Archive for the ‘January 10’ Category

Feast of William Gay Ballantine (January 10)   1 comment

Springfield

Above:  International Young Men’s Christian Association Training School, Springfield, Massachusetts, 1900

Publisher and Copyright Claimant = Detroit Publishing Company

Image Source = Library of Congress

Reproduction Number = LC-DIG-det-4a23744

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

WILLIAM GAY BALLANTINE (DECEMBER 7, 1848-JANUARY 10, 1937)

U.S. CONGREGATIONALIST MINISTER, EDUCATOR, SCHOLAR, POET, AND HYMN WRITER

William Gay Ballantine (1848-1937) came from an accomplished American family.  His grandfather, Ebenezer Ballantine (1756-1823), was a surgeon and a veteran of the U.S. War for Independence.  Our saint, named for his uncle, William Gay Ballantine (1807-1841), was one of seven children of the Reverend Elisha Ballantine (1809-1886) and Betsy Ann Watkins Ballantine (1812-1873).  Elisha studied at Union Theological Seminary, located at the time at Prince Edward Court House (now Farmville), Virginia, and served as an instructor there before he graduated.  Then he studied at Halle, Germany, for a year and a half before returning to his alma mater as Professor of Hebrew and Greek in 1831.  Seven years later Elisha left for Ohio University, Athens, Ohio, to become Professor of Greek.  He left that position after two years to become pastor of the Presbyterian Church of Prince Edward Court House (now Farmville Presbyterian Church), where he served from 1840 to 1847.  Then Elisha served as assistant minister at the First Presbyterian Church, Washington, D.C. (the legacy of which lives in the National Presbyterian Church in that city), resigning in 1851 due to health issues.  He, after leading a private school, started a successful career at Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana.  There he taught mathematics (1854-1856), languages (1856-1863), and Greek (1863-1886), and served as Acting President (1884) and as Vice President (1884-1886).

Our saint, William Gay Ballantine (1848-1937), entered the world at Washington, D.C., on December 7, 1848.  His life fit well into his family’s pattern of excellence.  Ballantine graduated from Marietta College, Marietta, Ohio, in 1868.  Briefly he worked as an assistant engineer on the staff of the Ohio Geographical Survey before attending the other Union Theological Seminary, the one in New York, New York.  Ballantine graduated in 1872 then studied at the University of Leipzig.  In 1873 he took a break from his studies to participate in the first American Palestine Expedition, a project of the American Palestine Exploration Society.  Then, in 1874, our saint commenced his academic career in the United States.

That career had three phases:  1874-1891, 1891-1896, and 1897-1921.    In 1874 Ballantine became Professor of Natural History and Chemistry at Ripon College, Ripon, Wisconsin.  During his time at Ripon our saint married Emma Frances Atwood (1857-1919).  The ceremony occurred in 1875.  The couple had four children:

  1. Henry Winthrop Ballantine (1880-1951), a distinguished professor of law;
  2. Arthur Atwood Ballantine (1883-1960), Assistant to the Secretary of the Treasury (1931-1932), Undersecretary of the Treasury (1932-1933), and attorney;
  3. Edward Ballantine (1886-1974), composer and professor of music; and
  4. Mary Frances Ballantine (born in 1892 or 1893; was 17 years old at the time of the U.S. Census of 1910).  I sought more information about her, without success.

From 1876 to 1878 our saint was Professor of Greek (with his father, Elisha) at Indiana University, Bloomington.  Then, in 1878, Ballantine relocated to Oberlin, Ohio, to teach at Oberlin College.  There we was Professor of Greek and Hebrew Exegesis (1878-1880), became a Congregationalist minister (1880), was Professor of Old Testament Language and Literature (1880-1891), served as an editor of Biblioteca Sacra and contributed scholarly articles to the publication (1874-1891), and served as chairman of the faculty (1889-1891).  In 1891 Western Reserce College, Cleveland, Ohio, awarded him an honorary LL.D. degree.

The second phase of Ballantine’s academic career in the United States was his time (1891-1896) as the President of Oberlin College.  The inauguration occurred on July 1, 1891.  Our saint had great ambitions for the institution he led.  Although its primary purpose was to educate ministers, he was determined not to sacrifice academic excellence in secular subjects.  Toward that end Ballantine sought to establish a graduate program in philosophy.  Economic realities intervened, however.  In 1893 the U.S. economy entered a depression.  Enrollment and revenues declined.  A $10 (equivalent to about $300 in 2014) increase in tuition seemed necessary to balance the books at Oberlin College.  Protests ensued.  Ballantine resigned on June 22, 1896, and declined a professorship.  Instead he studied in Greece for about a year.

The Hawaiian Star. Honolulu, May 25, 1903, Page 5

The Hawaiian Star, Honolulu, Hawaii, May 25, 1903, Page 5

Accessed via newspapers.org

The third phase of Ballantine’s U.S. academic career unfolded at the International Young Men’s Christian Association Training School (now Springfield College), Springfield, Massachusetts.  Our saint was Professor of Bible there from 1897 to 1921.  He discouraged Biblical literalism and encouraged acceptance of scientific evidence.  This fact disturbed enough people in leadership to prompt a year-long investigation of Ballantine’s theological soundness.  He passed the test.

Our saint retired in 1921 and devoted himself to writing.  He had been writing and publishing for decades, but his output increased after his retirement.  Ballantine’s published works included the following:

  1. The Oberlin Jubilee:  1833-1883 (1883), as editor;
  2. Jehovah’s Champion:  A Study of the Book of Job (1890);
  3. Inductive Logic (1896);
  4. Christ in the Gospel of Mark (1898);
  5. Philippians, the Model Letter (1898);
  6. Inductive Bible Studies:  Mark and Acts (1898);
  7. Key to Inductive Bible Studies (1899);
  8. The Young Man from Nazareth (1921);
  9. Understanding the Bible (1925);
  10. Discovering Jesus (1927);
  11. The Logic of Science (1933); and
  12. The Riverside New Testament:  A Translation from the Original Greek into the English of To-Day (1934).

Ballantine was also a poet.  One of his compositions, “Romaios,” graced America:  A Litany of the Nations (1907).  In 1912 he wrote a hymn, “God Save America,” which reflected his Social Gospel orientation.  Certain hymn websites have yielded a the title (yet no text) of a second hymn, “Justice Now Sits Enthroned.”  I have not found the text in any of the old hymnals in my collection either.

Ballantine died at Springfield, Massachusetts, on January 10, 1937.  He was 88 years old.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

SEPTEMBER 4, 2015 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF ALL CHRISTIAN PEACEMAKERS AND PEACE ACTIVISTS

THE FEAST OF PAUL JONES, EPISCOPAL BISHOP OF UTAH AND WITNESS FOR PEACE

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

O God, you have endowed us with memory, reason, and skill.

We thank you for the faithful legacy of [William Gay Ballantine and all others]

who have dedicated their lives to you and to the intellectual pursuits.

May we, like them, respect your gift of intelligence fully and to your glory.

In the Name of God:  Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.  Amen.

Deuteronomy 6:4-9

Psalm 103

Philippians 4:8-9

Mark 12:28-34

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

MARCH 6, 2013 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF SAINT CHRODEGANG OF METZ, ROMAN CATHOLIC BISHOP

THE FEAST OF EDMUND KING, ANGLICAN BISHOP OF LINCOLN

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

Advertisements

Feast of St. John the Good (January 10)   Leave a comment

Above:  Europe in 526 C.E.

Image in the Public Domain

++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

SAINT JOHN THE GOOD, A.K.A. SAINT JOHN CAMILLUS (DIED 660)

Roman Catholic Bishop of Milan

Now what use is it, my brothers, for a man to say he “has faith” if his actions do not correspond with it?  Could that sort of faith save anyone’s soul?  If a fellow man or woman has no clothes to wear and nothing to eat, and one of you say, “Good luck to you I hope you’ll keep warm and find enough to eat”, and yet give them nothing meet their physical needs, what on earth is the good of that?  Yet that is exactly what a bare faith without a corresponding life is like–quite dead….Yes, faith without actions is as dead as a body without a soul.

–James 2:14-17, 26 (J. B. Phillips, The New Testament in Modern English, 1972)

No bishop had lived in Milan for eighty years.  The Western Roman Empire was no more, and Arian Lombards forced the exile of previous bishops.  But St. John Camillus filled the vacancy.  He argued against the Arian heresy, which teaches that Christ was a created being.  (The Jehovah’s Witnesses have incorporated this heresy into their alleged orthodoxy.)  He also resisted the Monothelistist heresy, which claims that the human and divine wills of Jesus Christ had a common will and activity.  Monothelitism undermines the doctrine that Jesus was fully human.  Having correct Christology is important, but so is living one’s faith, as James reminds us.  St. John Camillus earned his nickname, “the Good,” by his demonstrated holiness, as evident in his many good works in Milan.

St. John the Good died in 660, but, in 2011, people still speak of him as one who had an active faith, complete with good deeds and sound Christology.  If, in fourteen centuries, the human species and memories of us survive, may our successors make the same statements about us.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

NOVEMBER 28, 2011 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF KAMAHAMEHA AND EMMA, KING AND QUEEN OF HAWAII

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

Almighty God,

you raised up faithful bishops of your church,

including your servant St. John the Good.

May the memory of his life be a source of joy for us and a bulwark of our faith,

so that we may serve and confess your name before the world,

through Jesus Christ, our Savior and Lord,

who lives and reigns with you and the Holy Spirit,

one God, now and forever.  Amen.

Ezekiel 34:11-16 or Acts 20:17-35

Psalm 84

1 Peter 5:1-4 or Ephesians 3:14-21

John 21:15-17 or Matthew 24:42-47

–Adapted from Evangelical Lutheran Worship (2006), page 60

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

Revised on November 14, 2016

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

Saints’ Days and Holy Days for January   Leave a comment

Snow in January

Image in the Public Domain

1 (EIGHTH DAY OF CHRISTMAS:  HOLY NAME OF JESUS)

  • World Day of Peace

2 (NINTH DAY OF CHRISTMAS: Johann Konrad Wilhelm Loehe, Bavarian Lutheran Minister and Coordinator of Domestic and Foreign Missions)

  • Narcissus, Argeus, and Marcellinus of Tomi, Roman Martyrs
  • Odilo of Cluny, Roman Catholic Abbot
  • Sabine Baring-Gould, Anglican Priest and Hymn Writer

3 (TENTH DAY OF CHRISTMAS: William Alfred Passavant, Sr., U.S. Lutheran Minister, Humanitarian, and Evangelist)

  • Edward Caswall, Roman Catholic Priest and Hymn Writer
  • Edward Perronet, British Methodist Preacher
  • Gladys Aylward, Missionary in China and Taiwan

4 (ELEVENTH DAY OF CHRISTMAS: Felix Manz, First Anabaptist Martyr)

  • Elizabeth Ann Seton, Foundress of the American Sisters of Charity
  • Gregory of Langres, Terticus of Langres, Gallus of Clermont, Gregory of Tours, Avitus I of Clermont, Magnericus of Trier, and Gaugericus, Roman Catholic Bishops
  • Johann Ludwig Freydt, German Moravian Composer and Educator

5 (TWELFTH DAY OF CHRISTMAS: John Nepomucene Neumann, Roman Catholic Bishop of Philadelphia)

  • Antonio Lotti, Roman Catholic Musician and Composer
  • Genoveva Torres Morales, Foundress of the Congregation of the Sacred Heart of Jesus and the Holy Angels
  • Margaret Mackay, Scottish Hymn Writer

6 (EPIPHANY OF OUR LORD JESUS CHRIST)

7 (François Fénelon, Roman Catholic Archbishop of Cambrai)

  • Aldric of Le Mans, Roman Catholic Bishop
  • Angelia of Foligno, Penitent and Humanitarian
  • Lucian of Antioch, Roman Catholic Martyr

8 (Thorfinn of Hamar, Roman Catholic Bishop)

  • Archangelo Corelli, Roman Catholic Musician and Composer
  • Harriet Bedell, Episcopal Deaconess and Missionary
  • Nicolaus Copernicus and Galileo Galilei, Scientists

9 (Pepin of Landen, Itta of Metz, Their Relations, Amand, Austregisilus, and Sulpicius II of Bourges, Faithful Christians Across Generational Lines)

  • Anthony Mary Pucci, Roman Catholic Priest
  • Julia Chester Emery, Upholder of Missions
  • Philip II of Moscow, Metropolitan of Moscow and All Russia, and Martyr

10 (Theodosius the Cenobiarch, Roman Catholic Monk)

  • Charles William Everest, Episcopal Priest and Hymn Writer
  • John the Good, Roman Catholic Bishop of Milan
  • William Gay Ballantine, U.S. Congregationalist Minister, Educator, Scholar, Poet, and Hymn Writer

11 (Mary Slessor, Scottish Presbyterian Missionary in West Africa)

  • George Fox, Founder of the Religious Society of Friends
  • Miep Gies, Righteous Gentile
  • Paulinus of Aquileia, Roman Catholic Patriarch

12 (Benedict Biscop, Roman Catholic Abbot of Wearmouth)

  • Aelred of Hexham, Roman Catholic Abbot of Rievaulx
  • Henry Alford, Dean of Canterbury
  • Samuel Preiswerk, Swiss Reformed Minister and Hymn Writer

13 (Hilary of Poitiers, Roman Catholic Bishop of Poitiers, “Athanasius of the West,” and Hymn Writer; mentor of Martin of Tours, Roman Catholic Bishop of Tours)

  • Christian Keimann, German Lutheran Hymn Writer
  • Kentigern (Mungo), Roman Catholic Bishop of Glasgow
  • Marguerite Bourgeoys, Foundress of the Sisters of Notre Dame

14 (Macrina the Elder, Her Family, and Gregory of Nanzianzus the Younger)

  • Christian Keimann, German Lutheran Hymn Writer
  • Civil Rights Martyrs and Activists
  • Kristen Kvamme, Norwegian-American Hymn Writer and Translator

15 (MARTIN LUTHER KING, JR., CIVIL RIGHTS LEADER AND MARTYR)

16 (Pachomius the Great, Founder of Christian Communal Monasticism)

  • Greville Phillimore, English Priest, Hymn Writer, and Hymn Translator
  • Richard Meux Benson, Anglican Priest and Cofounder of the Society of St. John the Evangelist; Charles Chapman Grafton, Episcopal Priest, Cofounder of the Society of St. John the Evangelist, and Bishop of Fond du Lac; and Charles Gore, Anglican Bishop of Worcester, Birmingham, and Oxford; Founder of the Community of the Resurrection; Theologian; and Advocate for Social Justice and World Peace
  • Roberto de Nobili, Roman Catholic Missionary in India

17 (Antony of Egypt, Roman Catholic Abbot and Father of Western Monasticism)

  • Berard and His Companions, Roman Catholic Martyrs in Morocco
  • Edmund Hamilton Sears, Unitarian Pastor and Hymn Writer
  • Rutherford Birchard Hayes, President of the United States of America

18-25 (WEEK OF PRAYER FOR CHRISTIAN UNITY)

18 (CONFESSION OF ST. PETER, APOSTLE)

19 (Sargent Shriver and Eunice Kennedy Shriver, Humanitarians)

  • Caesarius of Arles, Roman Catholic Bishop, and Caesaria of Arles, Roman Catholic Abbess
  • Henry Augustine Collins, Anglican then Roman Catholic Priest and Hymn Writer
  • Richard Rolle, English Roman Catholic Spiritual Writer

20 (Fabian, Bishop of Rome and Martyr)

  • Deicola and Gall, Roman Catholic Monks, and Othmar, Roman Catholic Abbot at St. Gallen
  • Euthymius the Great and Theoctistus, Roman Catholic Abbots
  • Harriet Auber, Anglican Hymn Writer

21 (Mirocles of Milan and Epiphanius of Pavia, Roman Catholic Bishops)

  • Alban Roe and Thomas Reynolds, Roman Catholic Priests and Martyrs
  • Gaspar del Bufalo, Founder of the Missionaries of the Precious Blood
  • John Yi Yon-on, Roman Catholic Catechist and Martyr in Korea

22 (Syncletica of Alexandria, Desert Mother)

  • Adelard of Corbie, Roman Catholic Monk
  • John Julian, Anglican Priest, Hymn Writer, and Hymnologist
  • Vincent Pallotti, Founder of the Pallotines

23 (John the Almsgiver, Roman Catholic Patriarch of Alexandria)

  • Caspar Neumann, German Lutheran Minister and Hymn Writer
  • Phillips Brooks, Episcopal Bishop of Massachusetts
  • Thomas A. Dooley, Physician and Humanitarian

24 (Ordination of Florence Li-Tim-Oi, First Female Priest in the Anglican Communion)

  • Angela Merici, Founder of the Company of St. Ursula
  • Martyrs of Podlasie, 1874
  • Suranus of Sora, Roman Catholic Abbot and Martyr

25 (CONVERSION OF ST. PAUL, APOSTLE)

26 (TIMOTHY, TITUS, AND SILAS, COWORKERS OF THE APOSTLE PAUL)

27 (Allen William Chatfield, Anglican Priest, Hymn Writer, and Translator)

  • Jerome, Paula of Rome, Eustochium, Blaesilla, Marcella, and Lea of Rome
  • John Cosin, Anglican Bishop of Cosin
  • William Jones, Anglican Priest and Musician

28 (Albert the Great and his pupil, Thomas Aquinas, Roman Catholic Theologians)

  • Charles Kingsley, Anglican Priest, Novelist, and Hymn Writer
  • Joseph Barnby, Anglican Church Musician and Composer
  • Richard Frederick Littledale, Anglican Priest and Translator of Hymns

29 (LYDIA, DORCAS, AND PHOEBE, COWORKERS OF THE APOSTLE PAUL)

30 (Lesslie Newbigin, Missionary and Theologian)

  • Bathildas, Queen of France
  • Frederick Oakeley, Anglican then Roman Catholic Priest
  • Genesius I of Clermont and Praejectus of Clermont, Roman Catholic Bishops, and Amarin, Roman Catholic Abbot

31 (Charles Frederick Mackenzie, Anglican Bishop of Central Africa)

  • Henry Twells, Anglican Priest and Hymn Writer
  • Mary Lundie Duncan, Scottish Presbyterian Hymn Writer
  • Menno Simons, Mennonite Leader


Lowercase boldface on a date with two or more commemorations indicates a primary feast.

Feast of St. Theodosius the Cenobiarch (January 10)   Leave a comment

Above:  St. Theodosius the Cenobiarch

Image in the Public Domain

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

SAINT THEODOSIUS THE CENOBIARCH (423-529)

Roman Catholic Monk, Humanitarian, and Mystic

Today I add St. Theodosius the Cenobiarch to my Ecumenical Calendar of Saints and shift it one day, from January 11 to January 10, for I have booked January 11 fully already.

St. Theodosius entered the world in Cappodocia, in Asia Minor (modern-day Turkey) in 423, give or take a year.  Immersed in the Scriptures, the young Theodosius derived inspiration from Abraham and resolved to live by faith.  He undertook pilgrimages to sacred places in the Holy Land before deciding to devote his life to prayer.  By the time Theodosius became a monk, the holiness of his life had made him a magnet for seekers of God.  Many of these men became fellow monks with him at Cathismus, near Bethlehem.

Other monks from far and wide settled at Cathismus and joined the communal life there.  (The label “Cenobiarch” denotes one who leads those who partake of communal life.)  The saint and his fellow monks built a small city that included a hospital, a homeless shelter, and a home for the elderly.  They shared what they had, no matter how little it was, with anyone who asked, and never turned anyone away.  This is the most impressive aspect of the saint’s life.

But Theodosius desired solitude with God.  (This is impressive, too.)  So he moved into a cave in which, according to tradition, the Magi had spent a night.  There, for years, the saint practiced asceticism.  The saint sought God and harmed no one in the process.  In fact, his example inspired others, so he helped them.

There were also many accounts of St. Theodosius the Cenobiarch performing miracles, but I do not believe any of them.  I am, to a great extent, a product of the Enlightenment, without apology.

Anyhow, the life of St. Theodosius the Cenobiarch continues to shine as an example of Christian love, devotion to prayer, and concern for one’s fellow human beings.  These are virtues that each of us must exhibit with our lives if we are to follow Jesus.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

DECEMBER 10, 2010 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF THOMAS MERTON, ROMAN CATHOLIC PRIEST AND MONK

THE FEAST OF KARL BARTH, SWISS REFORMED THEOLOGIAN

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

O God, whose blessed Son became poor that we through his poverty might be rich:  Deliver us from an inordinate love of this world, that we, inspired, by the devotion of your servant St. Theodosius the Cenobiarch, may serve you with singleness of heart, and attain to the riches of the age to come; through Jesus Christ our Lord, who lives and reigns with you and the Holy Spirit, one God, now and for ever.  Amen.

Song of Songs 8:6-7

Psalm 34 or 34:1-8

Philippians 3:7-15

Luke 12:33-37 or Luke 9:57-62

–Adapted from Holy Women, Holy Men:  Celebrating the Saints (2010), page 722

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

Revised on November 14, 2016

Revised on January 14, 2018

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

Feast of Charles William Everest (January 10)   Leave a comment

Above:  Grace and St. Peter’s Episcopal Church, Hamden, Connecticut

Image in the Public Domain

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

CHARLES WILLIAM EVEREST (MAY 27, 1814-JANUARY 11, 1877)

Episcopal Priest and Hymn Writer

The Reverend Cornelius Bradford Everest (1789-1870) was a Congregationalist pastor in New England.  His was an artistic family.  One son, Cornelius, taught music, played the organ, and composed patriotic songs.  Cornelius (Jr.) married Ellen, a famed opera diva at the time.  A second son, Henry G., taught music.  And a third son, Charles William, became an Episcopal priest and wrote the great hymn, “Take Up Thy Cross.”

At age 19 Charles William Everest published his first volume of poetry, Visions of Death, which included “Take Up Thy Cross.”  Everest, from 1842 to 1873 the Rector of Grace Episcopal Church (now Grace and St. Peter’s Episcopal Church), Hamden, Connecticut, left this hymn as his main legacy.  So read the words and understand the faith behind them:

1.  “Take up thy cross,” the Saviour said,

“If thou wouldst my disciple be;

Deny thyself, the world forsake,

And humbly follow after me.”

2.  Take up thy cross; let not its weight

Fill thy weak spirit with alarm;

His strength shall bear thy spirit up,

And brace thy heart and nerve thy arm.

3.  Take up thy cross, nor heed the shame;

Nor let thy foolish pride rebel;

Thy Lord for thee the cross endured,

To save thy soul from death and Hell.

4.  Take up thy cross and follow Christ;

Nor think till death to lay it down;

For only he who bears the cross

May hope to wear the glorious crown.

(Words from The Methodist Hymnal, 1935)

Charles William Everest:  Born at East Windsor, Connecticut, May 27, 1814; died at Waterbury, Connecticut, January 11, 1877

Kenneth Randolph Taylor

May 16, 2010

The Seventh Sunday of Easter

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

Almighty God, beautiful in majesty, majestic in holiness:  You have shown us the splendor of creation in the work of your servant Charles William Everest.  Teach us to drive from the world all chaos and disorder, that our eyes may behold your glory, and that at last everyone may know the inexhaustible richness of your new creation in Jesus Christ our Lord, who lives and reigns with you and the Holy Spirit, one God, now and forever.  Amen.

Isaiah 28:5-6 or Hosea 14:5-8 or 2 Chronicles 20:20-21

Psalm 96

Philippians 4:8-9 or Ephesians 5:18b-20

Matthew 13:44-52

Adapted from the Proper for Artists and Scientists from Evangelical Lutheran Worship, 2006, the hymnal of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America and the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Canada

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

Revised on November 14, 2016

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++