Archive for the ‘Saints of 1890-1899’ Category

Feast of Lucy Menzies (November 24)   Leave a comment

Above:  The Flag of Scotland

Image in the Public Domain

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LUCY MENZIES (1882-1954)

Scottish Presbyterian then Anglican Scholar and Mystic

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All mystics from whatever century or country have a conviction of the supreme value of their inner experience of God.  Vision and love are one act in which all blessedness is found.  They find all natural lovely things moving towards the expression of the inexpressible.

–Lucy Menzies, in the introduction to The Revelations or The Flowing Light of the Godhead (1953)

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Lucy Menzies comes to this, A Great Cloud of Witnesses:  An Ecumenical Calendar of Saints’ Days and Holy Days, via the Scottish Episcopal Church.  Her feast day in that denomination is November 24.

Lucy Menzies was a daughter of Allan Menzies (1845-1916) and Mary Elizabeth Honey Menzies (d. 1916), both Presbyterians.  Allan, a minister, translated philosophical and theological books from German.  He married Mary Elizabeth, a minister’s daughter, in 1878.  Iona, the Holy Isle, was one of the Menzies family’s favorite vacation spots.  Allan, from 1889 the Professor of Biblical Criticism at St Andrews University, sent his daughters, May and Lucy, to finishing school in Heidelberg, Germany, in 1897.

Lucy became a scholar, predictably.  She made her publishing debut with General Foch at the Marne (1918), translated from French.  Subsequent original works included St. Columba of Iona (1920), A Book of Saints for the Young (1923), The Saints of Italy (1924), and Mirrors of the Holy (1928).  A translation of Abbé de Turville’s Letters of Direction on the Spiritual Life followed in 1939.  Lucy, a longtime friend of Evelyn Underhill (1875-1941), had a hand in The Letters of Evelyn Underhill (1943), edited by Charles Williams (1886-1945).  Lucy’s last completed work was The Revelations or The Flowing Light of the Godhead, Translated from the Manuscript in the Library of the Monastery of Einsiedeln (1953).  This was a translation of writings of Mechthild of Magdeburg (1210?-1282/1285).

Lucy, confirmed into The Church of England in 1924, grew deeper in her faith by the help of Underhill, her de facto spiritual director.  Both women conducted spiritual retreats together, starting in the late 1920s.  Lucy served as the warden of the retreat house at Pleshey, Essex (1928-1938).  By 1938, our saint’s health and eyesight were failing, so she left Pleshey.

Above:  All Saints’ Church, St Andrews, Scotland

Image Source = Google Earth

Lucy returned to St Andrews and lived across from All Saints’ Church, where she worshiped.  She, awarded an honorary Doctor of Divinity degree by the University of St Andrews in June 1954, died later that year, before completing her biography of Underhill.

Lucy Menzies loved God with all her heart, soul, and mind.  She devoted her intellect to the glorification of God.  And our saint grew into a mystical expression of Christian faith generally alien to the Reformed tradition and much more at home within Anglicanism and Roman Catholicism.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

APRIL 27, 2021 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF GEORGE WASHINGTON DOANE, EPISCOPAL BISHOP OF NEW JERSEY; AND HIS SON, WILLIAM CROSWELL DOANE, EPISCOPAL BISHOP OF ALBANY; HYMN WRITERS

THE FEAST OF SAINTS ANTONY AND THEODOSIUS OF KIEV, FOUNDERS OF RUSSIAN ORTHODOX MONASTICISM; SAINT BARLAAM OF KIEV, RUSSIAN ORTHODOX ABBOT; AND SAINT STEPHEN OF KIEV, RUSSIAN ORTHODOX ABBOT AND BISHOP

THE FEAST OF CHRISTINA ROSSETTI, ANGLICAN POET AND RELIGIOUS WRITER

THE FEAST OF SAINTS REMACLUS OF MAASTRICHT, THEODORE OF MAASTRICT, LAMBERT OF MAASTRICHT, HUBERT OF MAASTRICHT AND LIEGE, AND FLORIBERT OF LIEGE, ROMAN CATHOLIC BISHOPS; SAINT LANDRADA OF MUNSTERBILSEN, ROMAN CATHOLIC ABBESS; AND SAINTS OTGER OF UTRECHT, PLECHELM OF GUELDERLAND, AND WIRO, ROMAN CATHOLIC MISSIONARIES

THE FEAST OF SAINT ZITA OF TUSCANY, WORKER OF CHARITY

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O God, you have endowed us with memory, reason, and skill.

We thank you for the faithful legacy of [Lucy Menzies and all others]

who have dedicated their lives to you and to the intellectual pursuits.

May we, like them, respect your gift of intelligence fully and to your glory.

In the Name of God:  Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.  Amen.

Deuteronomy 6:4-9

Psalm 103

Philippians 4:8-9

Mark 12:28-34

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

MARCH 6, 2013 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF SAINT CHRODEGANG OF METZ, ROMAN CATHOLIC BISHOP

THE FEAST OF EDMUND KING, ANGLICAN BISHOP OF LINCOLN

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Feast of Arthur Henry Mann (November 17)   Leave a comment

Above:  Arthur Henry Mann

Image in the Public Domain

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ARTHUR HENRY MANN (MAY 16, 1850-NOVEMBER 19, 1929)

Anglican Organist and Hymn Tune Composer

Arthur Henry Mann comes to this, A Great Cloud of Witnesses:  An Ecumenical Calendar of Saints’ Days and Holy Days, via The Methodist Hymnal (1966).  This post relies primarily on various hymnal companion volumes.

Mann, born in Norwich, England, on May 16, 1850, became a superb musician.  He, a boy chorister and an organist at the Cathedral Church of the Holy and Undivided Trinity, Norwich, was a prodigy.  Our saint, when eight years old, could play the full cathedral service on the organ.  After Mann’s voice changed, he ceased to be a chorister.  He remained an organist, though.  The graduate of New College, Oxford (B.Mus., 1874; D.Mus., 1882) served as organist at the following:

  1. St. Peter’s Church, Wolverhampton (1870-1871);
  2. St. Michael and All Angels’ Church, Tettenhall, Wolverhampton (1871-1875);
  3. Beverley Minster, Beverley (1875-1876);
  4. King’s College, Cambridge (1876-1910); and
  5. Cambridge University (1897f).

Mann, a choir director, as well as the music master of Ley’s School, Cambridge University, applied his musical talents in other ways, too.  Our saint, from 1871 a Fellow of the Royal College of Organists, was the music editor of The Church of England Hymnal (1895).  Mann, a musicologist, collected early hymnals and was an expert on the music of George Frederick Handel (1685-1759).  Our saint put Handel’s manuscripts in order.  Mann also edited an edition of Spem in Alium, by Thomas Tallis (1505-1585).

Mann was also a composer.  He wrote music for voice and organ.  His most enduring compositions were probably hymn tunes, though.  These included the following:

  1. ANGEL’S STORY (frequently attached to “O Jesus, I Have Promised”),
  2. ARISTIDES,
  3. BENEDICTION,
  4. BERNO,
  5. CLAUDIUS,
  6. SILESIUS,
  7. THE NEW YEAR,
  8. VALOUR,
  9. WATERMOUTH, and
  10. WILTON.

Mann, aged 79 years, died in Cambridge, England, on November 19, 1929.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

APRIL 26, 2021 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF WILLIAM COWPER, ANGLICAN HYMN WRITER

THE FEAST OF SAINT ADELARD OF CORBIE, FRANKISH ROMAN CATHOLIC MONK AND ABBOT; AND HIS PROTÉGÉ, SAINT PASCHASIUS RADBERTUS, FRANKISH ROMAN CATHOLIC MONK, ABBOT, AND THEOLOGIAN

THE FEAST OF ROBERT HUNT, FIRST ANGLICAN CHAPLAIN AT JAMESTOWN, VIRGINIA

THE FEAST OF RUTH BYLLESBY, EPISCOPAL DEACONESS IN GEORGIA

THE FEAST OF SAINT STANISLAW KUBISTA, ROMAN CATHOLIC PRIEST AND MARTYR, 1940; AND SAINT WLADYSLAW GORAL, POLISH ROMAN CATHOLIC BISHOP AND MARTYR, 1945

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Eternal God, light of the world and Creator of all that is good and lovely:

We bless your name for inspiring Arthur Henry Mann and all those

who with music have inspired us with desire and love for you;

through Jesus Christ our Savior, who with you and the Holy Spirit

lives and reigns, one God, for ever and ever.  Amen.

1 Chronicles 29:14b-19

Psalm 90:14-17

2 Corinthians 3:1-3

John 21:15-17, 24-25

–Adapted from Holy Women, Holy Men:  Celebrating the Saints (2010), 728

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Feast of St. Guido Maria Conforti (November 5)   Leave a comment

Above:  St. Guido Maria Conforti

Image in the Public Domain

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SAINT GUIDO MARIA CONFORTI (MARCH 30, 1865-NOVEMBER 5, 1931)

Founder of the Xavierian Missionaries

St. Guido Maria Conforti comes to this, A Great Cloud of Witnesses:  An Ecumenical Calendar of Saints’ Days and Holy Days, via the Roman Catholic Church.

Conforti, born in Casalora di Ravadese, Parma, Italy, on March 30, 1865, came from a large and devout Roman Catholic family.  Rinaldo Conforti and Antonia Adorni Conforti had ten children; our saint was the eighth.  Conforti, as a Catholic elementary school boy, visited the parish church nearly every day, to converse with the crucified Jesus.  Our saint perceived his vocation, which entailed leaving the farm, against his father’s wishes.

Conforti matriculated at the seminary in Parma in November 1876.  Reading the works of St. Francis Xavier (1506-1552) inspired our saint to want to serve as a missionary.  Our saint applied unsuccessfully to join the Society of Jesus and the Society of Saint Francis de Sales.  The rector of the seminary was Blessed Andrea Carlo Ferrari (1850-1921), Conforti’s mentor.  Ferrari went on to serve as the Bishop of Guastilla (1890-1891), the Bishop of Como (1891-1894), and the Cardinal Archbishop of Milan (1894-1921).  Conforti, the Vice-Rector of the seminary under Ferrari, joined the ranks of priests on September 22, 1888, at Fontanellato.  He also taught at the seminary and, starting on March 7, 1896, served as the Vicar-General of the Diocese of Parma.

Conforti founded the Xavierian Missionaries on December 3, 1895.  Pope Leo XIII granted his approval in 1898.  The first Xavierian Missionaries arrived in China the following year.  Our saint served as the Archbishop of Ravenna from June 11, 1902, to November 1904.  After resigning from that post due to ill health, he became the Bishop Coadjutor of Parma and the Titular Archbishop of Stauropolis (1904-1907) then the Bishop of Parma (1907-1931).  He tended to his episcopal duties faithfully and traveled to China in 1928.  Our saint also influenced Maximum Illud (1919), Pope Benedict XV’s signal Apostolic Letter on foreign missions.

Conforti died in Parma on November 5, 1931.  He was 66 years old.

Holy Mother Church has formally recognized this saint.  Pope John Paul II declared Conforti a Venerable in 1992 the beatified him in 1996.  Pope Benedict XVI canonized our saint in 2011.

The Xavierian Missionaries continue their good work.  The website of the Xavierian Missionaries U.S.A. proclaims:

SHARING CHRIST ACROSS FAITHS AND CULTURES.

That ethos is consistent with the approach Conforti and Pope Benedict XV shared.  The Holy Father properly objected to mixing nationalism and Western ethnocentrism into missionary work, especially outside of the Western world.  He encouraged raising up local, indigenous people into leadership because the perception that Christianity and the Church were foreign and alien worked against successful evangelism.  The approach of Conforti and Pope Benedict XV was revolutionary at the time.  However, as time passed, it became mainstream.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

APRIL 24, 2021 COMMON ERA

GENOCIDE REMEMBRANCE

THE FEAST OF SAINT EGBERT OF LINDISFARNE, ROMAN CATHOLIC MONK; AND SAINT ADALBERT OF EGMONT, ROMAN CATHOLIC MISSIONARY

THE FEAST OF SAINT FIDELIS OF SIGMARINGEN, CAPUCHIN FRIAR AND MARTYR, 1622

THE FEAST OF JOHANN WALTER, “FIRST CANTOR OF THE LUTHERAN CHURCH”

THE FEAST OF SAINT MELLITUS, BISHOP OF LONDON, AND ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY

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Almighty God, we praise you for the men and women you have sent

to call the Church to its tasks and renew its life

[such as your servant Saint Guido Maria Conforti].

Raise up in our own day teachers and prophets inspired by your Spirit,

whose voices will give strength to your Church and proclaim the reality of your kingdom;

through your Son, Jesus Christ our Lord.  Amen.

Jeremiah 1:4-10

Psalm 46

1 Corinthians 3:11-23

Mark 10:35-45

–Adapted from the Lutheran Book of Worship (1978), 37

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Feast of Blessed Maria Franciszka Siedliska (November 21)   Leave a comment

Above:  Blessed Maria Franciszka Siedliska

Image in the Public Domain

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BLESSED MARIA FRANCISZKA SIEDLISKA (NOVEMBER 12, 1842-NOVEMBER 21, 1902)

Foundress of the Sisters of the Holy Family of Nazareth

Born Franciszka Siedliska

Also known as Mother Mary of Jesus the Good Shepherd

Blessed Maria Franciszka Siedliska comes to this, A Great Cloud of Witnesses:  An Ecumenical Calendar of Saints’ Days and Holy Days, via the Roman Catholic Church.

Franciszka Siedliska was a Polish subject of the Russian Empire.  She, born in Roszkowa, Wola Castle, Roszkowa Wola, Poland, Russia, on November 12, 1842, was a daughter of Adolf Adam Siedliska and Cecylia Marianna Morawska.  The family was nominally Roman Catholic.  Our saint, like her parents, was indifferent to religion.

That changed when Siedliska was an adolescent.  Father Leander Lendzian, who prepared her for First Communion (May 1, 1855), sparked religious zeal within our saint.  Siedliska, who dedicated herself to God at her First Communion, decided by 1860 that she wanted to become a nun.  Her parents vigorously opposed this plan.  They prevented her from entering religious life until 1870.  Our saint moved with her parents to Switzerland in 1860, then to Prussia, then to France.  Siedliska and her family returned to their homeland in 1865.  Her father died in 1870.

Our saint finally had an opportunity to enter religious life in 1870, and she availed herself of it.  In 1870, she became a Franciscan tertiary in Lublin.  With the encouragement of Father Lendzian, Siedliska founded a new monastic order, in obedience to the will of God, as she understood it.  Pope Pius IX granted his permission in person on October 1, 1873.  Siedliska founded the Sisters of the the Holy Family of Nazareth at the start of Advent 1875, in Rome.

Our saint led the new order.  On May 1, 1884, she became a nun, as Mary of Jesus the Good Shepherd.  She spent the next years traveling across Europe and in the United States of America, founding schools and communities.  She did his until she, aged 60 years, died in Rome, on November 21, 1902.

Pope John Paul II declared our saint a Venerable in 1980 then beatified her nine years later.

The website of the Sisters of the Holy Family of Nazareth reads, in part:

We, the Sisters of the Holy Family of Nazareth, are called to extend the Kingdom of God’s love among ourselves and others by the living of the spirit of Jesus, Mary, and Joseph, whose lives were centered in the love of God and one another.  We witness to this love through dedicated service to the Church, especially in ministry to the family.

That is a high calling.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

APRIL 24, 2021 COMMON ERA

GENOCIDE REMEMBRANCE

THE FEAST OF SAINT EGBERT OF LINDISFARNE, ROMAN CATHOLIC MONK; AND SAINT ADALBERT OF EGMONT, ROMAN CATHOLIC MISSIONARY

THE FEAST OF SAINT FIDELIS OF SIGMARINGEN, CAPUCHIN FRIAR AND MARTYR, 1622

THE FEAST OF JOHANN WALTER, “FIRST CANTOR OF THE LUTHERAN CHURCH”

THE FEAST OF SAINT MELLITUS, BISHOP OF LONDON, AND ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY

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O God, whose blessed Son became poor that we through his poverty might be rich:

Deliver us from an inordinate love of this world, that we, inspired

by the devotion of your servant Blessed Maria Franciszka Siedliska,

may serve you with singleness of heart, and attain to the riches of the age to come;

through Jesus Christ our Lord, who lives and reigns with you,

in the unity of the Holy Spirit, one God, now and for ever.  Amen.

Song of Songs 8:6-7

Psalm 34

Philippians 3:7-15

Luke 12:33-37 or Luke 9:57-62

–Adapted from Holy Women, Holy Men:  Celebrating the Saints (2010), 722

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Feast of St. Ivan Kochurov (October 31)   Leave a comment

Above:  St. Ivan Kochurov, 1900

Image in the Public Domain

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SAINT IVAN ALEXANDROVICH KOCHUROV

(JULY 17, 1871-OCTOBER 31, 1917, JULIAN CALENDAR)

(JULY 29, 1871-NOVEMBER 13, 1917, GREGORIAN CALENDAR)

Russian Orthodox Priest and Martyr, 1917

Alternative feast day = Sunday Nearest to January 25 (Feast of the New Martyrs and Confessors of Russia)

St. Ivan Alexandreivich Kochurov comes to this, A Great Cloud of Witnesses:  An Ecumenical Calendar of Saints’ Days and Holy Days, via the Orthodox Church in America.

St. Ivan Alexandreivich Kochurov, son of a priest (Alexander Kochurov), became a priest, too.  Our saint, born in Bigil’dino Surky, Ryazan Governate, Russian Empire, on July 13, 1871, studied at the Ryazin Seminary then at the Saint Petersburg Theological Academy.  He, graduating in 1895, became a deacon and married Alexandra Chernyshova.  Then, on August 27, 1895, he joined the ranks of priests.

Kochurov, who wanted to serve as a missionary priest in the United States of America, got his wish.  In 1895, he became the first permanent priest of St. Vladimir’s Church, Chicago, Illinois, founded in 1892.  Our saint supervised the construction of the building, started in 1902 and consecrated the following year.  St. Tikhon of Moscow (1865-1925), then the Bishop of the Aleutians and North America, consecrated the new structure.  Kochurov, who founded and helped to found other Russian Orthodox congregations in the Chicago area, as well as New York and Oklahoma.

St. Vladimir’s Church has become Holy Trinity Cathedral, of the Orthodox Church in America.

Above:  The “Fond du Lac Circus,” 1900

Image in the Public Domain

Kochurov is standing, third from the right.

Sts. Ivan and Tikhon participated in an innocuous and ecumenical matter that became a scandal in Evangelical Episcopalian circles.  Charles Chapman Grafton (1830-1912), the Episcopal Bishop of Fond du Lac (1889-1912), was an Anglo-Catholic interested in Old Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy.  He invited Bishops of the Polish National Catholic Church and the Russian Orthodox Church to join with other Episcopal bishops in consecrating Reginald Heber Weller (1857-1935) as the Bishop Coadjutor of Fond du Lac.  (Weller served as the Bishop of Fond du Lac from 1912 to 1933.)  The site of so many bishops in copes and mitres prompted many Evangelical Episcopalians to clutch their pearls and scream “dirty sassafras,”, so to speak.

Kochurov remained in the United States of America until 1907.  He and St. Alexis Toth (1854-1909) worked together to found a mutual aid society for recent Russian immigrants.  Kochurov also translated Russian religious texts into English.  Our saint, promoted to Archpriest in 1906, helped to organize the first Russian Orthodox All-American Council, Mayfield, Pennsylvania (1907).

Above:  The Flag of the Russian Empire

Image in the Public Domain

The Kochurov family returned to the Russian Empire in 1907.  He taught the catechism in schools in Narva, Estonia, until 1916.  Then our saint, transferred to Tsarskoe Selo, outside St. Petersburg) in 1916, preached at St. Catherine’s Cathedral.

On October 31, 1917 (Old Style)/November 13, 1917 (New Style), Bolsheviks arrested Kochurov, 46 years old.  They took him outside of Tsarskoe Selo and shot him, making him the first Russian Orthodox martyr under the Bolshevik rule.  His “crime” was being a priest.

The Russian Orthodox Church glorified (canonized) Kochurov in 1994.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

APRIL 24, 2021 COMMON ERA

GENOCIDE REMEMBRANCE

THE FEAST OF SAINT EGBERT OF LINDISFARNE, ROMAN CATHOLIC MONK; AND SAINT ADALBERT OF EGMONT, ROMAN CATHOLIC MISSIONARY

THE FEAST OF SAINT FIDELIS OF SIGMARINGEN, CAPUCHIN FRIAR AND MARTYR, 1622

THE FEAST OF JOHANN WALTER, “FIRST CANTOR OF THE LUTHERAN CHURCH”

THE FEAST OF SAINT MELLITUS, BISHOP OF LONDON, AND ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY

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Almighty and everlasting God, who kindled the flame of your love

in the heart of your holy martyr Saint Ivan Kochurov:

Grant to us, your humble servants, a like faith and power of love,

that we who rejoice in his triumph may profit by his example;

through Jesus Christ our Lord, who lives and reigns with

you and the Holy Spirit, one God, for ever and ever.  Amen.

Jeremiah 15:15-21

Psalm 124 or 31:1-5

1 Peter 4;12-19

Mark 8:34-38

–Adapted from Holy Women, Holy Men:  Celebrating the Saints (2010), 715

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Feast of Eric Norelius (October 25)   Leave a comment

Above:  The Logo of the Augustana Synod

Image in the Public Domain

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ERIC NORELIUS (OCTOBER 26, 1833-MARCH 15, 1916)

Swedish-American Lutheran Minister

Eric Norelius comes to this, A Great Cloud of Witnesses:  An Ecumenical Calendar of Saints’ Days and Holy Days, via G. Scott Cady and Christopher L. Webber, A Year with American Saints (2006).

Norelius grew up in The Church of Sweden.  He, born in Hassela, Sweden, on October 26, 1833, was steeped in Lutheranism.  When our saint arrived in New York Harbor on October 31, 1850, he found other Swedish immigrants, mostly Methodists.  When Norelius arrived in Chicago, Illinois, he found a Swedish Episcopalian congregation.  After graduating from Capital University, Columbus, Ohio (1855), Norelius began his Lutheran ministerial career.

In September 1855, Eric Norelius and Inga Peterson Norelius, newlyweds, arrived in Red Wing, Minnesota.  Our saint became the pastor of two churches, one in Red Wing and the other one in Vasa.  The Swedish Lutheran congregations were poor, so the Noreliuses had to leave, for financial reasons, in 1858.   Before they did, however, our saint had founded twelve congregations.

Norelius remained active in ecclesiastical affairs.  Our saint became a journalist.  He had founded a Swedish-language newspaper, the Minnesota Posten, in November 1857.  He assumed the editorship of the Hemlandet, a Swedish-language newspaper which absorbed the Minnesota Posten, in January 1859.  Norelius helped to found the Augustana Synod (originally for Norwegian and Swedish immigrants) in June 1860.  He served as a traveling missionary to Swedes living west of Minneapolis, starting in October 1860.

Norelius returned to the Red Wing-Vasa area, as pastor, in 1861.  He founded a school, the origin of Gustavus Adolphus College, St. Peter, Minnesota, in 1862.  Our saint also founded the Vasa Children’s Home in 1865.  This was the genesis of Lutheran Social Services  of Minnesota.

Norelius led above the parish level, too.  He served as the President of the Augustana Synod’s Minnesota Conference (1870f).  Then our saint was the President of the Augustana Synod (1874-1881, 1899-1911).  Norelius also wrote and edited.  His published works included The History of the Swedish Lutheran Congregations and the Swedish Americans (two volumes, 1890).  Norelius edited ecclesiastical publications (1870-1882, 1899-1909), too.

Norelius, aged 82 years, died in Vasa, Minnesota, on March 15, 1916.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

APRIL 23, 2021 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF TOYOHIKO KAGAWA, RENEWER OF SOCIETY AND PROPHETIC WITNESS IN JAPAN

THE FEAST OF JAKOB BÖHME, GERMAN LUTHERAN MYSTIC

THE FEAST OF MARTIN RINCKART, GERMAN LUTHERAN MINISTER AND HYMN WRITER

THE FEAST OF SAINT TERESA MARIA OF THE CROSS, FOUNDRESS OF THE CARMELITE SISTERS OF SAINT TERESA OF FLORENCE

THE FEAST OF WALTER RUSSELL BOWIE, EPISCOPAL PRIEST, SEMINARY PROFESSOR, AND HYMN WRITER

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Almighty God, we praise you for the men and women you have sent

to call the Church to its tasks and renew its life [such as your servant Eric Norelius].

Raise up in our own day teachers and prophets inspired by your Spirit,

whose voices will give strength to your Church and proclaim

the reality of your kingdom;  through your Son, Jesus Christ our Lord.  Amen.

Jeremiah 1:4-10

Psalm 46

1 Corinthians 3:11-23

Mark 10:35-45

–Adapted from the Lutheran Book of Worship (1978), 37

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Feast of St. Elizabeth of the Trinity (November 8)   Leave a comment

Above:  St. Elizabeth of the Trinity

Image in the Public Domain

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SAINT ÉLIZABETH CATEZ (JULY 18, 1880-NOVEMBER 9, 1906)

French Roman Catholic Nun, Mystic, and Religious Writer

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I am going to Light, to Love, to Life.

–The last words of St. Elizabeth of the Trinity

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St. Elizabeth of the Trinity comes to this, A Great Cloud of Witnesses:  An Ecumenical Calendar of Saints’ Days and Holy Days, via the Roman Catholic Church and The Episcopal Church.

The brief life of St. Élizabeth Catez epitomized spiritual growth and struggle.  Our saint, born on July 18, 1880, at the French military base at Avord, Cher, was the eldest child of Marie Rolland Catez and Captain Joseph Catez (d. October 2, 1887).  St. Elizabeth, baptized at the base’s chapel when she was four days old, moved with her family to Dijon after her father died.  Her upbringing was devout and Roman Catholic, full of milestones such as her first Confession, First Communion, and Confirmation.

Spiritual maturation transformed St. Elizabeth.  She gained control over her temper.  Our saint, a pianist and a chorister, also visited the sick and taught the catechism to children who worked in factories.  St. Elizabeth developed an interest in joining the Discaled Carmelite Order.  She rejected marriage proposals.  Marie (the mother) did not want St. Elizabeth to become a nun.  Yet our saint did, at Dijon, on August 2, 1901, at the age of 21 years.

St. Elizabeth sought a deeper understanding of the love of God through spiritual peaks and valleys.  She sensed God in mundane activities, such as washing clothes.  She found happiness, and wrote about mystical encounters with God.  By the end of her life, St. Elizabeth called herself Laudem Gloriae (Praise of Glory).  Looking forward to Heaven, our saint anticipated that she would bring souls out of themselves and encourage them to cling to God in simple love.

St. Elizabeth, 26 years old, died of Addison’s Disease on November 9, 1906.

Holy Mother Church recognized St. Elizabeth formally.  Pope John Paul II declared her a Venerable in 1982 then beatified her in 1984.  Pope Francis canonized our saint in 2016.

I refer you, O reader, to St. Elizabeth’s prayer to the Holy Trinity.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

APRIL 22, 2021 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF GENE BRITTON, EPISCOPAL PRIEST

THE FEAST OF DONALD S. ARMENTROUT, U.S. LUTHERAN MINISTER AND SCHOLAR

THE FEAST OF HADEWIJCH OF BRABERT, ROMAN CATHOLIC MYSTIC

THE FEAST OF KATHE KOLLWITZ, GERMAN LUTHERAN ARTIST AND PACIFIST

THE FEAST OF SAINT VITALIS OF GAZA, MONK, HERMIT, AND MARTYR, CIRCA 625

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O God, whose blessed Son became poor that we through his poverty might be rich:

Deliver us from an inordinate love of this world, that we,

inspired by the devotion of your servant Saint Elizabeth of the Trinity,

may serve you with singleness of heart,

and attain to the riches of the age to come;

through Jesus Christ our Lord, who lives and reigns with you,

in the unity of the Holy Spirit, one God, now and for ever.  Amen.

Song of Songs 8:6-7

Psalm 34

Philippians 3:7-15

Luke 12:33-37 or Luke 9:57-62

–Adapted from Holy Women, Holy Men:  Celebrating the Saints (2010), 722

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Feast of Elizabeth Comstock (October 30)   Leave a comment

Above:  Elizabeth Comstock

Image in the Public Domain

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ELIZABETH LESLIE ROUS WRIGHT COMSTOCK (OCTOBER 30, 1815-AUGUST 3, 1891)

Anglo-American Quaker Educator, Abolitionist, and Social Reformer

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It is a blessed mission to visit the poor prisoners, and to know “That mercy to the bondman shown.  It is a mercy unto Him.”

–Elizabeth Comstock, quoted in G. Scott Cady and Christopher L. Webber, A Year with American Saints (2006), 320

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Elizabeth Comstock comes to this, A Great Cloud of Witnesses:  An Ecumenical Calendar of Saints’ Days and Holy Days, via Cady and Webber, A Year with American Saints (2006).

Elizabeth Leslie Rous was a native of England.  She, born in Maidenhead on October 30, 1815, was a daughter of William and Mary Rous.  The Rouses were a Quaker family, and our saint studied at a Friends school in Croyden.  She became a teacher, wife, and mother.  Our saint taught at Ackworth then at Croyden.  In 1847, Rous married Leslie Wright.  The couple had a daughter, Caroline.  Leslie died in 1849.

Elizabeth Leslie Rous Wright and Caroline Wright immigrated to British North America in 1854.  She settled in Belleville, in what is now Ontario.  Our saint, influenced by Elizabeth Fry (1780-1845), became active in meeting the needs of vulnerable people in her community.

Wright married John T. Comstock.  The blended family moved to Rollin, Michigan, in 1858.  Our saint grew into a figure worthy of Fry.  Elizabeth Leslie Rous Wright Comstock became a great orator, a conductor of the Underground Railroad, and an activist on behalf of prison reform, temperance, and the rights of women.  She visited many jails and prisons, Civil War-era hospitals and prison camps, and, in 1864, President Abraham Lincoln.  After the Civil War, our saint worked with the government of the State of Kansas to organize temporary relief to African-American migrants (in 1879-1880).

Our saint moved to Union Springs, New York, in 1885.  She, aged 75 years, died there on August 3, 1891.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

APRIL 16, 2021 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF SAINT BERNADETTE OF LOURDES, FRENCH ROMAN CATHOLIC VISIONARY

THE FEAST OF CALVIN WEISS LAUFER, U.S. PRESBYTERIAN MINISTER AND HYMNODIST

THE FEAST OF ISABELLA GILMORE, ANGLICAN DEACONESS

THE FEAST OF SAINT MIKEL SUMA, ALBANIAN ROMAN CATHOLIC PRIEST, FRIAR, AND MARTYR, 1950

THE FEAST OF PETER WILLIAMS CASSEY, AFRICAN-AMERICAN EPISCOPAL DEACON; AND HIS WIFE, ANNIE BESANT CASSEY, AFRICAN-AMERICAN EPISCOPAL EDUCATOR

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Almighty God, whose prophets taught us righteousness in the care of your poor:

By the guidance of your Holy Spirit, grant that we may

do justice, love mercy, and walk humbly in your sight;

through Jesus Christ, our Judge and Redeemer, who lives and reigns

with you and the same Spirit, one God, now and for ever.  Amen.

Isaiah 55:11-56:1

Psalm 2:1-2, 10-12

Acts 14:14-17, 21-23

Mark 4:21-29

Holy Women, Holy Men:  Celebrating the Saints (2010), 736

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Feast of the Martyrs of Lien-Chou, China, October 28, 1905 (October 29)   Leave a comment

Above:  The Late Imperial Flag of China

Image in the Public Domain

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ELEANOR CHESTNUT, M.D. (JANUARY 8, 1868-OCTOBER 28, 1905)

U.S. Presbyterian Medical Missionary and Martyr, 1905

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JOHN ROGERS PEALE (SEPTEMBER 17, 1879-OCTOBER 28, 1905)

U.S. Presbyterian Minister, Missionary, and Martyr, 1905

husband of

REBECCA GILLESPIE PEALE (AUGUST 16, 1878-OCTOBER 28, 1905)

U.S. Presbyterian Missionary and Martyr, 1905

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ELLA MAY WOOD MACHLE (DIED OCTOBER 28, 1905)

U.S. Presbyterian Missionary and Martyr, 1905

mother of

AMY MACHLE (1894-OCTOBER 28, 1905)

U.S. Presbyterian Martyr

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In loving memory of the missionary martyrs of Lien-chou, China, Eleanor Chestnut, M.D.; Mrs. Ella Wood Machle; and her little daughter, Amy; Rev John Rogers Peale and Mrs. Rebecca Gillespie Peale; who for Christ’s sake suffered cruel death at Lien-chou, China, October 28, 1905.  “They loved not their lives unto the death.”  (Rev. xii 11)

–A plaque at the Presbyterian Foreign Mission Board, New York, New York; quoted in G. Scott Cady and Christopher L. Webber, A Year with American Saints (2006), 34

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INTRODUCTION

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Dr. Eleanor Chestnut comes to this, A Great Cloud of Witnesses:  An Ecumenical Calendar of Saints’ Days and Holy Days, via Cady and Webber, A Year with American Saints (2006).  The other four saints martyred with her come her via my desire to include all five martyrs in this post.

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DOCTOR CHESTNUT

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Above:  Dr. Eleanor Chestnut

Image in the Public Domain

Chestnut grew up without her parents.  She, born in Waterloo, Iowa, on January 8, 1868, was essentially an orphan.  Our saint’s father deserted the family.  Chestnut’s mother died shortly after our saint’s birth.  The Merwins, childless neighbors, raised Chestnut a few years.  Then our saint grew up with relatives on a struggling farm at Hatton, Missouri.  Chestnut sought a way out of her precarious existence and into a better future.

Education was that route.  Chestnut graduated from Park College (now University), a Presbyterian school in Parksville, Missouri, in 1888.  Next, she studied at the Chicago Women’s Medical College, the Illinois Training School for Nurses, and the Moody Bible Institute.  Our saint prepared to become a medical doctor and missionary.  She, who preferred to treat the most vulnerable and most impoverished patients, applied to the Presbyterian Foreign Missions Board in 1893.  Chestnut sailed for China in August 1894.  She had worked in a women’s reformatory in Framingham, Massachusetts.  Our saint had experience as a physician, but none as a missionary (yet).

The missionary compound at Lien-chou dated to 1891.  Chestnut worked there, starting in 1894.  She operated a women’s hospital in Lien-chou.  She also rode to local villages and provided medical care.  Our saint also trained local women as nurses, advocated for public health measures and the construction of schools.   Furthermore, she translated a nursing textbook and the Gospel of Matthew into the local dialect.

Chestnut was a dedicated and compassionate medical missionary.  Yet, while on furlough in the United States of America in 1902-1903, our saint confided to a friend:

I do not feel that I am spiritual enough to be a missionary.

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THE MACHLES

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Other Presbyterian missionaries labored for God and Lien-chou.  For example, the Machles were there.  Dr. Edward Machle operated another hospital.  His wife, Ella (May) Wood Machle, and children (some of them, depending on the year), were present, too.

Edward Machle and Ella May Wood had met at Wharton Street Presbyterian Church, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in the 1880s.  He had been a student at the Medical College of Philadelphia, and she a teacher.  After the couple married, they applied to the Presbyterian Board of Foreign Missions.  They arrived in China in 1889.

The Machles had four children:

  1. Elsie (born May 3, 1890),
  2. Victor (born in 1892), and
  3. Amy and Howard (born in 1894).

The Machles, in the United States of America on furlough in 1897, left Elsie and Victor at the Presbyterian Homes for Children of Foreign Missionaries, Wooster, Ohio,  That decision saved the children’s lives.  The parents and their children corresponded with each other frequently and on a regular basis.

Amy and Howard were fraternal twins.  Howard died of diptheria in 1904.

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THE PEALES

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John Rogers Peale and Rebecca Gillespie Peale hoped to serve as missionaries in China for forty years.  They did not get to serve even forty hours before they received the crown of martyrdom.

John Rogers Peale grew up a Presbyterian.  He, a son of Samuel Alexander Peale and Elizabeth (McIntire) Peale, debuted in New Bloomfield, Pennsylvania, on September 17, 1879.  John joined the New Bloomfield Presbyterian when he was 12 years old.  After graduating from Lafayette College, Easton, Pennsylvania, in 1902.  John matriculated at Princeton Theological Seminary.  His interest in foreign missions was obvious at seminary.  He graduated from Princeton University (M.A., 1904) and Theological Seminary (1905).  John, licensed to preach in the old Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. on April 11, 1905, and ordained on May 15, married Rebecca Gillespie on June 29.

Rebecca Gillespie, born on August 16, 1878, was a native of Colora, Maryland.  She joined the West Nottingham Presbyterian Church at the age of 14 years, and attended and graduated from West Nottingham Academy.

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OCTOBER 28, 1905

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The Rogerses, who had sailed from San Francisco, California, on August 16, 1905, arrived in Hong Kong around September 28.  The long, arduous journey to the missionary station awaited the couple.  Dr. Edward Machle picked them up and delivered them to Lien-chou.  On October 26 or 27, the young couple, in the twenties, arrived at their new home, the site of hospitals, a boys’ school, a girls’ school, a church building, that sat 700 people, and residences for missionaries.

Dr. Machle came home to a Chinese festival celebration, underway near one of the hospitals.  The noise was disturbing patients.  The pagan nature of the festival upset Dr. Machle.  He spoke to local elders and, in accordance with local custom, removed a ceremonial object (a miniature cannon).  Many local people took great offense and committed violence.  A mob attacked the compound.  Only two missionaries, including Dr. Machle, survived; they got so deep inside a cave that nobody pulled them out.  However, those who did not get sufficiently deep into that cave died.  The mob damaged some buildings and burned others.  They also beat and stabbed five missionaries (including young Amy Machle) and threw the bodies into the river.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

APRIL 15, 2021 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF SAINT OLGA OF KIEV, REGENT OF KIEVAN RUSSIA; SAINT ADALBERT OF MAGDEBURG, ROMAN CATHOLIC BISHOP; SAINT ADALBERT OF PRAGUE, ROMAN CATHOLIC BISHOP AND MARTYR, 997; AND SAINTS BENEDICT AND GAUDENTIUS OF POMERANIA, ROMAN CATHOLIC MARTYRS, 997

THE FEAST OF SAINTS DAMIEN AND MARIANNE OF MOLOKAI, WORKERS AMONG LEPERS

THE FEAST OF SAINT FLAVIA DOMITILLA, ROMAN CHRISTIAN NOBLEWOMAN; AND SAINTS MARO, EUTYCHES, AND VICTORINUS OF ROME, PRIESTS AND MARTYRS, CIRCA 99

THE FEAST OF SAINT HUNNA OF ALSACE, THE “HOLY WASHERWOMAN”

THE FEAST OF LUCY CRAFT LANEY, AFRICAN-AMERICAN PRESBYTERIAN EDUCATOR AND CIVIL RIGHTS ACTIVIST

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Almighty and everlasting God,

who kindled the flame of your love in the heart of your holy martyrs

Eleanor Chestnut,

John Rogers Peale,

Rebecca Gillespie Peale,

Ella May Wood Machle,

and Amy Machle:

Grant to us, your humble servants, a like faith and power of love,

that we who rejoice in their triumph may profit by their example;

through Jesus Christ our Lord, who lives and reigns with

you and the Holy Spirit, one God, for ever and ever.  Amen.

Jeremiah 15:15-21

Psalm 124 or 31:1-5

1 Peter 4:12-19

Mark 8:34-38

–Adapted from Holy Women, Holy Men:  Celebrating the Saints (2010), 715

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Feast of Vida Dutton Scudder (October 10)   Leave a comment

Above:  Vida Dutton Scudder

Image in the Public Domain

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JULIA VIDA DUTTON SCUDDER (DECEMBER 15, 1861-OCTOBER 9, 1954)

Episcopal Professor, Author, Christian Socialist, and Social Reformer

Alternative feast day = October 9

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INTRODUCTION

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(Julia) Vida Dutton Scudder comes to this, A Great Cloud of Witnesses:  An Ecumenical Calendar of Saints’ Days and Holy Days, via The Episcopal Church.  Just as The Episcopal Church has two calendars of saints, it has two feast days for Scudder.  Her feast day in Lesser Feasts and Fasts 2018 is October 9.  On the side calendar of saints (dating to 2009), however, Scudder’s feast day is October 10.  Therefore, Holy Women, Holy Men:  Celebrating the Saints (2010) and A Great Cloud of Witnesses:  A Calendar of Commemorations (2016) list her feast day as October 10.   G. Scott Cady and Christopher L. Webber, A Year with American Saints (2006) also includes a brief biography of Scudder.

The Scudders were a family of U.S. Congregationalist missionaries in India.  David Coit Scudder (d. 1862) and Harriet Louise (Dutton) Scudder (d. 1920) welcomed Julia Vida Dutton Scudder into the world at Madurai, India, on December 15, 1861.  After David died, mother and daughter moved to Boston, Massachusetts.  Our saint grew up a Congregationalist.  However, she and her mother converted to the Anglo-Catholic wing of The Episcopal Church under the spiritual guidance of Phillips Brooks (1835-1893), the Rector of Trinity Church, Boston, the author of “Away in a Manger” (1868), and the Bishop of Bishop of Massachusetts (1891-1893).

Our saint’s life had several defining characteristics:

  1. Contemplative Christian spirituality,
  2. A commitment to literary scholarship,
  3. Relationships of different sorts with women,
  4. A commitment to radical social justice, and
  5. The courage of her moral convictions.

She became more revolutionary as she aged.

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LITERARY SCHOLAR AND SOCIAL REFORMER

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Scudder’s main field of academic study was literature.  She studied English literature at Smith College, Northampton, Massachusetts (B.A., 1884).  Then our saint spent 1885-1886 at Oxford University as one of the first two female graduate students there.  Clara French (1863-1888) was the other one of the first two female graduate students at Oxford University.  She and Scudder were classmates at Oxford.  While in England, Scudder developed an interest in the settlement house movement and became a Christian Socialist.  Then, in 1887, our saint joined the faculty of Wellesley College, Wellesley, Massachusetts.  She, promoted to Associate Professor (1892) and full Professor (1910), retired in 1927.

Scudder’s literary publications during 1887-1927 included:

  1. Poems by George McDonald, L.L D., Selected V.D.S. and C. F. (1887), as editor;
  2. Macauley’s Essay of Lord Clive (1889), as editor;
  3. Prometheus Unbound:  A Lyrical Drama by Percy Blythe Shelley (1892), as editor;
  4. The Dramatic Action and Motive of King John:  An Essay, by Clara French (1892), as author of the Memorial Sketch;
  5. The Life of the Spirit in the Modern English Poets (1895);
  6. An Introduction to the Study of English Literature (1901);
  7. A Listener in Babylon, Being a Series of Imaginary Conversations Held at the Close of the Last Century (1903);
  8. Shorter English Poems from the College Entrance Requirements in English (1912), as editor;
  9. English Poems from the College Entrance Requirements in English (1915), as editor; and
  10. Le Morte d’Arthur of Sir Thomas Malory:  A Study of the Book and Its Sources (1921).

Scudder worked hard at academia and social justice, just as she nurtured her spiritual life.  In 1887, she, Clara French, and Katharine Lee Bates (1859-1929) were three of the founder of the College Settlements Association (CSA).  The following year, our saint joined both the Society of the Companions of the Holy Cross (an Episcopalian, female order devoted to intercessory prayer) and the Society of Christian Socialists.  In 1893, Scudder and Emily Greene Balch (1867-1961) founded the CSA’s Denison House in Boston.  At Denison House, wealthy, college-educated women provided social services to their impoverished immigrant neighbors, and priests helped too.  Scudder served as the main administrator, with some interruptions, until 1913.  Our saint studied modern Italian and French literature in Italy and France (1894-1896) and spent two years (1901-1903) recuperating in Italy after a breakdown.  Back in the United States of America, Scudder helped to organize the Women’s Trade Union League in 1903.  In 1911, our saint founded the Episcopal Church Socialist League and joined the Socialist Party.  The following year, Scudder supported the striking workers at Lawrence, Massachusetts.  Conservative backlash threatened her teaching position, but Wellesley College refused to fire our saint.

Scudder’s published works of a political-economic-spiritual nature from 1887 to 1912 included:

  1. An Introduction to the Writings of John Ruskin (1890);
  2. The Witness of Denial (1895);
  3. Social Ideals in English Letters (1898);
  4. Saint Catherine of Siena as Seen in Her Letters (1905);
  5. The Disciple of a Saint, Being the Imaginary Biography of Raniero di Landoccio dei Pagliaresi (1907); and
  6. Socialism and Character (1912);

1913-1927 constituted a distinct phase of Scudder’s life.  In 1913, she resigned from the settlement house in Boston.  Our saint and her mother, Harriet, moved to Wellesley.  Harriet died seven years later.  Scudder, who had supported U.S. entry into World War I in 1917, changed her mind.  She founded the Church League for Industrial Democracy (1919), joined the Fellowship of Reconciliation (1923), and became a pacifist (1930s).  And, from 1919 until our death, our saint was the de facto wife of novelist Florence Converse (1871-1967).

Scudder’s published works of a political-economic-spiritual nature from 1913 to 1927 included:

  1. Jesus and Politics:  An Essay Towards the Ideal, by Howard B. Shepheard (1915), as author of the Introduction;
  2. The Church and the Hour:  Papers of a Socialist Churchwoman (1918);
  3. Social Teachings of the Church Year:  Lectures Delivered at the Cambridge Conferences 1918 (1921);
  4. The Journal and Other Writings by John Woolman (1922), as editor; and
  5. Brother John:  A Tale of the First Franciscans (1927).

Scudder’s retirement was also a productive time for her.  She became one of the foremost scholars of the Franciscans.  Our saint served as the first Dean of the Summer School of Christian Ethics, Wellesley College, in 1930.  And she wrote her autobiography, On Journey (1937).  This was one of thirteen books Scudder wrote during the final phase of her life.  Two of these books were:

  1. The Franciscan Adventure:  A Study in the First Hundred Years of the Order of St. Francis of Assisi (1931), and
  2. The Privilege of the Age:  Essays Secular and Spiritual (1939).

Scudder, aged 94 years, died in Wellesley, Massachusetts, on October 9, 1954.

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A WOMAN OF PRAYER

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Scudder understood the importance and efficacy of prayer.  She wrote:

If prayer is the deep secret creative force that Jesus tells us it is, we should be very busy with it.

Our saint also wrote:

There is one sure way of directly helping on the kingdom of God.  That way is prayer.  Social intercession may be the mightiest force in the world.

She also understood that, as my father taught me, people need to “put feet to” their prayers–that there are times to pray and there are times to act.  Scudder put feet to her prayers, too.

Prayer is a crucial.  Yet it must never function as a cop-out or an excuse for necessary and proper inaction.  Politicians’ “thoughts and prayers” after a natural disaster, mass shooting, et cetera, may or may not function as a cop-out or an excuse for inaction.  If I can act to feed someone, for example, I should.  If, however, I merely my thoughts and prayers in such a circumstance, I commit a sin of omission.  Likewise, politicians who merely offer their thoughts and prayers when they can and should change policy take the easy way out.

Prayer may or may not change the circumstances of other people for whom one intercedes.  Yet prayer should change the pray-er and lead to constructive actions.

Vida Dutton Scudder did not use payer as a cop-out or an excuse for inaction.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

APRIL 7, 2021 COMMON ERA

WEDNESDAY IN HOLY WEEK

THE FEAST OF SAINT TIKHON OF MOSCOW, RUSSIAN ORTHODOX PATRIARCH

THE FEAST OF SAINT GEORGE THE YOUNGER, GREEK ORTHODOX BISHOP OF MITYLENE

THE FEAST OF JAY THOMAS STOCKING, U.S. CONGREGATIONALIST MINISTER AND HYMN WRITER

THE FEAST OF SAINTS MONTFORD SCOTT, EDMUND GENNINGS, HENRY WALPOLE, AND THEIR FELLOW MARTYRS, 1591 AND 1595

THE FEAST OF RANDALL DAVIDSON, ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY

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Most gracious God, you have sent your beloved Son

to preach peace to those who are far off and those who are near:

Raise up in your Church witnesses who,

after the example of your servant Vida Dutton Scudder,

stand firm in proclaiming the power of the gospel of Jesus Christ,

who lives and reigns with you, now and for ever.  Amen.  

Isaiah 11:1-10

Psalm 25:1-14

Romans 12:1-2, 14-21

John 6:37-51

Holy Women, Holy Men:  Celebrating the Saints (2010); A Great Cloud of Witnesses:  A Calendar of Commemorations (2016); Lesser Feasts and Fasts 2018

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