Archive for the ‘August 17’ Category

Feast of the Baptisms of Manteo and Virginia Dare, 1587 (August 17)   2 comments

Above:  Stamp of Virginia Dare and Her Parents

Image in the Public Domain

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MANTEO (BAPTIZED AUGUST 13, 1587)

VIRGINIA DARE (BORN AUGUST 18, 1587; BAPTIZED AUGUST 20, 1587)

In The Episcopal Church we have a calendar of saints.  The current guide to that calendar is A Great Cloud of Witnesses:  A Calendar of Commemorations (2016), which includes saints added at the General Convention of 2015.  That volume includes this feast, which originated as a commemoration in the Diocese of East Carolina, the website of which includes an icon of Manteo and Virginia Dare.

Roanoke Island, off the coast of what is now North Carolina, was the site of the first English colony in North America.  The mapping expedition spent part of 1584 there.  That expedition met Manteo, an indigenous leader, who traveled to London, learned English, and became an intermediary.  The first colony lived on the island in 1585-1586.  Manteo helped it survive, but the colonists returned to England anyway.  He arrived with the second group of colonists (120 people) on August 3, 1587.  Ten days later, on a Sunday, Manteo became a baptized Christian in the first Anglican baptismal service in North America.  He was the first indigenous American baptized according to The Book of Common Prayer (1559).

The governor of the second colony was John White (d. 1593).  He became a grandfather on August 18, when his daughter, Eleanor White Dare, gave birth to Virginia Dare, the first child born to English settlers in North America.  Eleanor and her husband Ananias Dare presented Virginia for baptism on Sunday, August 20.  This was the second recorded Anglican baptism in North America.  A few days later White sailed for England, to seek necessary supplies.  A round trip that was to supposed to last a few months stretched into nearly three years, due mainly to King Philip II of Spain and his Grand Armada in 1588.  When the English government turned its attention to the struggling colony at Roanoke Island, time had run out.  White returned on August 18, 1590, but found no colony.  The second colony had become the “Lost Colony.”

If subsequent stories about blue-eyed Natives in the area were plausible, the fate of the “Lost Colony” has not been a mystery for a long time.

This feast’s collect, which uses language from the baptismal rites from The Book of Common Prayer (1979), challenges us to honor God’s

gift of diversity in human life.

We do not know the fates of Manteo, Virginia Dare, her parents, and the other colonists, but we can affirm, in the words of a familiar song,

Red and yellow, black and white,

they are precious in his sight.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

JUNE 21, 2018 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF SAINT ALOYSIUS GONZAGA, JESUIT

THE FEAST OF BERNARD ADAM GRUBE, GERMAN-AMERICAN MINISTER, MISSIONARY, COMPOSER, AND MUSICIAN

THE FEAST OF CARL BERNHARD GARVE, GERMAN MORAVIAN MINISTER, LITURGIST, AND HYMN WRITER

THE FEAST OF SAINTS JOHN JONES AND JOHN RIGBY, ROMAN CATHOLIC MARTYRS

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O God, you have created every human being in your image, and each one precious in your sight:

Grant that, in remembering the baptisms of Manteo and Virginia Dare,

we may grow in honoring your gift of diversity in human life;

become stronger in living out our baptismal vow to respect the dignity of every human being;

and bring into the fellowship of the risen Christ those who come to him in faith,

baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit.  Amen.

Jeremiah 17:7-8 or Ezekiel 36:24-28

Psalm 16:5-11

Romans 6:3-11

Mark 10:35-45

A Great Cloud of Witnesses:  A Calendar of Commemorations (2016)

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Feast of William James Early Bennett (August 17)   10 comments

Above:  William James Early Bennett

Image in the Public Domain

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WILLIAM JAMES EARLY BENNETT (NOVEMBER 15, 1804-AUGUST 17, 1886)

Anglican Priest

Sometimes, while preparing a post about a saint or saints, I read a name.  I remain focused on my task, but take a moment to write that name on a list for future addition to this, my Ecumenical Calendar of Saints’ Days and Holy Days.  That is why I know of the existence of William James Early Bennett, the most recent addition to my Ecumenical Calendar.

William James Early Bennett was an influential and controversial priest in The Church of England.  He, born in Halifax, Nova Scotia, on November 15, 1804, was a child of Mary Early and of William Bennett, a major in the Royal Engineers, the Royal Army.  Our saint, a graduate of the Westminster School, London; and of Christ Church, Oxford (B.A., 1827; M.A., 1829); married Mary Concetta Franklin in 1828.

Bennett, ordained to the priesthood in 1830, transitioned from being an Evangelical, Low Churchman into becoming a Tractarian and, in the process, a center of controversy.  Anglo-Catholicism was, according to many Low Churchmen, evil it worst.  It smelled of Popery.  The sight of candles burning on an altar proved sufficient to prompt an ecclesiastical proceeding sometimes.  Bennett served various congregations in London through 1851; by 1842 he pronounced High Church tendencies.  Our saint had gone so far as to refer to sacraments as vehicles of grace.

In the early 1840s Bennett began to serve at St. Paul’s, Knightbridge.  He had already come to object publicly to the practice of renting pews, for it gave undue prominence to the wealthy and excluded the poor from churches.  He said:

How constantly we see in our churches the servant attending upon his master or mistress, carrying with him their Prayer Books and Bibles, and waiting upon them to their pew-doors; and then quietly, and in the face of God and of the congregation, retiring from the walls of the church, as if he had no part or lot in the matter of Christian worship.

St. Paul’s, Knightbridge, rented pews, but Bennett persuaded the parish to finance St. Barnabas, Pimlico, in a slum, dedicated in 1850.  Bennett served as the priest of both congregations and, in 1849, ministered to victims of a cholera epidemic in Pimlico.  When Bennett dared to pray for the deceased victims of the disease, the Bishop of London objected on theological grounds.  Bennett replied by citing Anglican precedents for praying for the dead, but the bishop did not relent.  Bennett, under pressure, resigned in 1851.

From 1852 to 1886 Bennett was the Vicar of St. John the Baptist, Frome, Somerset.  When he arrived the church was in terrible condition, numerically and physically.  He revived the congregation, and ended the practice of renting pews, rearranged pews so that the chancel was more visible.  Our saint also changed the schedule of services, adding daily communion services and enabling members of the working class to attend church before going to work.  Attendance increased.  The introduction of vestments and incense also raised some eyebrows.

Overt ritualism was one matter, but advocacy for transubstantiation was, for much of the Evangelical wing of The Church of England, a bridge too far.  Bennett’s pamphlet, A Plea for Toleration in the Church of England (1867), became historically significant.  It led to an ecclesiastical trial, which concluded with the ruling that transubstantiation is not incompatible with Anglican doctrine.  The Privy Council heard an appeal and upheld the decision.

Bennett, an attentive parish priest, died in Frome, Somerset, on August 17, 1886.  He was 81 years old.

Bennett’s published works included the following:

  1. The Eucharist:  Its History, Doctrine, and Practice, with Meditations and Prayers (1837);
  2. A Guide to the Holy Eucharist (1842);
  3. Lecture-Sermons on the Distinctive Errors of Romanism; Preached in Portman Chapel, Marylebone (1842);
  4. A Pastoral Letter to His Parishioners (1846);
  5. Crime and Education:  The Duty of the State Therein (1846);
  6. Lives of the Fathers of the Church in the Fourth Century; for the Instruction of the Young (1847), Volumes I, II, and III;
  7. The Principles of the Book of Common Prayer Considered:  A Series of Lecture Sermons (1848);
  8. A First Letter to the Right Honourable Lord John Russell, M.P.:  On the Present Persecution of a Certain Portion of the English Church; with a Sermon, Preached at S. Paul’s, Knightbridge, on Sunday Morning and Evening, November 17, 1850 (1850);
  9. A Farewell Letter to His Parishioners (1851);
  10. The Last Sermons Preached at Saint Paul’s, Knightbridge, and Saint Barnabas’, Pimlico (1851);
  11. On Anabaptism, the Independents, and Quakerism (1867);
  12. On Presbyterianism and Irvingism (1867);
  13. On Romanism (I) (1867);
  14. Lent Readings from the Fathers (1872); and
  15. Foreign Churches, in Relation to the Anglican:  An Essay Towards Re-Union (1882).

Bennett was a trail blazer.  Much of what was controversial in his time has become commonplace and accepted practice.  The Anglo-Catholic revolution made its mark on the Anglican Communion.

Now we argue about other matters.  I predict that members of subsequent generations of the Church will look back on our time much as we of 2018 regard nineteenth-century controversies about daily communion services and prayers for the dead.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

JUNE 21, 2018 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF SAINT ALOYSIUS GONZAGA, JESUIT

THE FEAST OF BERNARD ADAM GRUBE, GERMAN-AMERICAN MINISTER, MISSIONARY, COMPOSER, AND MUSICIAN

THE FEAST OF CARL BERNHARD GARVE, GERMAN MORAVIAN MINISTER, LITURGIST, AND HYMN WRITER

THE FEAST OF SAINTS JOHN JONES AND JOHN RIGBY, ROMAN CATHOLIC MARTYRS

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O God, our heavenly Father, who raised up your faithful servant William James Early Bennett

to be a pastor in your Church and to feed your flock:

Give abundantly to all pastors the gifts of your Holy Spirit,

that they may minister in your household as true servants of Christ and stewards of your divine mysteries;

through Jesus Christ our Lord, who lives and reigns with you and the Holy Spirit, one God, for ever and ever.  Amen.

Acts 20:17-35

Psalm 84 or 84:7-11

Ephesians 3:14-21

Matthew 24:42-47

–Adapted from Holy Women, Holy Men:  Celebrating the Saints (2010), 719

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Feast of George Croly (August 17)   1 comment

Above:  George Croly

Image in the Public Domain

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GEORGE CROLY (AUGUST 17, 1780-NOVEMBER 24, 1860)

Anglican Priest, Poet, Historian, Novelist, Dramatist, Theologian, and Hymn Writer

Good hymnals are wonderful sources of names of saints, most of them not canonized.  Consider, O reader, George Croly, author of “Spirit of God, Descend Upon My Heart.”

Croly was a native of Ireland.  He, born in Dublin on August 17, 1780, studied at Trinity College in that city.  Our saint, an excellent student of Greek, graduated with his B. A. in 1800 and his M.A. four years later.  (Trinity College awarded him a LL.D. in 1831.)  Croly, ordained an Anglican priest in 1804, served as a curate in the north for six years before moving to London.

Croly devoted most of his life to writing.  He wrote works of history, biography, theology, poetry, fiction, and drama.  His published works included the following:

  1. Paris in 1815:  A Poem (1817);
  2. The Angel of the World:  An Arabian Tale.  Sebastian:  A Spanish Tale:  With Other Poems (1820);
  3. May Fair:  In Four Cantos (1827);
  4. The Apocalypse of St. John, or Prophecy of the Rise, Progress, and Fall of the Church of Rome; the Inquisition; the Revolution of France; the Universal War; and the Final Triumph of Christianity (1827);
  5. Tales of the Great Saint Bernard (1828), Volumes I, II, and III;
  6. The Beauties of the British Poets, with a Few Introductory Observations by the Rev. George Croly (1828);
  7. Salathiel, or the Wandering Jew:  A Story of the Past, the Present, and the Future (1829);
  8. The Life and Times of His Late Majesty George the Fourth:  With Anecdotes of Distinguished Persons of the Last Fifty Years (1830);
  9. Divine Providence, or the Three Cycles of Revelation, Showing the Parallelism of the Patriarchal, Jewish, and Christian Dispensations; Being a New Evidence of the Divine Origin of Christianity (1834);
  10. A Memoir of the Political Life of the Right Honourable Edmund Burke; with Extracts from His Writings (1840), Volumes I and II;
  11. The Personal History of His Late Majesty George the Fourth (1841), Volumes I and II;
  12. Historical Sketches, Speeches, and Characters (1842);
  13. Marston; or the Soldier and Statesman (1845), Volumes I, II, and III;
  14. The Poetical Works of the Rev. George Croly (1850), Volumes I and II;
  15. The Theory of Baptism:  The Regeneration of Infants in Baptism Vindicated on the Testimony of Holy Scriptures, Christian Antiquity, and the Church of England (1850);
  16. Scenes from Scripture, with Other Poems (1851);
  17. The Book of Job (1851); read the biographical sketch of Croly by his son, Frederick W. Croly, in the reprint from 1863;
  18. Psalms and Hymns for Public Worship (1854), as editor;
  19. The Modern Orlando:  A Poem (1855);
  20. Introductory Preface in Paper & Paper Making, Ancient and Modern (1855), by Richard Herring; and
  21. The Holy Land, Syria, Idumea, Arabia, Egypt, and Nubia (1855), Volumes I, II, III, IV, V, and VI;.

Croly, a Tory, edited The Universal Review and contributed to Blackwood’s Magazine and Britannia, an organ of the Tory Party.  In 1819 he married Margaret Helen Begbie (d. 1851), a writer he met via his literary work.

Croly returned to parish ministry in 1832.  For several years he served at Ramford parish, Essex.  Then, in 1835, via the Whig Party, ironically, our saint transferred to the yoked congregations of St. Stephen’s, Walbrook-St. Benet Sherehog, London.  There he remained for the rest of his life.  Croly built up the small parish into a larger one, became a renowned preacher, and still found plenty of time for writing.  Croly’s appeal was to members of various social classes.  In 1847 he spent several months doubling as the afternoon preacher at the Foundlings Hospital.  However, Croly’s sermons were allegedly “too abstruse,” and he resigned.  Our saint’s Psalms and Hymns for Public Worship (1854) went to just one printing, and a fire destroyed most copies.  He did, anyway, write 10 of the 25 metrical psalms and 10 of the 50 hymns.

Croly, aged 80 years, was walking in Holborn, London, on November 24, 1860, when he dropped dead.  He had truly loved God with his mind and his creative energies, as well as been an attentive pastor.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

JUNE 21, 2018 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF SAINT ALOYSIUS GONZAGA, JESUIT

THE FEAST OF BERNARD ADAM GRUBE, GERMAN-AMERICAN MINISTER, MISSIONARY, COMPOSER, AND MUSICIAN

THE FEAST OF CARL BERNHARD GARVE, GERMAN MORAVIAN MINISTER, LITURGIST, AND HYMN WRITER

THE FEAST OF SAINTS JOHN JONES AND JOHN RIGBY, ROMAN CATHOLIC MARTYRS

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O God, you have endowed us with memory, reason, and skill.

We thank you for the faithful legacy of [George Croly and all others]

who have dedicated their lives to you and to the intellectual pursuits.

May we, like them, respect your gift of intelligence fully and to your glory.

In the Name of God:  Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.  Amen.

Deuteronomy 6:4-9

Psalm 103

Philippians 4:8-9

Mark 12:28-34

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

MARCH 6, 2013 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF SAINT CHRODEGANG OF METZ, ROMAN CATHOLIC BISHOP

THE FEAST OF EDMUND KING, ANGLICAN BISHOP OF LINCOLN

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Feast of Samuel Johnson, Timothy Cutler, Daniel Browne, and James Wetmore (August 17)   2 comments

Founders of Yale University

Above:  Founders of Yale University

Image in the Public Domain

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SAMUEL JOHNSON (OCTOBER 14, 1696-JANUARY 6, 1772)

Congregationalist Minister, Anglican Priest, Philosopher, President of King’s College, “Father of The Episcopal Church in Connecticut,” and “Father of American Library Classification”

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TIMOTHY CUTLER (MAY 31, 1684-AUGUST 17, 1765)

Congregationalist Minister, Rector of Yale College, and Anglican Priest

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DANIEL BROWNE (APRIL 26, 1698-APRIL 13, 1723)

Educator, Congregationalist Minister, and Anglican Priest

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JAMES WETMORE (SR.) (DECEMBER 31, 1695-MAY 15, 1760)

Congregationalist Minister and Anglican Priest

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INTRODUCTION

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The Episcopal Church celebrates the lives of Samuel Johnson, Timothy Cutler, and Thomas Bradbury Chandler on August 17.  That is a logical grouping of saints, for they worked toward the goal of the establishment of the Anglican episcopate in North America.  Furthermore, Johnson and Cutler were friends, and Johnson taught and mentored Chandler.  However, I, for other logical reasons, have assigned a Chandler the feast day of May 17 and grouped him with two Episcopal bishops in his family tree.  Furthermore, here at the Ecumenical Calendar of Saints’ Days and Holy Days, I have expanded the grouping of Johnson and Cutler to include Daniel Browne and James Wetmore (Sr.), thereby commemorating the Congregationalist ministers from New England who became Anglican priests in March 1723.

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SAMUEL JOHNSON (1696-1772) I

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The name “Samuel Johnson” is commonplace.  A perusal of entries in old encyclopedias reveals the existence of several prominent Samuel Johnsons over time and on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean.  One might think first of Dr. Samuel Johnson (1709-1784), the great English poet, lexicographer, and essayist who noted in 1775 that

Patriotism is the last refuge of a scoundrel,

thereby condemning false patriotism.  One might also think also of the Reverend Samuel Johnson (1822-1882), an American Transcendentalist, minister, and hymnodist who found the American Unitarian Association (1825-1961) too theologically rigid.  (He would fit in well in the Unitarian Universalist Association today.)  Or one might recall other noteworthy Samuel Johnsons, such as Dr. Samuel William Johnson (1830-1909), a prominent American chemist.  The Samuel Johnson I add to the Ecumenical Calendar today is the American clergyman and educational pioneer, however.

Samuel Johnson

Image in the Public Domain

Samuel Johnson, born on October 14, 1696, was a native of Guilford, Connecticut.  His parents were Samuel Johnson (1670-1726), a fuller and a Congregationalist deacon, and Mary Sage Johnson (1672-1726).  The couple had twelve children, at least five of whom lived to adulthood.  Our saint was the third of their children.  William Johnson (1630-1702), also a Congregationalist deacon, was our saint’s grandfather.  The grandfather taught the grandson how to read English and Hebrew and guided him in committing the Apostles’ Creed, the Lord’s Prayer, and other portions of scripture to memory.  All this happened through Johnson’s sixth year of life.  The elder Samuel Johnson sought properly challenging educational opportunities for his bookish son.  Some of them proved more helpful than others.  Finally, at age 14, our saint, having mastered both Latin and Greek and having proved to be too much for some teachers, began his studies at the relatively new Collegiate School at Saybrook (founded in 1701), which became Yale College then Yale University.  He graduated four years (in 1714) later with his A.M. degree, having commenced work as a teacher at the grammar school in Guilford in 1713.

Johnson was quite a scholarly young man.  He did, for example, complete the Revised Encyclopedia of Philosophy (1716), unpublished.  Then he became a Yale tutor during a time of schism in the college.  From 1716 to 1718 Johnson was the only faculty member and administrator at New Haven, Connecticut, teaching fifteen students and laboring with the assistance of a minister.  Our saint was also cataloging the 800 books colonial agent Jeremiah Dummer (1681-1739) had donated to the college library in 1714.  This process continued until 1719.  These volumes included works by Enlightenment figures such as Rene Descartes (1596-1650), John Locke (1632-1704), and Sir Isaac Newton (1643-1727).  Such material was, according to the dominant Puritan orthodoxy of the college, forbidden, corrupting, and faith-destroying.  The process of cataloging the books expanded Johnson’s mind, and he, without permission, introduced the forbidden knowledge into the curriculum at New Haven.

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DANIEL BROWNE (1698-1723) I

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In 1618 Daniel Browne became the second tutor at New Haven, joining Johnson on the faculty.  He, born at New Haven on April 26, 1698, had been a classmate of Johnson, graduating at the age of 16 1/2 in 1715.  Next Browne had worked as the assistant to Samuel Hopkins, the Rector of the Hopkins Grammar School, New Haven, for a year, then as Hopkins’s successor for two years.  Browne worked as a tutor at New Haven for four years.

The Yale schism ended in 1719, with Johnson become the sacrificial victim.  Did he resign or did his superiors fire him?  It was a distinction without a difference.  Timothy Cutler became the new college rector, with Browne as the only other faculty member.  Johnson, ordained a Congregationalist minister in 1720, remained in the immediate vicinity, serving at West Haven.  Cutler, his friend, permitted him to design the college curriculum.

A vital aspect of the context of the Yale-related content in this post is that the intention of Yale’s founders in 1701 was to establish an educational institution which would be a conservative alternative–a bastion of Puritan orthodoxy–in contrast to Harvard College, which many New England Puritans considered to be too liberal.  Yet Yale began to liberalize before the end of its second decade of existence.

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TIMOTHY CUTLER (1684-1765) I

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Timothy Cutler

Image in the Public Domain

Timothy Cutler, born at Charlestown, Massachusetts, on May 31, 1684, was a son of John Cutler (1650-1708) and Martha Wiswall Cutler (b. 1645).  The family had Jacobite sympathies.  Our saint, baptized in 1684,  graduated from Harvard College in 1701, at the age of 17 years.  Four years later he joined the Congregational Church at Charlestown.  Shortly thereafter the Congregational Church at Dartmouth, Massachusetts, invited him to become their minister, but he declined, citing parish dynamics.  In 1709, however, he accepted an offer to become the minister at Stratford, Connecticut; he was especially interested in combating the Anglican presence in the community.  The following year Cutler married Elizabeth Andrew (1690-1771), daughter of the Reverend Samuel Andrew, the Acting Rector of the Collegiate School at Saybrook.  Our saint and his wife had seven children from 1711 to 1724; five of them lived to adulthood.

Circa 1720 seven respected Congregationalist ministers formed a group to study the early church.  They were:

  1. Timothy Cutler;
  2. Samuel Johnson;
  3. Daniel Browne;
  4. Jared Eliot (1685-1763), minister at Killingworth and one of Johnson’s former teachers;
  5. John Hart (1682-1732), minister at East Guilford;
  6. Samuel Whittesley (1686-1752), minister at Wallingsford; and
  7. James Wetmore (Sr.) (1695-1760).

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JAMES WETMORE (SR.) (1695-1760) I

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James Wetmore (Sr.), born on December 31, 1695, was a son of the Reverend Izrahiah Wetmore (Sr.) (1656-1743) and Rachel Stow Wetmore (1666-1722), of Middletown, Connecticut.  Our saint, the third of nine children, at least seven of which lived to adulthood, came from a civic-minded family.  His father was not only a minister but a magistrate and a deputy of the General Court.  Wetmore, a classmate of Johnson at Yale, graduated from the college with his A.B. degree in 1714 and his A.M. degree three years later.  This saint became a Congregationalist minister in 1718 and served at North Haven, Connecticut, for four years.  Also in 1718 he married Anne Dwight (1697-1771).  They had six children from 1727 to 1737.

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THE “GREAT APOSTASY,” SEPTEMBER 13, 1722

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On September 13, 1722, the seven ministers presented the conclusion of their study of the early church in writing to the Trustees of Yale College.  Some of these clergymen were certain of the invalidity of their orders and others merely harbored doubts due to the lack of “visible communion with an Episcopal Church.”  This, the “Great Apostasy” at Yale College, founded as a bulwark of Puritan orthodoxy in contrast to the relatively liberal Harvard College, proved controversial in New England.  Three of the ministers recanted under pressure, but Johnson, Cutler, Browne, and Wetmore (Sr.) lost their positions.  By the end of the year they departed for England, where in March 1723, they became priests of the The Church of England.

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DANIEL BROWNE (1698-1723) II

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Browne, a bachelor, died of smallpox in London on April 13, 1723.  He was 24 years old.  In 1765, the Reverend Ezra Stiles (1722-1795), the President of Yale College from 1778 to 1795, wrote of Browne:

He was a gentleman of the most superior sense and learning of the four.

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TIMOTHY CUTLER (1684-1765) II

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Wetmore (Sr.), Cutler, and Johnson remained in England for much of the year.  Johnson and Cutler received honorary degrees from Oxford and Cambridge Universities.  The three men returned to North America under the auspices of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts (SPG).

Cutler went to Boston, Massachusetts, where, at the end of 1723, he held the first service at Christ Church, or Old North Church, of Midnight Ride of Paul Revere fame.  He served as the rector of the parish for the reset of his life.  He also founded other congregations, advocated for the advocacy of the Anglican episcopate in North America, criticized revivalism, founded an Anglican library in Boston, and resisted the Puritan theocracy in New England.  In April 1756 Cutler suffered a stroke.  The assistant priest assumed many of his duties.  Our saint died at Boston on August 17, 1765, aged 81 years.

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JAMES WETMORE (SR.) (1695-1760) II

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Wetmore became the Rector of Grace Church, Rye, New York, in 1726.  He served there for the rest of his life, dying on May 15, 1760.

A son, James Wetmore (Jr.), seems to have been a Loyalist, for he, born at Rye in 1727, died in Kings County, New Brunswick, in 1798.

Grace Church, Rye, became Christ’s Church, Rye, in 1795.

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SAMUEL JOHNSON (1696-1772) II

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Johnson returned to Connecticut.  He founded Christ Church, Stratford, the first parish in the colony.  By 1752 he had founded 24 more congregations, becoming the “Father of The Episcopal Church in Connecticut.”  He was an ardent controversialist, engaging in written conflict with Puritans via pamphlets, starting in 1733.  Johnson, like Cutler, resisted the Puritan theocracy in New England, argued against revivalism and the (First) Great Awakening, and lobbied for the establishment of the Anglican episcopate in North America.  The last matter was controversial, for many Congregationalists and Presbyterians considered it contrary to scripture and politically perilous, and many Southern Anglicans enjoyed their relative independence.

Johnson married twice and became a widower as many times.  His first wife was Charity Nicoll (1692-1758), a widow.  Thus our saint became a stepfather on September 26, 1725.  He raised William Nicoll (1715-1780) and Benjamin Nicoll (1718-1760) as if they were his own sons.  Charity and our saint had two sons, William Samuel Johnson (1727-1819) and William Johnson (1730-1760).  The younger son died of smallpox in England.  William Samuel Johnson opposed the Stamp Act (1765) and the Townshend Duty Act (1767) actively and served as the colonial agent for Connecticut from 1767 to 1771.  He became convinced that the U.S. War for Independence was both unnecessary and unwise yet made his peace with the result of the conflict.  He served in the Confederation Congress from 1785 to 1787, was a delegate to the Constitutional Convention (1787), presided over the drafting of the document, signed the Constitution, served as President of Columbia College, New York, from 1787 to 1800, and was a U.S. Senator from Connecticut from 1789 to 1791.  His wife (from 1749) was Elizabeth Ann Beach (1729-1796), daughter of William Beach (1694-1751), a businessman of Stratford, and his wife, Sarah Hull Beach (1701-1763).  Charity died on June 1, 1758.

Johnson’s second wife (from 1761) was Sarah Hull Beach (1701-1763), who died of smallpox on February 9, 1763.

Johnson continued to be an educator.  He opened a school at Stratford in 1723.  For decades he also operated a home-based seminary for students at Yale, educating and training 63 priests.  He also developed a system of classifying library books, hence his title, “Father of American Library Classification.”  In the early 1700s our saint redefined the curriculum at Yale College again, for it had reverted to an earlier state after the “Great Apostasy” of 1722.  In 1729-1731 Joseph Berkeley (1685-1753), later the Bishop of Cloyne, visited New England.  Johnson met him then and convinced him to donate land, money, and books to Yale College.  Our saint also became enamored of Berkeley’s philosophy, immaterialism.  The two men corresponded for decades.  Johnson, who received an honorary Doctor of Divinity degree from Oxford University in 1743, wrote and revised his textbook of moral philosophy several times.  The basis of his philosophy was the pursuit of happiness rooted in realism with regard to how things are.

Johnson, Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790), the leaders Trinity Church, Wall Street, New York, and others spent years discussing details of founding a “new model” college.  There would be no religious test for admission.  Instruction would be in English, not Latin.  The study of theology would be optional, but the study of moral philosophy would be mandatory.  There would be a focus on professional preparation, and the curriculum would include the new discipline of English literature.  The result of these conversations was King’s College, later Columbia College then Columbia University, New York.  Some Presbyterians in the colonial government of New York tried to prevent the chartering of the college, labeling it an insidious Anglican plot.  The royal charter came through in 1754, however.  Johnson served as a professor and the first president, retiring in 1763, after the death of his second wife.

Johnson’s retirement (1732-1772) was active.  He returned to the office of Rector of Christ Church, Stratford, and performed his duties faithfully.  He also reopened his home-based seminary for students at Yale College.  Our saint also taught his grandsons William and Charles to read English and Latin, as his grandfather had instructed him.  Johnson wrote the first American grammars of the English and Hebrew languages and dedicated them to his grandsons.

Johnson’s accomplishments caught the attention of his English contemporary, Dr. Samuel Johnson (1709-1784), the essayist, poet, and lexicographer, who was a friend of William Samuel Johnson (1727-1819).

Samuel Johnson, the American, died on January 6, 1772, the Feast of the Epiphany.  He was 75 years old.

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CONCLUSION

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I realize, O reader, that I have asked you to follow some proverbial bouncing balls, but that is simply the nature of the material.  The legacies of Johnson, Cutler, and Wetmore are obvious.  That of Browne, however, is incomplete, due to circumstances beyond his control.  If he had lived he would have done much for the glory of God and the expansion of The Church of England.

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KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

MAY 3, 2016 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF SAINT MARIE-LEONIE PARADIS, FOUNDER OF THE LITTLE SISTERS OF THE HOLY FAMILY

THE FEAST OF WILLIAM WHITING, HYMN WRITER

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God of history, science, art, philosophy, and majesty, we thank you for the faithful quests of

Samuel Johnson, Timothy Cutler, Daniel Browne, and James Wetmore (Sr.),

whose intellectual inquisitiveness and fidelity to you led them to pursue Anglican Holy Orders.

May we never fear new knowledge.

May we seek the truths of you wherever we can find them

then pursue paths consistent with them,

for your glory and benefit of your people;

in the Name of God:  Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.  Amen.

–Kenneth Randolph Taylor, May 3, 2016 Common Era

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Sirach (Ecclesiasticus) 24:1-8

Psalm 32:8-12

1 Peter 2:1-10

Matthew 16:13-20

Holy Women, Holy Men:  Celebrating the Saints (2010), page 531

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Saints’ Days and Holy Days for August   Leave a comment

Poppies

Image Source = Santosh Namby Chandran

1 (JOSEPH OF ARIMATHEA, DISCIPLE OF JESUS)

2 (Georg Weissel, German Lutheran Pastor and Hymn Writer)

  • Anna Bernadine Dorothy Hoppe, U.S. Lutheran Hymn Writer and Translator
  • Christian Gottfried Gebhard, German Moravian Composer and Music Educator
  • Peter Julian Eymard, Founder of the Priests of the Blessed Sacrament, the Servants of the Blessed Sacrament, and the Priests’ Eucharistic League; and Organizer of the Confraternity of the Blessed Sacrament

3 (JOANNA, MARY, AND SALOME, WITNESSES TO THE RESURRECTION)

4 (Frederick William Foster, English Moravian Bishop, Liturgist, Hymn Writer, and Hymn Translator)

  • Frédéric Janssoone, French Roman Catholic Priest and Friar
  • John Brownlie, Scottish Presbyterian Minister, Hymn Writer, and Translator of Hymns
  • Lambert Beauduin, Belgian Roman Catholic Priest and Pioneer of Liturgical Renewal

5 (Alfred Tennyson, English Poet)

  • Adam of St. Victor, Roman Catholic Monk and Hymn Writer
  • Albrecht Dürer, Matthias Grünewald, and Lucas Cranach the Elder, Renaissance Artists
  • George Frederick Root, Poet and Composer

6 (TRANSFIGURATION OF OUR LORD JESUS CHRIST)

7 (Colbert S. Cartwright, U.S. Disciples of Christ Minister, Liturgist, and Witness for Civil Rights)

  • Guglielmo Massaia, Italian Cardinal, Missionary, and Capuchin Friar
  • John Scrimger, Canadian Presbyterian Minister, Ecumenist, and Liturgist
  • Victricius of Rouen, Roman Conscientious Objector and Roman Catholic Bishop

8 (Mary MacKillop, Founder of the Sisters of St. Joseph of the Sacred Heart)

  • Altman, Roman Catholic Bishop of Passau
  • Dominic, Founder of the Order of Preachers
  • Raymond Brown, U.S. Roman Catholic Priest and Biblical Scholar

9 (Edith Stein, Roman Catholic Nun and Philosopher)

  • Herman of Alaska, Russian Orthodox Monk and Missionary to the Aleut
  • John Dryden, English Puritan then Anglican then Roman Catholic Poet, Playwright, and Translator
  • Mary Sumner, Foundress of the Mothers’ Union

10 (William Walsham How, Anglican Bishop of Wakefield and Hymn Writer; and his sister, Frances Jane Douglas(s), Hymn Writer)

  • John Athelstan Laurie Riley, Anglican Ecumenist, Hymn Writer, and Hymn Translator
  • Cyriaca, Roman Catholic Martyr at Rome, 249; and Sixtus II, His Companions, and Laurence of Rome, Roman Catholic Martyrs at Rome, 258
  • Edward Grzymala and Franciszek Drzewiecki, Polish Roman Catholic Priests and Martyrs, 1942

11 (Gregory Thaumaturgus, Roman Catholic Bishop of Neocaesarea; and Alexander of Comana “the Charcoal Burner,” Roman Catholic Martyr and Bishop of Comana, Pontus)

  • Equitius of Valeria, Benedictine Abbot and Founder of Monasteries
  • Matthias Loy, U.S. Lutheran Minister, Educator, Hymn Writer, and Hymn Translator; and Conrad Hermann Louis Schuette, German-American Lutheran Minister, Educator, Hymn Writer, and Hymn Translator
  • Maurice Tornay, Swiss Roman Catholic Priest, Missionary to Tibet, and Martyr, 1949

12 (Thaddeus Stevens, U.S. Abolitionist, Congressman, and Witness for Civil Rights)

  • Charles Inglis, Anglican Bishop of Nova Scotia
  • Józef Stepniak and Józef Straszewski, Polish Roman Catholic Priest and Martyrs, 1942
  • Karl Leisner, German Roman Catholic Priest and Martyr, 1945

13 (John Henry Hopkins, Jr., Episcopal Priest and Hymnodist; and his nephew, John Henry Hopkins, III, Episcopal Priest and Musician)

  • Elizabeth Payson Prentiss, U.S. Presbyterian Hymn Writer
  • Jeremy Taylor, Anglican Bishop of Down, Connor, and Dromore
  • John Bajus, U.S. Lutheran Minister and Hymn Translator

14 (William Croft, Anglican Organist and Composer)

  • Matthias Claudius, German Lutheran Writer
  • Maximilian Kolbe, Roman Catholic Priest and Martyr, 1941; and Jonathan Myrick Daniels, Episcopal Seminarian and Martyr, 1965
  • Sarah Flower Adams, English Unitarian Hymn Writer; and her sister, Eliza Flower, English Unitarian Composer

15 (MARY OF NAZARETH, MOTHER OF GOD)

16 (John Diefenbaker and Lester Pearson, Prime Ministers of Canada; and Tommy Douglas, Federal Leader of the New Democratic Party)

  • Alipius, Roman Catholic Bishop of Tagaste and Friend of St. Augustine of Hippo
  • John Courtney Murray, U.S. Roman Catholic Priest and Theologian
  • John Jones of Talysarn, Welsh Calvinistic Methodist Minister and Hymn Tune Composer

17 (Samuel Johnson, Congregationalist Minister, Anglican Priest, President of King’s College, “Father of the Episcopal Church in Connecticut,” and “Father of American Library Classification;” Timothy Cutler, Congregationalist Minister, Anglican Priest, and Rector of Yale College; Daniel Browne, Educator, Congregationalist Minister, and Anglican Priest; and James Wetmore, Congregationalist Minister and Anglican Priest)

  • Baptisms of Manteo and Virginia Dare, 1587
  • George Croly, Anglican Priest, Poet, Historian, Novelist, Dramatist, Theologian, and Hymn Writer
  • William James Early Bennett, Anglican Priest

18 (Artemisia Bowden, African-American Educator and Civil Rights Activist)

  • Erdmann Neumeister, German Lutheran Minister and Hymn Writer
  • Francis John McConnell, U.S. Methodist Bishop and Social Reformer
  • Jonathan Friedrich Bahnmaier, German Lutheran Minister and Hymn Writer

19 (Sixtus III, Bishop of Rome)

  • Blaise Pascal, French Roman Catholic Scientist, Mathematician, and Theologian
  • Magnus and Agricola of Avignon, Roman Catholic Bishops of Avignon
  • William Hammond, English Moravian Hymn Writer

20 (ZACCHAEUS, PENITENT TAX COLLECTOR AND ROMAN COLLABORATOR)

21 (Bruno Zembol, Polish Roman Catholic Friar and Martyr, 1942)

  • Camerius, Cisellus, and Luxorius of Sardinia, Martyrs, 303
  • Martyrs of Edessa, Circa 304
  • Maximilian of Antioch, Circa 353; and Bonosus and Maximianus the Soldier, Martyrs, 362

22 (Jack Layton, Canadian Activist and Federal Leader of the New Democratic Party)

  • Hryhorii Khomyshyn, Symeon Lukach, and Ivan Slezyuk, Ukrainian Greek Catholic Bishops and Martyrs, 1947, 1964, and 1973
  • John Kemble and John Wall, English Roman Catholic Priests and Martyrs, 1679
  • Thomas Percy, Richard Kirkman, and William Lacey, English Roman Catholic Martyrs, 1572 and 1582

23 (Martin de Porres and Juan Macias, Humanitarians and Dominican Lay Brothers; Rose of Lima, Humanitarian and Dominican Sister; and Turibius of Mogrovejo, Roman Catholic Archbishop of Lima)

  • Theodore O. Wedel, Episcopal Priest and Biblical Scholar; and his wife, Cynthia Clark Wedel, U.S. Psychologist and Episcopal Ecumenist

24 (BARTHOLOMEW THE APOSTLE, MARTYR)

25 (Michael Faraday, Scientist)

  • Andrea Bordino, Italian Roman Catholic Lay Brother
  • Maria Troncatti, Italian Roman Catholic Nun
  • William John Copeland, Anglican Priest and Hymn Translator

26 (Frederick William Herzberger, U.S. Lutheran Minister, Humanitarian, and Hymn Translator)

  • Levkadia Harasymiv, Ukrainian Greek Catholic Nun, and Martyr, 1952
  • Luigi Beltrame Quattrocchi and Maria Corsini Beltrame Quattrocchi, Italian Roman Catholic Humanitarians
  • Teresa of Jesus, Jornet y Ibars, Catalan Roman Catholic Nun and Cofoundress of the Little Sisters of the Abandoned Elderly

27 (Thomas Gallaudet and Henry Winter Syle, Episcopal Priests and Educators of the Deaf)

  • Amadeus of Clermont, French Roman Catholic Monk; and his son, Amadeus of Lausanne, French-Swiss Roman Catholic Abbot and Bishop
  • Dominic Barberi, Roman Catholic Apostle to England
  • Henriette Luise von Hayn, German Moravian Hymn Writer

28 (Ambrose of Milan, Roman Catholic Bishop; Monica of Hippo, Mother of St. Augustine of Hippo; and Augustine of Hippo, Roman Catholic Bishop of Hippo Regius)

  • Denis Wortman, U.S. Dutch Reformed Minister and Hymn Writer
  • Laura S. Coperhaver, U.S. Lutheran Hymn Writer and Missionary Leader
  • Moses the Black, Roman Catholic Monk, Abbot, and Martyr

29 (BEHEADING OF SAINT JOHN THE BAPTIST)

30 (Jeanne Jugan, Foundress of the Little Sisters of the Poor)

  • John Leary, U.S. Roman Catholic Social Activist and Advocate for the Poor and Marginalized
  • Karl Otto Eberhardt, German Moravian Organist, Music Educator, and Composer

31 (NICODEMUS, DISCIPLE OF JESUS)

 

Lowercase boldface on a date with two or more commemorations indicates a primary feast.