Archive for the ‘Saints of 1880-1889’ Category

Feast of St. Raphael of Brooklyn (February 27)   5 comments

Above:  St. Raphael of Brooklyn

Image in the Public Domain

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SAINT RAPHAEL OF BROOKLYN (NOVEMBER 20, 1860-FEBRUARY 27, 1915)

Syrian-American Russian Orthodox Bishop of Brooklyn

Born Rufā īl Hawāwīnī (Raphael Hawaweeny)

St. Raphael of Brooklyn comes to this, A Great Cloud of Witnesses:  An Ecumenical Calendar of Saints’ Days and Holy Days, via The Orthodox Church in America (OCA).  The Holy Synod of the OCA canonized him in 2000.

Categories of saints exist.  St. Raphael of Brooklyn falls into the category of First–in this case, the first Eastern Orthodox bishop consecrated on American soil, in 1904.

St. Raphael came from Arabic Christian stock.  He, born in Beirut, Syria, on November 20, 1860, was, through his mother (Mariam), a grandson of a priest.  Our saint’s father was Michael Hawaweeny.  Persecution of Christians in Syria was underway in 1860; the family priest, St. Joseph of Damascus (Joseph George Haddad Firzli, 1793-1860), had become a martyr in July.  St. Raphael’s parents fled to Beirut shortly prior to his birth.  Eventually, the family returned to Damascus.

St. Raphael, a good student, was on track to become a priest in the jurisdiction of the Patriarch of Constantinople.  He, made a monk on March 28, 1879, served as the assistant of Hierotheus, the Patriarch of Antioch.  St. Raphael went to the School of Theology at Halki, via the patronage of the Patriarch Hierotheus and at the invitation of Joachim III, the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople.  At Halki, on December 8, 1885, our saint became a deacon.  The following July, St. Raphael received his Certificate of Theology then went home.  Gerasimus, the new Patriarch of Antioch, favored our saint and granted him opportunities to preach and to study.  Gerasimus permitted St. Raphael to study at the Theological Academy, Kiev, with the condition that our saint return and become the Patriarch’s Russian-language secretary.

St. Raphael did well under the patronage of Patriarch Gerasimus.  Our saint, appointed to the Antiochian church in Moscow, became a priest by the hand of Sylvester, the Rector of the Academy, at the request of Gerasimus.  A month later, Ioannikii, the Metropolitan of Moscow, promoted St. Raphael to the rank of archimandrite (a senior priest one level below bishop).  Our saint also arranged for 24 Syrian students to study theology in Russia.

Then Gerasimus resigned from the See of Antioch to become the Patriarch of Jerusalem.  St. Raphael campaigned for the next Patriarch of Antioch to be a Syrian, not a foreigner, as many had been for a long time.  The next Patriarch, elected in 1891, was Spyridon, a Greek Cypriot.  Spyridon suspended St. Raphael, who also found himself on the bad sides of the Patriarch of Jerusalem (yes, Gerasimus), the Patriarch of Alexandria, and the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople.  Czar Alexander III granted their request that he forbid the publication of St. Raphael’s articles for Russian newspapers.  So our saint started writing books instead.

Eventually, St. Raphael reconciled with Spyridon, who lifted the suspension.  Our saint transferred to the Russian Orthodox Church.  He taught Arabic studies at the theological academy, Kazan, until 1895.  That year, St. Raphael accepted an invitation from the Syrian Orthodox Benevolent Society of New York to minister to the Arab Orthodox Christians there.  He arrived on November 2, 1895.

For the next nearly 20 years, St. Raphael was a missionary in America.  Our saint founded St. Nicholas Russian Orthodox Cathedral, New York City, almost immediately, in 1895.  He, as the head of the Syro-Arab Orthodox Mission in North America, made missionary journeys in North America.  St. Raphael also wrote an Arabic-language service book, The Book of True Consolation in the Divine Prayers (1898).  Furthermore, our saint recruited educated laymen as candidates for ordination.  In 1898, St. Tikhon of Moscow (1865-1925) became the Bishop of the Aleutians and Alaska.  St. Tikhon’s title became Bishop of the Aleutians two years later.  St. Tikhon worked with St. Raphael, first as his bishop then as his fellow bishop.  Our saint, who refused an offer to become the Auxiliary Bishop of Beirut in 1901, also declined to become the Bishop of Zahleh (now in Lebanon) that year.  Work in New York and elsewhere in North America mattered more to St. Raphael.  Finally, in 1904, when St. Tikhon needed to share his episcopal burden, our saint became the first Bishop of Brooklyn.

Bishop St. Raphael was active, serving with St. Tikhon through 1907, when the latter returned to Russia.  Our saint founded Al-Kalimat (The Word), the official publication of the Syro-Arab Orthodox Mission, in late 1904.  St. Raphael encouraged the use of English in worship; he recommended Isabel Florence Hapgood‘s Service Book of the Holy Orthodox Catholic Apostolic (Greco-Russian) Church (1906).  He chose to remain in America in 1908, rather than become the Metropolitan of Tripoli.  St. Raphael received the diagnosis of his fatal heart condition in 1912.  The bishop traveled across North America faithfully through 1915, when he, aged 54 years, died on February 27.

Faithfulness, humility, and dedication to duty defined the life and ministry of St. Raphael of Brooklyn.

May those qualities also define our lives and work.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

OCTOBER 3, 2019 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF GEORGE KENNEDY ALLEN BELL, ANGLICAN BISHOP OF CHICHESTER

THE FEAST OF ALBERTO RAMENTO, PRIME BISHOP OF THE PHILIPPINE INDEPENDENT CHURCH

THE FEAST OF SAINT GERARD OF BROGNE, ROMAN CATHOLIC ABBOT

THE FEAST OF JOHN RALEIGH MOTT, U.S. METHODIST LAY EVANGELIST, AND ECUMENICAL PIONEER

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Almighty and everlasting God, we thank you for your servant Saint Raphael of Brooklyn,

whom you called to preach the Gospel to the people of Canada, Mexico, and the United States of America.

Raise up in this and every land evangelists and heralds of your kingdom,

that your Church may proclaim the unsearchable riches of our Savior Jesus Christ;

who lives and reigns with you and the Holy Spirit, one God, now and for ever.  Amen.

Isaiah 52:7-10

Psalm 96 or 96:1-7

Acts 1:1-9

Luke 10:1-9

–Adapted from Holy Women, Holy Men:  Celebrating the Saints (2010), 716

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Feast of Austin Carroll (February 21)   1 comment

Above:  Austin Carroll

Fair Use

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MARGARET ANNE CARROLL (FEBRUARY 23, 1835-NOVEMBER 29, 1909)

Irish-American Roman Catholic Nun, Author, and Educator

Also known as Sister Mary Teresa Austin

Austin Carroll comes to this, A Great Cloud of Witnesses:  A Calendar of Saints’ Days and Holy Days, via G. Scott Cady and Christopher L. Webber, A Year with American Saints (2006).

Carroll served God in vulnerable, poor, and marginalized people.  Margaret Anne Carroll, born in Clonmel, Ireland, on February 23, 1835, grew up in a Roman Catholic family.  She, a daughter of William Carroll and Margaret Strahan, joined the Sisters of Mercy, in Cork, in 1853.  She became Sister Mary Teresa Austin, and made her vows in 1856.  That year the order dispatched our saint to the United States, where she founded about 20 convents and various schools and charitable institutions.  She also founded a convent in British Honduras (now Belize).  Carroll worked in Hartford, Connecticut; Buffalo, New York; Rochester, New York; Omaha, Nebraska; and St. Louis, Missouri; before establishing a new base of operations in New Orleans, Louisiana, as the Superior of the New Orleans Province of the Sisters of Mercy.

Wherever Carroll was, she left her positive influence.  She and her sister nuns visited U.S. Army field hospitals daily during much of the Civil War.  The nuns also visited prisoners.  Furthermore, they ministered to victims of successive epidemics of yellow fever in New Orleans.  Carroll founded schools and presided over the education of white and African-American children alike during an age of enforced racial segregation.  Somehow, our saint found time to write articles and more than 20 books.  Those volumes included hagiographies, works of church history, devotions, and books for young readers.

Carroll’s main disappointment at the end of her life was that she had not founded a college for women.  Given the difficulty in raising funds for the order’s schools, she certainly had accomplished more than a lesser person would have done, though.

Carroll, aged 74 years, died on November 29, 1909.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

SEPTEMBER 29, 2019 COMMON ERA

PROPER 21:  THE SIXTEENTH SUNDAY AFTER PENTECOST, YEAR C

THE FEAST OF MARY RAMABAI, PROPHETIC WITNESS AND EVANGELIST IN INDIA

THE FEAST OF FRANCIS TURNER PALGRAVE, ANGLICAN POET, ART CRITIC, AND HYMN WRITER

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O God, whose grace your servant Austin Carroll,

kindled with the flame of your love, became a burning and a shining light in your church:

Grant that we also may be aflame with the spirit of love and discipline,

and walk before your as children of light;

through Jesus Christ our Lord, who lives and reigns with you,

in the unity of the Holy Spirit, one God, now and for ever.  Amen.

Acts 2:42-47a

Psalm 133 or 34:1-8 or 119:161-168

2 Corinthians 6:1-10

Matthew 6:24-33

–Adapted from Holy Women, Holy Men:  Celebrating the Saints (2010), 723

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Feast of Charles Sheldon (February 20)   Leave a comment

Above:  Charles Sheldon

Image in the Public Domain

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CHARLES MONROE SHELDON (FEBRUARY 26, 1857-FEBRUARY 24, 1946)

U.S. Congregationalist Minister, Author, Christian Socialist, and Social Gospel Theologian

The Reverend Charles Monroe Sheldon comes to this, A Great Cloud of Witnesses:  An Ecumenical Calendar of Saints’ Days and Holy Days, via G. Scott Cady and Christopher L. Webber, A Year with American Saints (2006).

Sheldon took to heart Christ’s command to be salt and light in the world.  Some efforts were more successful than others, but all of them shared one point of origin:  Christian faith.

Sheldon grew up in a Congregationalist family.  His father was a minister.  Our saint moved with his family from church to church.  Sheldon, born in Wellsville, New York, on February 26, 1857, grew up mostly in the Dakotas.  The family was not wealthy; it struggled financially.  That background and the socially and theologically background of nineteenth-century Congregationalism influenced Sheldon.

Sheldon became a socially-conscious minister.  After graduating from Brown University and Andover Theological Seminary, he served as a pastor, uin Waterbury, Vermont (1887-1889).  Typhoid was a frequent problem in town.  Our saint suggested that the proximity of the water supply to pig pens was the cause of the unsafe water.  The town corrected the issue and solved the problem.

Sheldon served in one other church; he was pastor of Central Congregational Church, Topeka, Kansas,, from 1889 to his retirement in 1920.  Our saint left the congregation better off in every way after three decades of leadership.  Attendance and membership increased.  So did outreach in the community.  Sheldon, author of more than 30 Social Gospel novels, including In His Steps (1896), asked a crucial question:

What would Jesus do?

In 1893 the pastor, a Christian Socialist and a theologian of the Social Gospel, concluded that Jesus would approve of the Central Congregational Church sponsoring the first kindergarten for African Americans west of the Mississippi River.  The congregation did that.  Sheldon, who encouraged middle-class and upper-class Christians to sympathize and identify with the poor and the marginalized paired evangelism with faith-based activism.

Much less successful were Sheldon’s campaigns for the prohibition of alcohol (throughout his life) and for world peace (after the retired).  Prohibition proved to be a movement that perhaps only mobsters loved more than moralistic idealists did.  World peace has been elusive, of course.  In the aftermath of World War I, however, that quest was of its time, as well as admirable.

Sheldon, from 1920 to 1924 the editor of a periodical, Christian Herald, died in Topeka on February 24, 1946.  In two more days he would have celebrated his eighty-ninth birthday.

The question of what Jesus would do is always relevant in public and private life.  That issue, like the Law of Moses, requires one to consider the timeless principles and variable factors.  The Golden Rule is a constant factor, a timeless principle.  The proper application of it depends on variables, tough.  For example, who one is, how old one is, where one is, when one is, and other particulars of one’s context vary from person to person.  Variables add a degree of relativism to the mix.  We (individually and collectively) have a mandate to live according to the Golden Rule when and where we are.  May we succeed, by grace.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

SEPTEMBER 28, 2019 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF JEHU JONES, JR., AFRICAN-AMERICAN LUTHERAN MINISTER

THE FEAST OF JOSEPH HOSKINS, ENGLISH CONGREGATIONALIST MINISTER AND HYMN WRITER

THE FEAST OF SAINT LORENZO RUIZ, ROMAN CATHOLIC MARTYR, 1637

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Holy and righteous God, you created us in your image.

Grant us grace to contend fearlessly with evil and to make no peace with oppression.

Help us, like your servant Charles Sheldon,

to work for justice among people and nations, to the glory of your name,

through Jesus Christ, our Savior and Lord, who lives and reigns

with you and the Holy Spirit, one God, now and forever.  Amen.

Hosea 2:18-23

Psalm 94:1-15

Romans 12:9-21

Luke 6:20-36

–Adapted from Evangelical Lutheran Worship (2006), 60

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This is post #1800 of SUNDRY THOUGHTS.

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Feast of Henry B. Whipple (February 18)   2 comments

Above:  A Former Flag of Minnesota

Image in the Public Domain

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HENRY BENJAMIN WHIPPLE (FEBRUARY 15, 1822-SEPTEMBER 16, 1901)

Episcopal Bishop of Minnesota

Bishop Henry B. Whipple comes to this, A Great Cloud of Witnesses:  An Ecumenical Calendar of Saints’ Days and Holy Days, via G. Scott Cady and Christopher L. Webber, A Year with American Saints (2006).

Whipple was simultaneously a man of his time and ahead of it.  His paternalistic attitude toward Native Americans was indefensible.  However, our saint was a vocal critic of abuses indigenous people suffered at the hands of civilians and the federal government.  This made him politically unpopular and out of step with many of his fellow whites, especially in Minnesota.

Whipple was a priest and missionary prior to becoming a bishop.  He, born in Adams, New York, on February 15, 1822, was a child of John Hall Whipple (1795-1859) and Elizabeth Wager (1798-1870).  Our saint married Cornelia Wright (1816-1870) on October 5, 1842.  The couple had six children.  Whipple, raised a Presbyterian, became an Episcopal priest in 1848.  He served as the Rector of Zion Episcopal Church, Rome, New York, before transferring to the Episcopal Church of the Holy Communion, Chicago, Illinois, in 1857.  Then, in 1859, at the age of 37 years, Whipple became the first Bishop of Minnesota and the youngest member of the House of Bishops.

During his long episcopate (1859-1901), Whipple accomplished much.  He transformed the fledgling Diocese of Minnesota into a stable see.  Our saint also worked to improve the lives of indigenous people, who suffered from poverty and whom the federal government exploited.  Federal management of Indian Affairs was, in the bishop’s words,

a stupendous piece of wickedness.

Whipple, while presiding over missionary outreach to tribes, stuck his neck out to speak out on their behalf.  In August 1862, white-Native tensions erupted into the U.S.-Dakota War.  The United States Army, having tried and convicted 303 Dakota men, prepared to hang them.  Whipple argued publicly on the condemned men’s behalf and interceded on their behalf with President Abraham Lincoln.  The bishop cast blame onto the federal government for violating treaties and treating indigenous people badly.  He also questioned the legality of the trials and condemned the lack of a proper defense in court.  His appeal to Lincoln was mostly successful; 38 Dakota men hanged and 265 received pardons.

Whipple, simultaneously praised and condemned for his relatively liberal attitude toward Natives, served on various commissions and boards.  These included the Sioux Commission (1876), the Northwest Indian Commission (1887), and the U.S. Board of Indian Commissioners (1895-1901).

Whipple, a widower, remarried on October 22, 1896.  His second wife was Evangeline Marrs (d. 1830).

Whipple, aged 79 years, died in Faribault, Minnesota, his home since 1860, on September 16, 1901.  “Straight Tongue,” as Natives had called him because of his honesty and outspokenness, fell into the silence of death.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

SEPTEMBER 22, 2019 COMMON ERA

PROPER 20:  THE FIFTEENTH SUNDAY AFTER PENTECOST, YEAR C

THE FEAST OF PHILANDER CHASE, EPISCOPAL BISHOP OF OHIO, AND OF ILLINOIS; AND PRESIDING BISHOP

THE FEAST OF C. H. DODD, WELSH CONGREGATIONALIST MINISTER, THEOLOGIAN, AND BIBLICAL SCHOLAR

THE FEAST OF CHARLOTTE WEBB, JULIA ANNE ELLIOTT, AND EMILY ELLIOTT, ANGLICAN HYMN WRITERS

THE FEAST OF JUSTUS FAULKNER, LUTHERAN PASTOR AND HYMN WRITER

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Heavenly Father, Shepherd of your people, we thank you for your servant Henry B. Whipple,

who was faithful in the care and nurture of your flock:

and we pray that, following his example and the teaching of his holy life,

we may by your grace grow into the stature of fullness of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ;

who lives and reigns with you and the Holy Spirit, one God, for ever and ever.  Amen.

Ezekiel 34:11-16

Psalm 23

1 Peter 5:1-4

John 21:15-17

–Adapted from Holy Women, Holy Men:  Celebrating the Saints (2010), 718

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Feast of Charles Todd Quintard (February 16)   4 comments

Above:  Charles Todd Quintard

Image Source = Library of Congress

Reproduction Number = LC-DIG-cwpbh-01430

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CHARLES TODD QUINTARD (DECEMBER 22, 1824-FEBRUARY 16, 1898)

Episcopal Bishop of Tennessee

Bishop Charles Todd Quintard comes to this, A Great Cloud of Witnesses:  An Ecumenical Calendar of Saints’ Days and Holy Days, via The Episcopal Church.  Quintard is one of many saints listed in the side calendar (Holy Women, Holy Men:  Celebrating the Saints, 2010; and A Great Cloud of Witnesses:  A Calendar of Commemorations, 2016), but not the main calendar (Lesser Feasts and Fasts, most recently revised in 2018, and in 2006, immediately prior to that).  Likewise, many saints listed in Lesser Feasts and Fasts are not in the side calendar.  Episcopal hagiography is not a simple matter.

Charles Todd Quintard, son of Dr. Isaac Quintard, M.D., was a physician prior to entering ordained ministry.  He, born in Stamfort, Connecticut, on December 22, 1824, descended from Huguenots.  Quintard studied at University Medical Center, New York University, and Bellevue Hospital prior to becoming an M.D. in 1847.  Our saint, a physician in Athens, Georgia, and a parishioner at Emmanuel Episcopal Church, from 1848 to 1851, moved to Memphis, Tennessee, to each at Memphis Medical College.  Our saint, with the support of James Hervey Otey, the Bishop of Tennessee, began to study for Holy Orders in 1854.  Otey ordained Quintard in 1856.

Quintard was a priest for about nine years before joining the ranks of bishops.  He was briefly the Rector of Calvary Episcopal Church, Memphis (1856-1857), then the Rector of the Episcopal Church of the Advent, Nashville (1857f).  Our saint, a High Churchman, served as a surgeon and a chaplain in the Confederate Army.  He compiled the Confederate Soldiers’ Pocket Manual of Devotions (1863) and Balm for the Weary and the Wounded (1864).

Quintard became the Bishop of Tennessee, succeeding the deceased James Hervey Otey, serving from October 1865 to February 1898.  He built up the Diocese of Tennessee and The University of the South, founding its School of Theology, as well.  The Diocese of Tennessee, Quintard insisted, had to be open to all who came, so he opposed any barriers.  Our saint, therefore, opposed pew rentals.  Although race-based chattel slavery had been the cornerstone of the Confederacy, as Vice President Alexander Hamilton Stephens had said openly in Savannah, Georgia, in March 1861, the bishop, a former Confederate Army chaplain, opposed racially-segregated congregations.  He also established programs to help poor people.  Furthermore, Quintard helped to found Hoffman Hall, Fisk University, Nashville, as a seminary for African Americans.

Quintard was in Meridian, Georgia, in McIntosh County and near Darien, for health reasons, when he died on February 16, 1898.  He was 73 years old.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

SEPTEMBER 19, 2918 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF SAINT THEODORE OF TARSUS, ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY

THE FEAST OF SAINT EMILY DE RODAT, FOUNDRESS OF THE CONGREGATION OF THE HOLY FAMILY OF VILLEFRANCHE

THE FEAST OF WALTER CHALMERS SMITH, SCOTTISH PRESBYTERIAN MINISTER AND HYMN WRITER

THE FEAST OF WALTER DALRYMPLE MACLAGAN, ARCHBISHOP OF YORK AND HYMN WRITER

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Mighty God, we bless your Name for the example of your bishop Charles Todd Quintard,

who opposed the segregation of African Americans in separate congregations and condemned the exclusion of the poor;

and we pray that your Church may be a refuge for all, for the honor of your Name;

through Jesus Christ, who with you and the Holy Spirit lives and reigns, one God, for ever and ever.  Amen.

Sirach (Ecclesiasticus) 34:14-19

Psalm 94:2-15

Romans 14:10-13

Luke 14:15-24

Holy Women, Holy Men:  Celebrating the Saints (2010), 227

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Feast of Julia Williams Garnet, Henry Highland Garnet, Sarah J. Smith Tompkins Garnet, Susan Maria Smith McKinney Steward, and Theophilus Gould Steward (February 10)   Leave a comment

Above:  A Partial Family Tree

Scan by Kenneth Randolph Taylor

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JULIA WILLIAMS GARNET (JULY 1, 1811-JANUARY 7, 1870)

African-American Abolitionist and Educator

first wife of

HENRY HIGHLAND GARNET (DECEMBER 23, 1815-FEBRUARY 13, 1882)

African-American Presbyterian Minister and Abolitionist

second husband of

SARAH J. SMITH TOMPKINS GARNET (JULY 31, 1831-SEPTEMBER 17, 1911)

African-American Suffragette and Educator

sister of

SUSAN MARIA SMITH MCKINNEY STEWARD (MARCH 1847-MARCH 17, 1918)

African-American Physician

second wife of

THEOPHILUS GOULD STEWARD (APRIL 17, 1843-JANUARY 11, 1924)

U.S. African Methodist Episcopal Minister, U.S. Army Chaplain, and Professor

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The nation has begun its exodus from worse than Egyptian bondage; and I beseech you that say to the people, “that they go forward.”  With the assurance of God’s favor in all things done in obedience to his righteous will, and guided by day and night by the pillars of cloud and fire, let us not pause until we have reached the other and safe side of the stormy and crimson sea.  Let freemen and patriots mete out complete and equal justice to all men, and thus prove to mankind the superiority of our Democratic, Republican government.

–Henry Highland Garnet, addressing the United States House of Representatives, February 12, 1865; quoted in G. Scott Cady and Christopher L. Webber, A Year with American Saints (2006), 604

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This post began with one name, that of Henry Highland Garnet, which I found in A Year with American Saints (2006).  As I took notes, however, I added two wives, a sister-in-law, and her second husband to the post.  I have, after all, established emphasizing relationships and influences as a goal of this project, A Great Cloud of Witnesses:  An Ecumenical Calendar of Saints’ Days and Holy Days.

Julia Williams came from a free African-American family.  She, born in Charleston, South Carolina, on July 1, 1811, moved with her family to Boston, Massachusetts, when she was a child.  At the age of 21 years, Williams began to study at Prudence Crandall‘s Female Boarding School (for African Americans), which opened in 1831.  After hostility in Canterbury, New Hampshire, forced the school to close, Williams continued her studies at Noyes Academy, Canaan, New Hampshire (extant 1835).  There she met Henry Highland Garnet.

Henry Highland Garnet, born a slave, became an abolitionist.  He, born in New Market, Maryland, on December 23, 1815, fled with his family in 1824, first to Delaware, then to Pennsylvania.  The family had to keep moving, to evade slave-catchers.  Eventually, Garnet wound up in New York City, where, from 1826 to 1833, he studied at the African Free School then at Phoenix High School for Colored Youth.  Our saint helped to found the abolitionist Garrison Literary and Benevolent Association in 1835.  He and Julia Williams were students at Noyes Academy, Canaan, New Hampshire, in 1835.  Local racists forced the school to close then destroyed the building.  Next, they founded a whites-only school.

Williams and Garnet studied at the Oneida Institute (1827-1843), Whitesboro, New York.  Garnet, who graduated in 1839, became a teacher in Troy, New York.  He also began to study theology.  Williams, having joined the Boston Female Anti-Slavery Society in the 1830s, was a delegate to the Anti-Slavery Convention of American Women, New York City, in 1837.  Garnet suffered a severe sports-related injury in 1840; he lost one leg, amputated at the hip.  He and Williams married in 1841.  The couple had three children.  Only one child, a daughter, survived to adulthood.

Garnet, the first African-American graduate of Princeton Theological Seminary, became a Presbyterian minister.  He served at Liberty Street Presbyterian Church, Troy, New York, from 1842 to 1848.  He had already become simultaneously revolutionary and conservative, by abolitionist standards.  Our saint had, in 1840, helped to found the American and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society (AFASS), which broke away from the American Anti-Slavery Society (AASS).  The AASS, with William Lloyd Garrison as a prominent member, opened leadership positions to women and made the connection between the rights of slaves and the rights of women.  The AFASS, however, focused narrowly on slavery and reserved all leadership positions for men.  Yet Garnet, an abolitionist journalist since 1842, proved too radical for William Lloyd Garrison and Frederick Douglass in one way in 1843.  That year, addressing the National Negro Convention, Buffalon, New York, Garnet called for a slave insurrection:

Brethren, arise, arise!  Strike for your lives and liberties.  Now is the day and the hour.  Let every slave throughout the land do this, and the days of slavery are numbered.  You cannot be more oppressed than you have been–you cannot suffer greater cruelties than you have already.  Rather die freemen than live to be slaves.

Garrison and Douglass persuaded Garnet to to moderate his position.

Garnet’s activism continued.  By 1849, he openly supported African-American immigration to Mexico, Liberia, or the West Indies.  This position led him to found the African Civilization Society in 1858.  He, associated with the free produce movement, which favored an economic boycott of slavery, traveled and lectured in the British Isles in 1850-1852.  The Garnets were missionaries of The Church of Scotland to Jamaica in 1852-1855; Julia led a female industrial school there.  Henry’s health required him to leave Jamaica after three years.  The couple returned to the United States.  Henry worked with Frederick Douglass to recruit African-American soldiers during the Civil War.  Garnet, pastor of Fifteenth Street Presbyterian Church, Washington, D.C., from 1864 to 1866, addressed the U.S. House of Representatives on February 12, 1865, after it passed the Thirteenth Amendment to the federal Constitution.  He became the President of Avery College, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (extant 1849-1873), in 1868.  Garnet also served as pastor of Shiloh Presbyterian Church, New York City, and favored Cuban independence from Spain.

Julia, who worked with former slaves in Washington, D.C., after the Civil War, died on January 7, 1870.  She was 58 years old.

Henry remarried, to Sarah J. Smith Tompkins, in 1879.

Sarah J. Smith and her sister, Susan Maria Smith, made history.  Their parents were prosperous farmers, Sylvanus Smith and Ann Eliza Springsteel, of Brooklyn, New York.  Sarah debuted on July 31, 1831.  Susan followed in March 1847.  Sarah’s first husband was Samuel Tompkins, who died in 1852.  The couple had two children, who died young.

Sarah J. Smith Tompkins became an educator.  She taught at the African Free School before becoming the first female, African-American principal in New York City; she led Grammar School Number 4, starting on April 30, 1863.

Susan, a musician and a music educator in the District of Columbia, pursued a career in medicine after one of her brothers died of cholera during an outbreak in Brooklyn.  She studied at the New York Medical College for Women in 1867-1869, and graduated as the valedictorian.  She became the first African-American female physician in the State of New York and the third in the United States.  Our saint practiced medicine in Brooklyn from 1870 to 1895, cofounded the Brooklyn Women’s Homeopathic Hospital and Dispensary, and practiced medicine at the Brooklyn Home for Aged Colored People.  In 1871, Susan married the Reverend William G. McKinney (d. 1894), a Methodist minister.

Sarah, owner of a seamstress shop in Brooklyn from 1883 to 1911, was also a suffragette.  She founded the Equal Suffrage League in Brooklyn in the late 1880s.  Starting in 1896, she served as the Superintendent of the National Association of Colored Women.

Henry Highland Garnet, briefly the U.S. Minister to Liberia, received his appointment in late 1881.  He, aged 58 years, died in Monrovia, on February 13, 1882.

Theophilus Gould Steward was a minister, an academic, and an activist.  He, from free African-American stock, was a child of James Steward and Rebecca Gould.  Our saint, born in Gouldtown, New Jersey, on April 17, 1843, became a minister in the African Methodist Episcopal Church in 1863.  He planted churches in Georgia and South Carolina after the Civil War.  Our saint, from 1868 a pastor in Macon, Georgia, presided over the construction of a new edifice after the suspicious burning of the first one.  He, a graduate of the Episcopal Divinity School, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, was active in Haiti, and the eastern United States from 1872 to 1891.  Our saint, recipient of a Doctor of Divinity degree from Wilberforce University, Wilberforce, Ohio, in 1881, joined the United States Army as a chaplain in 1891.  He served in the 25th U.S. Colored Cavalry until 1907.  Steward spent time in the U.S. West, in Cuba during the Spanish-American War, and in the Philippines after that war.  His first wife, Elizabeth Gladden, died ini 1893.  The couple had eight children, from 1872 to 1883.

Susan Maria Smith McKinney married Theophilus Gould Steward in 1896.  They went to work at Wilberforce University in 1907.  Theophilus was a professor of French, history, and logic.  Susan was a physician.  In 1911, she and her sister, Sarah, attended the Universal Race Congress, New York City.  Susan presented a paper, “Colored American Women.”

Sarah J. Smith Tompkins Garnet, aged 80 years, died on September 17, 1911.

Susan Maria Smith McKinney Steward, aged 71 years, died on March 17, 1918.

Theophilus Gould Steward, a cofounder (with Alexander Crummell) of the American Negro Academy (1897-1928), died on January 11, 1924.  He was 80 years old.

The United States of America is better than it would have been otherwise because these five saints made their contributions to society.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

SEPTEMBER 17, 2019 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF BLESSED JUTTA OF DISIBODENBERG, ROMAN CATHOLIC ABBESS; AND HER STUDENT, SAINT HILDEGARD OF BINGEN, ROMAN CATHOLIC ABBESS AND COMPOSER

THE FEAST OF GERARD MOULTRIE, ANGLICAN PRIEST, HYMN WRITER, AND TRANSLATOR OF HYMNS

THE FEAST OF SAINT ZYGMUNT SZCESNY FELINSKI, ROMAN CATHOLIC ARCHBISHOP OF WARSAW, TITULAR BISHOP OF TARSUS, AND FOUNDER OF RECOVERY OF THE POOR AND THE CONGREGATION OF THE FRANCISCAN SISTERS OF THE FAMILY OF MARY

THE FEAST OF SAINT ZYGMUNT SAJNA, ROMAN CATHOLIC PRIEST AND MARTYR, 1940

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Almighty God, whose prophets taught us righteousness and care of your poor:

By the guidance of your Holy Spirit, grant that we may

do justice, love mercy, and walk humbly in your sight;

through Jesus Christ, our Judge and Redeemer, who lives and reigns

with you and the same Spirit, one God, now and for ever.  Amen.

Isaiah 55:11-56:1

Psalm 2:1-2, 10-12

Acts 14:14-17, 21-23

Mark 4:21-29

Holy Women, Holy Men:  Celebrating the Saints (2010), 736

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Feast of Cornelia Hancock (February 6)   Leave a comment

Above:  Brandy Station, Virginia, December 1863-April 1864

Photographer = James Gardner

Image Source = Library of Congress

Reproduction Number = LC-DIG-cwpb-03963

Cornelia Hancock stands in front a tent on the right.

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CORNELIA HANCOCK (FEBRUARY 8, 1840-DECEMBER 31, 1927)

U.S. Quaker Nurse, Educator, and Humanitarian

“Florence Nightingale of North America”

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I am this moment talking to the most silly kind of Christian.  He wishes to know if I have “experienced Religion.”

–Cornelia Hancock

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Cornelia Hancock lived, not experienced, her religion.

Hancock comes to this, A Great Cloud of Witnesses:  An Ecumenical Calendar of Saints’ Days and Holy Days, via G. Scott Cady and Christopher L. Webber, A Year with American Saints (2006).

Hancock, born in Hancock’s Bridge, New Jersey, on February 8, 1840, was a devout Quaker.  Some of her male relatives, despite being Quakers, joined the U.S. Army during the Civil War.  Our saint, without any training as a nurse, volunteered for duty as a nurse in the U.S. Army.  Dorothea Dix rejected Hancock for being too young and beautiful.  Youth, inexperience, and beauty did not prevent our saint from arriving at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, on July 6, 1863, a few days after the conclusion of the great battle there.  Hancock served as a nurse for the rest of the war.  She preferred to serve in field hospitals, which she usually did.  Hancock also objected to people calling escaped slaves contraband.

Hancock devoted most of her life to serving God in the “least of these.”  After the Civil War, she founded the Laing School (for African Americans) in Pleasantville, South Carolina.  In 1878, our saint helped to found the Philadelphia Society for Organizing Charitable Relief and Repressing Mendiancy, later renamed Family Service of Philadelphia.  Hancock, who served on the board of the Children’s Aid Society from 1883 to 1895, retired to Atlantic City, New Jersey, in 1914.  She died there, aged 87 years, on December 31, 1927.

One of the greatest lessons from the Bible is that God does not call the qualified.  No, God qualifies the called.

What has God qualified you, O reader, to do for others?

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

SEPTEMBER 11, 2019 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF SAINT PAPHNUTIUS THE GREAT, ROMAN CATHOLIC BISHOP OF UPPER THEBAID

THE FEAST OF ANNE HOULDITCH, ANGLICAN NOVELIST AND HYMN WRITER

THE FEAST OF JOHN STAINER AND WALTER GALPIN ALCOCK, ANGLICAN CHURCH ORGANISTS AND COMPOSERS

THE FEAST OF SAINT PATIENS OF LYONS, ROMAN CATHOLIC ARCHBISHOP

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Almighty God, whose prophets taught us righteousness in the care of your poor:

By the guidance of your Holy Spirit, grant that we may do justice, love mercy, and walk humbly in your sight;

through Jesus Christ, our Judge and Redeemer, who lives and reigns

with you and the same Spirit, one God, now and for ever.  Amen.

Isaiah 55:11-56:1

Psalm 2:1-2, 10-12

Acts 14:14-17, 21-23

Mark 4:21-29

Holy Women, Holy Men:  Celebrating the Saints (2010), 736

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