Marianne of Molokai, Workers Among Lepers
  • Flavia Domitilla, Roman Christian Noblewoman; and Maro, Eutyches, and Victorinus of Rome, Priests and Martyrs, Circa 99
  • Hunna of Alsace, the “Holy Washerwoman”
  • Lucy Craft Laney, African-American Presbyterian Educator and Civil Rights Activist

16 (Bernadette of Lourdes, Visionary)

  • Calvin Weiss Laufer, U.S. Presbyterian Minister and Hymnodist
  • Isabella Gilmore, Anglican Deaconess
  • Mikel Suma, Albanian Roman Catholic Priest, Friar, and Martyr, 1950
  • Peter Williams Cassey, African-American Episcopal Deacon; and his wife, Annie Besant Cassey, African-American Episcopal Educator

17 (Daniel Sylvester Tuttle, Presiding Bishop of The Episcopal Church)

  • Emily Cooper, Episcopal Deaconess
  • Lucy Larcom, U.S. Academic, Journalist, Poet, Editor, and Hymn Writer
  • Max Josef Metzger, Roman Catholic Priest and Martyr, 1944
  • Wilbur Kenneth Howard, Moderator of The United Church of Canada

18 (Roger Williams, Founder of Rhode Island; and Anne Hutchinson, Rebellious Puritan)

  • Cornelia Connelly, Foundress of the Society of the Holy Child Jesus
  • Maria Anna Blondin, Foundress of the Congregation of the Sisters of Saint Anne
  • Murin of Fahan, Laserian of Leighlin, Goban of Picardie, Foillan of Fosses, and Ultan of Peronne, Abbots; Fursey of Peronne and Blitharius of Seganne, Monks
  • Roman Archutowski, Polish Roman Catholic Priest and Martyr, 1943

19 (Alphege, Archbishop of Canterbury, and Martyr, 1012)

  • David Brainerd, American Congregationalist then Presbyterian Missionary and Minister
  • Emma of Lesum, Benefactor
  • Mary C. Collins, U.S. Congregationalist Missionary and Minister
  • Olavus Petri, Swedish Lutheran Theologian, Historian, Liturgist, Minister, Hymn Writer, Hymn Translator, and “Father of Swedish Literature;” and his brother, Laurentius Petri, Swedish Lutheran Archbishop of Uppsala, Bible Translator, and “Father of Swedish Hymnody”

20 (Johannes Bugenhagen, German Lutheran Theologian, Minister, Liturgist, and “Pastor of the Reformation”)

  • Amator of Auxerre and Germanus of Auxerre, Roman Catholic Bishops; Mamertinus of Auxerre, Roman Catholic Abbot; and Marcian of Auxerre, Roman Catholic Monk
  • Christian X, King of Denmark and Iceland; and his brother, Haakon VII, King of Norway
  • Marion MacDonald Kelleran, Episcopal Seminary Professor and Lay Leader

21 (Roman Adame Rosales, Mexican Roman Catholic Priest and Martyr, 1927)

  • Conrad of Parzham, Capuchin Friar
  • George B. Caird, English Congregationalist then United Reformed Minister, Biblical Scholar, and Hymn Writer and Translator
  • Georgia Harkness, U.S. Methodist Minister, Theologian, Ethicist, and Hymn Writer
  • Simeon Barsabae, Bishop; and His Companions, Martyrs, 341

22 (Gene Britton, Episcopal Priest)

  • Donald S. Armentrout, U.S. Lutheran Minister and Scholar
  • Hadewijch of Brabert, Roman Catholic Mystic
  • Kathe Kollwitz, German Lutheran Artist and Pacifist
  • Vitalis of Gaza, Monk, Hermit, and Martyr, Circa 625

23 (Toyohiko Kagawa, Renewer of Society and Prophetic Witness in Japan)

  • Jakob Böhme, German Lutheran Mystic
  • Martin Rinckart, German Lutheran Minister and Hymn Writer
  • Teresa Maria of the Cross, Foundress of the Carmelite Sisters of Saint Teresa of Florence
  • Walter Russell Bowie, Episcopal Priest, Seminary Professor, and Hymn Writer

24 (Genocide Remembrance)

  • Egbert of Lindisfarne, Roman Catholic Monk; and Adalbert of Egmont, Roman Catholic Missionary
  • Fidelis of Sigmaringen, Capuchin Friar and Martyr, 1622
  • Johann Walter, “First Cantor of the Lutheran Church”
  • Mellitus, Bishop of London, and Archbishop of Canterbury


26 (William Cowper, Anglican Hymn Writer)

  • Adelard of Corbie, Frankish Roman Catholic Monk and Abbot; and his protégé, Paschasius Radbertus, Frankish Roman Catholic Monk, Abbot, and Theologian
  • Robert Hunt, First Anglican Chaplain at Jamestown, Virginia
  • Ruth Byllesby, Episcopal Deaconess in Georgia
  • Stanislaw Kubista, Roman Catholic Priest and Martyr, 1940; and Wladyslaw Goral, Polish Roman Catholic Bishop and Martyr, 1945

27 (George Washington Doane, Episcopal Bishop of New Jersey; and his son, William Croswell Doane, Episcopal Bishop of Albany; Hymn Writers)

  • Antony and Theodosius of Kiev, Founders of Russian Orthodox Monasticism; Barlaam of Kiev, Russian Orthodox Abbot; and Stephen of Kiev, Russian Orthodox Abbot and Bishop
  • Christina Rossetti, Poet and Religious Writer
  • Remaclus of Maastricht, Theodore of Maastricht, Lambert of Maastricht, Hubert of Maastricht and Liege, and Floribert of Liege, Roman Catholic Bishops; Landrada of Munsterbilsen, Roman Catholic Abbess; and Otger of Utrecht, Plechelm of Guelderland, and Wiro, Roman Catholic Missionaries
  • Zita of Tuscany, Worker of Charity

28 (Jaroslav Vajda, U.S. Lutheran Minister, Hymn Translator, and Hymn Writer)

  • Jozef Cebula, Roman Catholic Priest and Martyr, 1941
  • Pamphilius of Sulmona, Roman Catholic Bishop and Almsgiver
  • Peter Chanel, Protomartyr of Oceania, 1841
  • William Stringfellow, Episcopal Attorney, Theologian, and Social Activist

29 (Catherine of Siena, Roman Catholic Mystic and Religious)

  • Bosa of York, John of Beverley, Wilfrid the Younger, and Acca of Hexham, Roman Catholic Bishops
  • James Edward Walsh, Roman Catholic Missionary Bishop and Political Prisoner in China
  • Simon B. Parker, United Methodist Biblical Scholar
  • Timothy Rees, Welsh Anglican Hymn Writer and Bishop of Llandaff

30 (James Montgomery, Anglican and Moravian Hymn Writer)

  • Diet Eman; her fiancé, Hein Sietsma, Martyr, 1945; and his brother, Hendrik “Henk” Sietsma; Righteous Among the Nations
  • James Russell Woodford, Anglican Bishop of Ely, Hymn Translator, and Hymn Writer
  • John Ross MacDuff and George Matheson, Scottish Presbyterian Ministers and Authors
  • Sarah Josepha Buell Hale, Poet, Author, Editor, and Prophetic Witness



  • The Confession of Saint Martha of Bethany (the Sunday immediately prior to Palm Sunday; March 8-April 11)


Lowercase boldface on a date with two or more commemorations indicates a primary feast.