Archive for the ‘Saints of 1900-1909’ Category

Feast of Lucy Menzies (November 24)   Leave a comment

Above:  The Flag of Scotland

Image in the Public Domain

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

LUCY MENZIES (1882-1954)

Scottish Presbyterian then Anglican Scholar and Mystic

++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

All mystics from whatever century or country have a conviction of the supreme value of their inner experience of God.  Vision and love are one act in which all blessedness is found.  They find all natural lovely things moving towards the expression of the inexpressible.

–Lucy Menzies, in the introduction to The Revelations or The Flowing Light of the Godhead (1953)

++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

Lucy Menzies comes to this, A Great Cloud of Witnesses:  An Ecumenical Calendar of Saints’ Days and Holy Days, via the Scottish Episcopal Church.  Her feast day in that denomination is November 24.

Lucy Menzies was a daughter of Allan Menzies (1845-1916) and Mary Elizabeth Honey Menzies (d. 1916), both Presbyterians.  Allan, a minister, translated philosophical and theological books from German.  He married Mary Elizabeth, a minister’s daughter, in 1878.  Iona, the Holy Isle, was one of the Menzies family’s favorite vacation spots.  Allan, from 1889 the Professor of Biblical Criticism at St Andrews University, sent his daughters, May and Lucy, to finishing school in Heidelberg, Germany, in 1897.

Lucy became a scholar, predictably.  She made her publishing debut with General Foch at the Marne (1918), translated from French.  Subsequent original works included St. Columba of Iona (1920), A Book of Saints for the Young (1923), The Saints of Italy (1924), and Mirrors of the Holy (1928).  A translation of Abbé de Turville’s Letters of Direction on the Spiritual Life followed in 1939.  Lucy, a longtime friend of Evelyn Underhill (1875-1941), had a hand in The Letters of Evelyn Underhill (1943), edited by Charles Williams (1886-1945).  Lucy’s last completed work was The Revelations or The Flowing Light of the Godhead, Translated from the Manuscript in the Library of the Monastery of Einsiedeln (1953).  This was a translation of writings of Mechthild of Magdeburg (1210?-1282/1285).

Lucy, confirmed into The Church of England in 1924, grew deeper in her faith by the help of Underhill, her de facto spiritual director.  Both women conducted spiritual retreats together, starting in the late 1920s.  Lucy served as the warden of the retreat house at Pleshey, Essex (1928-1938).  By 1938, our saint’s health and eyesight were failing, so she left Pleshey.

Above:  All Saints’ Church, St Andrews, Scotland

Image Source = Google Earth

Lucy returned to St Andrews and lived across from All Saints’ Church, where she worshiped.  She, awarded an honorary Doctor of Divinity degree by the University of St Andrews in June 1954, died later that year, before completing her biography of Underhill.

Lucy Menzies loved God with all her heart, soul, and mind.  She devoted her intellect to the glorification of God.  And our saint grew into a mystical expression of Christian faith generally alien to the Reformed tradition and much more at home within Anglicanism and Roman Catholicism.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

APRIL 27, 2021 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF GEORGE WASHINGTON DOANE, EPISCOPAL BISHOP OF NEW JERSEY; AND HIS SON, WILLIAM CROSWELL DOANE, EPISCOPAL BISHOP OF ALBANY; HYMN WRITERS

THE FEAST OF SAINTS ANTONY AND THEODOSIUS OF KIEV, FOUNDERS OF RUSSIAN ORTHODOX MONASTICISM; SAINT BARLAAM OF KIEV, RUSSIAN ORTHODOX ABBOT; AND SAINT STEPHEN OF KIEV, RUSSIAN ORTHODOX ABBOT AND BISHOP

THE FEAST OF CHRISTINA ROSSETTI, ANGLICAN POET AND RELIGIOUS WRITER

THE FEAST OF SAINTS REMACLUS OF MAASTRICHT, THEODORE OF MAASTRICT, LAMBERT OF MAASTRICHT, HUBERT OF MAASTRICHT AND LIEGE, AND FLORIBERT OF LIEGE, ROMAN CATHOLIC BISHOPS; SAINT LANDRADA OF MUNSTERBILSEN, ROMAN CATHOLIC ABBESS; AND SAINTS OTGER OF UTRECHT, PLECHELM OF GUELDERLAND, AND WIRO, ROMAN CATHOLIC MISSIONARIES

THE FEAST OF SAINT ZITA OF TUSCANY, WORKER OF CHARITY

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

O God, you have endowed us with memory, reason, and skill.

We thank you for the faithful legacy of [Lucy Menzies and all others]

who have dedicated their lives to you and to the intellectual pursuits.

May we, like them, respect your gift of intelligence fully and to your glory.

In the Name of God:  Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.  Amen.

Deuteronomy 6:4-9

Psalm 103

Philippians 4:8-9

Mark 12:28-34

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

MARCH 6, 2013 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF SAINT CHRODEGANG OF METZ, ROMAN CATHOLIC BISHOP

THE FEAST OF EDMUND KING, ANGLICAN BISHOP OF LINCOLN

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

Feast of Blessed Enrichetta Alfieri (November 23)   Leave a comment

Above:  Blessed Enrichetta Alfieri

Image in the Public Domain

++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

BLESSED ENRICHETTA ALFIERI (FEBRUARY 23, 1891-NOVEMBER 23, 1951)

Italian Roman Catholic Nun and “Angel of San Vittore”

Born Maria Angela Domenica Alfieri

Blessed Enrichetta Alfieri comes to this, A Great Cloud of Witnesses:  An Ecumenical Calendar of Saints’ Days and Holy Days, via the Roman Catholic Church.

Maria Angela Domenica Alfieri came from an Italian family with four children.  Our saint, born in Borgo Vercelli, Italy, on February 23, 1891, grew up on a farm.  She knew as a child, though, that she had a vocation to religious life.  Alfieri’s parents delayed the commencement of this vocation until she was 20 years old.

Alfieri joined the Sisters of Charity of Saint Jeanne-Antide Thouret on December 20, 1911.  She eventually became a kindergarten teacher.  In 1917, however, the diagnosis of Pott’s Disease ended our saint’s teaching job.  The disease of the spine caused her saint pain and frequently immobilized her.  Alfieri’s superiors sent her on a pilgrimage to Lourdes in May 1922, but she left the grotto there not healed.  Officially and medically deemed incurable in February 1923, our saint recovered on February 25, 1923.  She reported hearing a voice say,

Get up.

Alfieri got up.  And she got back to work.  In late May 1923, Alfieri began her ministry at the prison of San Vittore.  This work continued for decades.  She became known as the “Mother of San Vittore” and the “Angel of San Vittori.”

During the Nazi occupation of Italy, the prison population changed to priests, nuns, Jews, and resistance fighters.  Our saint and other nuns, active in the resistance, became targets of the Nazis.  Alfieri, arrested and charged with espionage on September 23, 1944, spent 11 days in detention before Cardinal Archbishop of Milan Alfredo Ildefenso Schuster could arrange for her to transfer to Brescia.  The Cardinal also wrote his old ally, Benito Mussolini, and requested a pardon for the nun.

Aside:  Schuster is Blessed Alfredo Ildefenso Schuster, on the Roman Catholic calendar.  I have no intention of adding him to this Ecumenical Calendar because of his overt fascism.  I know better than to expect perfection from human beings, but support for fascism–in this case, the Italian Fascist Party–gives me pause.  The prominence of Schuster’s fascist sympathies and his avid support for the Italian invasion of Ethiopia raise red flags in my mind.  

Alfieri returned to San Vittore prison in an official capacity in May 1945.  The new inmates were prisoners of war and former Axis jailers.  She continued to minister to inmates at San Vittore for most of her life.  Our saint fractured a femur.  She also developed a heart condition and came down with a liver problem.  She, aged 60 years, died on November 23, 1951.  Inmates paid their respects.

Pope Benedict XVI declared Alfieri a Venerable then beatified her in 2009.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

APRIL 27, 2021 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF GEORGE WASHINGTON DOANE, EPISCOPAL BISHOP OF NEW JERSEY; AND HIS SON, WILLIAM CROSWELL DOANE, EPISCOPAL BISHOP OF ALBANY; HYMN WRITERS

THE FEAST OF SAINTS ANTONY AND THEODOSIUS OF KIEV, FOUNDERS OF RUSSIAN ORTHODOX MONASTICISM; SAINT BARLAAM OF KIEV, RUSSIAN ORTHODOX ABBOT; AND SAINT STEPHEN OF KIEV, RUSSIAN ORTHODOX ABBOT AND BISHOP

THE FEAST OF CHRISTINA ROSSETTI, ANGLICAN POET AND RELIGIOUS WRITER

THE FEAST OF SAINTS REMACLUS OF MAASTRICHT, THEODORE OF MAASTRICT, LAMBERT OF MAASTRICHT, HUBERT OF MAASTRICHT AND LIEGE, AND FLORIBERT OF LIEGE, ROMAN CATHOLIC BISHOPS; SAINT LANDRADA OF MUNSTERBILSEN, ROMAN CATHOLIC ABBESS; AND SAINTS OTGER OF UTRECHT, PLECHELM OF GUELDERLAND, AND WIRO, ROMAN CATHOLIC MISSIONARIES

THE FEAST OF SAINT ZITA OF TUSCANY, WORKER OF CHARITY

++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

O God, you have brought us near to an innumerable company of angels,

and to the spirits of just men made perfect:

Grant us during our earthly pilgrimage to abide in their fellowship,

and in our heavenly country to become partakers of their joy;

through Jesus Christ our Lord, who lives and reigns with

you and the Holy Spirit, one God, now and for ever.  Amen.

Wisdom 3:1-9

Psalm 34 or 34:15-22

Philippians 4:4-9

Luke 6:17-23

Holy Women, Holy Men:  Celebrating the Saints (2010), 725

++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

Feast of Arthur Henry Mann (November 17)   Leave a comment

Above:  Arthur Henry Mann

Image in the Public Domain

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

ARTHUR HENRY MANN (MAY 16, 1850-NOVEMBER 19, 1929)

Anglican Organist and Hymn Tune Composer

Arthur Henry Mann comes to this, A Great Cloud of Witnesses:  An Ecumenical Calendar of Saints’ Days and Holy Days, via The Methodist Hymnal (1966).  This post relies primarily on various hymnal companion volumes.

Mann, born in Norwich, England, on May 16, 1850, became a superb musician.  He, a boy chorister and an organist at the Cathedral Church of the Holy and Undivided Trinity, Norwich, was a prodigy.  Our saint, when eight years old, could play the full cathedral service on the organ.  After Mann’s voice changed, he ceased to be a chorister.  He remained an organist, though.  The graduate of New College, Oxford (B.Mus., 1874; D.Mus., 1882) served as organist at the following:

  1. St. Peter’s Church, Wolverhampton (1870-1871);
  2. St. Michael and All Angels’ Church, Tettenhall, Wolverhampton (1871-1875);
  3. Beverley Minster, Beverley (1875-1876);
  4. King’s College, Cambridge (1876-1910); and
  5. Cambridge University (1897f).

Mann, a choir director, as well as the music master of Ley’s School, Cambridge University, applied his musical talents in other ways, too.  Our saint, from 1871 a Fellow of the Royal College of Organists, was the music editor of The Church of England Hymnal (1895).  Mann, a musicologist, collected early hymnals and was an expert on the music of George Frederick Handel (1685-1759).  Our saint put Handel’s manuscripts in order.  Mann also edited an edition of Spem in Alium, by Thomas Tallis (1505-1585).

Mann was also a composer.  He wrote music for voice and organ.  His most enduring compositions were probably hymn tunes, though.  These included the following:

  1. ANGEL’S STORY (frequently attached to “O Jesus, I Have Promised”),
  2. ARISTIDES,
  3. BENEDICTION,
  4. BERNO,
  5. CLAUDIUS,
  6. SILESIUS,
  7. THE NEW YEAR,
  8. VALOUR,
  9. WATERMOUTH, and
  10. WILTON.

Mann, aged 79 years, died in Cambridge, England, on November 19, 1929.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

APRIL 26, 2021 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF WILLIAM COWPER, ANGLICAN HYMN WRITER

THE FEAST OF SAINT ADELARD OF CORBIE, FRANKISH ROMAN CATHOLIC MONK AND ABBOT; AND HIS PROTÉGÉ, SAINT PASCHASIUS RADBERTUS, FRANKISH ROMAN CATHOLIC MONK, ABBOT, AND THEOLOGIAN

THE FEAST OF ROBERT HUNT, FIRST ANGLICAN CHAPLAIN AT JAMESTOWN, VIRGINIA

THE FEAST OF RUTH BYLLESBY, EPISCOPAL DEACONESS IN GEORGIA

THE FEAST OF SAINT STANISLAW KUBISTA, ROMAN CATHOLIC PRIEST AND MARTYR, 1940; AND SAINT WLADYSLAW GORAL, POLISH ROMAN CATHOLIC BISHOP AND MARTYR, 1945

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

Eternal God, light of the world and Creator of all that is good and lovely:

We bless your name for inspiring Arthur Henry Mann and all those

who with music have inspired us with desire and love for you;

through Jesus Christ our Savior, who with you and the Holy Spirit

lives and reigns, one God, for ever and ever.  Amen.

1 Chronicles 29:14b-19

Psalm 90:14-17

2 Corinthians 3:1-3

John 21:15-17, 24-25

–Adapted from Holy Women, Holy Men:  Celebrating the Saints (2010), 728

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

Feast of St. Guido Maria Conforti (November 5)   Leave a comment

Above:  St. Guido Maria Conforti

Image in the Public Domain

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

SAINT GUIDO MARIA CONFORTI (MARCH 30, 1865-NOVEMBER 5, 1931)

Founder of the Xavierian Missionaries

St. Guido Maria Conforti comes to this, A Great Cloud of Witnesses:  An Ecumenical Calendar of Saints’ Days and Holy Days, via the Roman Catholic Church.

Conforti, born in Casalora di Ravadese, Parma, Italy, on March 30, 1865, came from a large and devout Roman Catholic family.  Rinaldo Conforti and Antonia Adorni Conforti had ten children; our saint was the eighth.  Conforti, as a Catholic elementary school boy, visited the parish church nearly every day, to converse with the crucified Jesus.  Our saint perceived his vocation, which entailed leaving the farm, against his father’s wishes.

Conforti matriculated at the seminary in Parma in November 1876.  Reading the works of St. Francis Xavier (1506-1552) inspired our saint to want to serve as a missionary.  Our saint applied unsuccessfully to join the Society of Jesus and the Society of Saint Francis de Sales.  The rector of the seminary was Blessed Andrea Carlo Ferrari (1850-1921), Conforti’s mentor.  Ferrari went on to serve as the Bishop of Guastilla (1890-1891), the Bishop of Como (1891-1894), and the Cardinal Archbishop of Milan (1894-1921).  Conforti, the Vice-Rector of the seminary under Ferrari, joined the ranks of priests on September 22, 1888, at Fontanellato.  He also taught at the seminary and, starting on March 7, 1896, served as the Vicar-General of the Diocese of Parma.

Conforti founded the Xavierian Missionaries on December 3, 1895.  Pope Leo XIII granted his approval in 1898.  The first Xavierian Missionaries arrived in China the following year.  Our saint served as the Archbishop of Ravenna from June 11, 1902, to November 1904.  After resigning from that post due to ill health, he became the Bishop Coadjutor of Parma and the Titular Archbishop of Stauropolis (1904-1907) then the Bishop of Parma (1907-1931).  He tended to his episcopal duties faithfully and traveled to China in 1928.  Our saint also influenced Maximum Illud (1919), Pope Benedict XV’s signal Apostolic Letter on foreign missions.

Conforti died in Parma on November 5, 1931.  He was 66 years old.

Holy Mother Church has formally recognized this saint.  Pope John Paul II declared Conforti a Venerable in 1992 the beatified him in 1996.  Pope Benedict XVI canonized our saint in 2011.

The Xavierian Missionaries continue their good work.  The website of the Xavierian Missionaries U.S.A. proclaims:

SHARING CHRIST ACROSS FAITHS AND CULTURES.

That ethos is consistent with the approach Conforti and Pope Benedict XV shared.  The Holy Father properly objected to mixing nationalism and Western ethnocentrism into missionary work, especially outside of the Western world.  He encouraged raising up local, indigenous people into leadership because the perception that Christianity and the Church were foreign and alien worked against successful evangelism.  The approach of Conforti and Pope Benedict XV was revolutionary at the time.  However, as time passed, it became mainstream.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

APRIL 24, 2021 COMMON ERA

GENOCIDE REMEMBRANCE

THE FEAST OF SAINT EGBERT OF LINDISFARNE, ROMAN CATHOLIC MONK; AND SAINT ADALBERT OF EGMONT, ROMAN CATHOLIC MISSIONARY

THE FEAST OF SAINT FIDELIS OF SIGMARINGEN, CAPUCHIN FRIAR AND MARTYR, 1622

THE FEAST OF JOHANN WALTER, “FIRST CANTOR OF THE LUTHERAN CHURCH”

THE FEAST OF SAINT MELLITUS, BISHOP OF LONDON, AND ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

Almighty God, we praise you for the men and women you have sent

to call the Church to its tasks and renew its life

[such as your servant Saint Guido Maria Conforti].

Raise up in our own day teachers and prophets inspired by your Spirit,

whose voices will give strength to your Church and proclaim the reality of your kingdom;

through your Son, Jesus Christ our Lord.  Amen.

Jeremiah 1:4-10

Psalm 46

1 Corinthians 3:11-23

Mark 10:35-45

–Adapted from the Lutheran Book of Worship (1978), 37

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

Feast of Blessed Maria Franciszka Siedliska (November 21)   Leave a comment

Above:  Blessed Maria Franciszka Siedliska

Image in the Public Domain

++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

BLESSED MARIA FRANCISZKA SIEDLISKA (NOVEMBER 12, 1842-NOVEMBER 21, 1902)

Foundress of the Sisters of the Holy Family of Nazareth

Born Franciszka Siedliska

Also known as Mother Mary of Jesus the Good Shepherd

Blessed Maria Franciszka Siedliska comes to this, A Great Cloud of Witnesses:  An Ecumenical Calendar of Saints’ Days and Holy Days, via the Roman Catholic Church.

Franciszka Siedliska was a Polish subject of the Russian Empire.  She, born in Roszkowa, Wola Castle, Roszkowa Wola, Poland, Russia, on November 12, 1842, was a daughter of Adolf Adam Siedliska and Cecylia Marianna Morawska.  The family was nominally Roman Catholic.  Our saint, like her parents, was indifferent to religion.

That changed when Siedliska was an adolescent.  Father Leander Lendzian, who prepared her for First Communion (May 1, 1855), sparked religious zeal within our saint.  Siedliska, who dedicated herself to God at her First Communion, decided by 1860 that she wanted to become a nun.  Her parents vigorously opposed this plan.  They prevented her from entering religious life until 1870.  Our saint moved with her parents to Switzerland in 1860, then to Prussia, then to France.  Siedliska and her family returned to their homeland in 1865.  Her father died in 1870.

Our saint finally had an opportunity to enter religious life in 1870, and she availed herself of it.  In 1870, she became a Franciscan tertiary in Lublin.  With the encouragement of Father Lendzian, Siedliska founded a new monastic order, in obedience to the will of God, as she understood it.  Pope Pius IX granted his permission in person on October 1, 1873.  Siedliska founded the Sisters of the the Holy Family of Nazareth at the start of Advent 1875, in Rome.

Our saint led the new order.  On May 1, 1884, she became a nun, as Mary of Jesus the Good Shepherd.  She spent the next years traveling across Europe and in the United States of America, founding schools and communities.  She did his until she, aged 60 years, died in Rome, on November 21, 1902.

Pope John Paul II declared our saint a Venerable in 1980 then beatified her nine years later.

The website of the Sisters of the Holy Family of Nazareth reads, in part:

We, the Sisters of the Holy Family of Nazareth, are called to extend the Kingdom of God’s love among ourselves and others by the living of the spirit of Jesus, Mary, and Joseph, whose lives were centered in the love of God and one another.  We witness to this love through dedicated service to the Church, especially in ministry to the family.

That is a high calling.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

APRIL 24, 2021 COMMON ERA

GENOCIDE REMEMBRANCE

THE FEAST OF SAINT EGBERT OF LINDISFARNE, ROMAN CATHOLIC MONK; AND SAINT ADALBERT OF EGMONT, ROMAN CATHOLIC MISSIONARY

THE FEAST OF SAINT FIDELIS OF SIGMARINGEN, CAPUCHIN FRIAR AND MARTYR, 1622

THE FEAST OF JOHANN WALTER, “FIRST CANTOR OF THE LUTHERAN CHURCH”

THE FEAST OF SAINT MELLITUS, BISHOP OF LONDON, AND ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY

++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

O God, whose blessed Son became poor that we through his poverty might be rich:

Deliver us from an inordinate love of this world, that we, inspired

by the devotion of your servant Blessed Maria Franciszka Siedliska,

may serve you with singleness of heart, and attain to the riches of the age to come;

through Jesus Christ our Lord, who lives and reigns with you,

in the unity of the Holy Spirit, one God, now and for ever.  Amen.

Song of Songs 8:6-7

Psalm 34

Philippians 3:7-15

Luke 12:33-37 or Luke 9:57-62

–Adapted from Holy Women, Holy Men:  Celebrating the Saints (2010), 722

++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

Feast of St. Ivan Kochurov (October 31)   Leave a comment

Above:  St. Ivan Kochurov, 1900

Image in the Public Domain

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

SAINT IVAN ALEXANDROVICH KOCHUROV

(JULY 17, 1871-OCTOBER 31, 1917, JULIAN CALENDAR)

(JULY 29, 1871-NOVEMBER 13, 1917, GREGORIAN CALENDAR)

Russian Orthodox Priest and Martyr, 1917

Alternative feast day = Sunday Nearest to January 25 (Feast of the New Martyrs and Confessors of Russia)

St. Ivan Alexandreivich Kochurov comes to this, A Great Cloud of Witnesses:  An Ecumenical Calendar of Saints’ Days and Holy Days, via the Orthodox Church in America.

St. Ivan Alexandreivich Kochurov, son of a priest (Alexander Kochurov), became a priest, too.  Our saint, born in Bigil’dino Surky, Ryazan Governate, Russian Empire, on July 13, 1871, studied at the Ryazin Seminary then at the Saint Petersburg Theological Academy.  He, graduating in 1895, became a deacon and married Alexandra Chernyshova.  Then, on August 27, 1895, he joined the ranks of priests.

Kochurov, who wanted to serve as a missionary priest in the United States of America, got his wish.  In 1895, he became the first permanent priest of St. Vladimir’s Church, Chicago, Illinois, founded in 1892.  Our saint supervised the construction of the building, started in 1902 and consecrated the following year.  St. Tikhon of Moscow (1865-1925), then the Bishop of the Aleutians and North America, consecrated the new structure.  Kochurov, who founded and helped to found other Russian Orthodox congregations in the Chicago area, as well as New York and Oklahoma.

St. Vladimir’s Church has become Holy Trinity Cathedral, of the Orthodox Church in America.

Above:  The “Fond du Lac Circus,” 1900

Image in the Public Domain

Kochurov is standing, third from the right.

Sts. Ivan and Tikhon participated in an innocuous and ecumenical matter that became a scandal in Evangelical Episcopalian circles.  Charles Chapman Grafton (1830-1912), the Episcopal Bishop of Fond du Lac (1889-1912), was an Anglo-Catholic interested in Old Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy.  He invited Bishops of the Polish National Catholic Church and the Russian Orthodox Church to join with other Episcopal bishops in consecrating Reginald Heber Weller (1857-1935) as the Bishop Coadjutor of Fond du Lac.  (Weller served as the Bishop of Fond du Lac from 1912 to 1933.)  The site of so many bishops in copes and mitres prompted many Evangelical Episcopalians to clutch their pearls and scream “dirty sassafras,”, so to speak.

Kochurov remained in the United States of America until 1907.  He and St. Alexis Toth (1854-1909) worked together to found a mutual aid society for recent Russian immigrants.  Kochurov also translated Russian religious texts into English.  Our saint, promoted to Archpriest in 1906, helped to organize the first Russian Orthodox All-American Council, Mayfield, Pennsylvania (1907).

Above:  The Flag of the Russian Empire

Image in the Public Domain

The Kochurov family returned to the Russian Empire in 1907.  He taught the catechism in schools in Narva, Estonia, until 1916.  Then our saint, transferred to Tsarskoe Selo, outside St. Petersburg) in 1916, preached at St. Catherine’s Cathedral.

On October 31, 1917 (Old Style)/November 13, 1917 (New Style), Bolsheviks arrested Kochurov, 46 years old.  They took him outside of Tsarskoe Selo and shot him, making him the first Russian Orthodox martyr under the Bolshevik rule.  His “crime” was being a priest.

The Russian Orthodox Church glorified (canonized) Kochurov in 1994.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

APRIL 24, 2021 COMMON ERA

GENOCIDE REMEMBRANCE

THE FEAST OF SAINT EGBERT OF LINDISFARNE, ROMAN CATHOLIC MONK; AND SAINT ADALBERT OF EGMONT, ROMAN CATHOLIC MISSIONARY

THE FEAST OF SAINT FIDELIS OF SIGMARINGEN, CAPUCHIN FRIAR AND MARTYR, 1622

THE FEAST OF JOHANN WALTER, “FIRST CANTOR OF THE LUTHERAN CHURCH”

THE FEAST OF SAINT MELLITUS, BISHOP OF LONDON, AND ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

Almighty and everlasting God, who kindled the flame of your love

in the heart of your holy martyr Saint Ivan Kochurov:

Grant to us, your humble servants, a like faith and power of love,

that we who rejoice in his triumph may profit by his example;

through Jesus Christ our Lord, who lives and reigns with

you and the Holy Spirit, one God, for ever and ever.  Amen.

Jeremiah 15:15-21

Psalm 124 or 31:1-5

1 Peter 4;12-19

Mark 8:34-38

–Adapted from Holy Women, Holy Men:  Celebrating the Saints (2010), 715

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

Feast of Eric Norelius (October 25)   Leave a comment

Above:  The Logo of the Augustana Synod

Image in the Public Domain

++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

ERIC NORELIUS (OCTOBER 26, 1833-MARCH 15, 1916)

Swedish-American Lutheran Minister

Eric Norelius comes to this, A Great Cloud of Witnesses:  An Ecumenical Calendar of Saints’ Days and Holy Days, via G. Scott Cady and Christopher L. Webber, A Year with American Saints (2006).

Norelius grew up in The Church of Sweden.  He, born in Hassela, Sweden, on October 26, 1833, was steeped in Lutheranism.  When our saint arrived in New York Harbor on October 31, 1850, he found other Swedish immigrants, mostly Methodists.  When Norelius arrived in Chicago, Illinois, he found a Swedish Episcopalian congregation.  After graduating from Capital University, Columbus, Ohio (1855), Norelius began his Lutheran ministerial career.

In September 1855, Eric Norelius and Inga Peterson Norelius, newlyweds, arrived in Red Wing, Minnesota.  Our saint became the pastor of two churches, one in Red Wing and the other one in Vasa.  The Swedish Lutheran congregations were poor, so the Noreliuses had to leave, for financial reasons, in 1858.   Before they did, however, our saint had founded twelve congregations.

Norelius remained active in ecclesiastical affairs.  Our saint became a journalist.  He had founded a Swedish-language newspaper, the Minnesota Posten, in November 1857.  He assumed the editorship of the Hemlandet, a Swedish-language newspaper which absorbed the Minnesota Posten, in January 1859.  Norelius helped to found the Augustana Synod (originally for Norwegian and Swedish immigrants) in June 1860.  He served as a traveling missionary to Swedes living west of Minneapolis, starting in October 1860.

Norelius returned to the Red Wing-Vasa area, as pastor, in 1861.  He founded a school, the origin of Gustavus Adolphus College, St. Peter, Minnesota, in 1862.  Our saint also founded the Vasa Children’s Home in 1865.  This was the genesis of Lutheran Social Services  of Minnesota.

Norelius led above the parish level, too.  He served as the President of the Augustana Synod’s Minnesota Conference (1870f).  Then our saint was the President of the Augustana Synod (1874-1881, 1899-1911).  Norelius also wrote and edited.  His published works included The History of the Swedish Lutheran Congregations and the Swedish Americans (two volumes, 1890).  Norelius edited ecclesiastical publications (1870-1882, 1899-1909), too.

Norelius, aged 82 years, died in Vasa, Minnesota, on March 15, 1916.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

APRIL 23, 2021 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF TOYOHIKO KAGAWA, RENEWER OF SOCIETY AND PROPHETIC WITNESS IN JAPAN

THE FEAST OF JAKOB BÖHME, GERMAN LUTHERAN MYSTIC

THE FEAST OF MARTIN RINCKART, GERMAN LUTHERAN MINISTER AND HYMN WRITER

THE FEAST OF SAINT TERESA MARIA OF THE CROSS, FOUNDRESS OF THE CARMELITE SISTERS OF SAINT TERESA OF FLORENCE

THE FEAST OF WALTER RUSSELL BOWIE, EPISCOPAL PRIEST, SEMINARY PROFESSOR, AND HYMN WRITER

++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

Almighty God, we praise you for the men and women you have sent

to call the Church to its tasks and renew its life [such as your servant Eric Norelius].

Raise up in our own day teachers and prophets inspired by your Spirit,

whose voices will give strength to your Church and proclaim

the reality of your kingdom;  through your Son, Jesus Christ our Lord.  Amen.

Jeremiah 1:4-10

Psalm 46

1 Corinthians 3:11-23

Mark 10:35-45

–Adapted from the Lutheran Book of Worship (1978), 37

++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

Feast of Blessed Alicja Maria Jadwiga Kotowska (November 11)   Leave a comment

Above:  Blessed Alicja Maria Jadwiga Kotowska

Image in the Public Domain

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

BLESSED ALICJA MARIA JADWIGA KOTOWSKA (NOVEMBER 20, 1899-NOVEMBER 11, 1939)

Polish Roman Catholic Nun and Martyr, 1939

Born Maria Jadwiga Kotowska

June 12 = Feast of the 108 (Polish) Martyrs of World War II

Blessed Alicja Maria Jadwiga Kotowska comes to this, A Great Cloud of Witnesses:  An Ecumenical Calendar of Saints’ Days and Holy Days, via the Roman Catholic Church.

Maria Jadwiga Kotowska grew up a subject of the Russian Empire.  She, born in Warsaw on November 20, 1889, was the third of seven children of Jan Kotowski and Zofia (Barka) Kotowska.  The family was devout and Roman Catholic, and Jan was an organist.  Nuns in Warsaw educated our saint.

With the restoration of Polish independence in 1919, Kotowska, a nursing student, served her new country proudly.  During the Polish-Soviet War (1919-1921), Soviet forces approached Warsaw in 1920.  She, as a Red Cross nurse, went to the front lines.

Kotowska joined the Congregation of the Sisters of the Resurrection of Our Lord (the Resurrection Sisters) at Kety, near Bielsko, in 1922.  She had met some Resurrection Sisters while she was in nursing school.  Our saint, during her third year of nursing school, became Sister Alicja.  She made her first vows in 1924, returned to Warsaw, studied mathematics and natural sciences at the university, made her perpetual vows (1928), and defended her Master’s thesis in chemistry (1929).

Kotowska worked as a teacher and a nurse for most of the rest of her life.  She taught chemistry in Zoliborz, was a school nurse, and eventually ran the school.  In 1934, Kotowska became the director of a girls’ boarding school in Wejherowo.  She did this well, and won recognition for doing so.

After the Soviet-German partition of Poland (1939), Kotowska found herself in the German zone.  The Nazis closed the school at Wejherowo.  Agents of the Gestapo arrested our saint and took her to the prison in town.  The following November 11, Nazis shot many prisoners, including our saint.  In nine days, she would have been forty days old.

Pope John Paul II declared Kotowska a Venerable then beatified her in 1999.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

APRIL 22, 2021 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF GENE BRITTON, EPISCOPAL PRIEST

THE FEAST OF DONALD S. ARMENTROUT, U.S. LUTHERAN MINISTER AND SCHOLAR

THE FEAST OF HADEWIJCH OF BRABERT, ROMAN CATHOLIC MYSTIC

THE FEAST OF KATHE KOLLWITZ, GERMAN LUTHERAN ARTIST AND PACIFIST

THE FEAST OF SAINT VITALIS OF GAZA, MONK, HERMIT, AND MARTYR, CIRCA 625

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

Almighty God, by whose grace and power

your holy martyr Blessed Alicja Maria Jadwiga Kotowska

triumphed over suffering and was faithful even to death:

Grant us, who now remember her in thanksgiving,

to be so faithful in our witness to you in this world,

that we may receive with her the crown of life;

through Jesus Christ our Lord, who lives and reigns with

you and the Holy Spirit, one God, for ever and ever.  Amen.

Sirach (Ecclesiasticus) 51:1-12

Psalm 116 or 116:1-8

Revelation 7:13-17

Luke 12:2-12

–Adapted from Holy Women, Holy Men:  Celebrating the Saints (2010), 714

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

Feast of St. Elizabeth of the Trinity (November 8)   Leave a comment

Above:  St. Elizabeth of the Trinity

Image in the Public Domain

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

SAINT ÉLIZABETH CATEZ (JULY 18, 1880-NOVEMBER 9, 1906)

French Roman Catholic Nun, Mystic, and Religious Writer

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

I am going to Light, to Love, to Life.

–The last words of St. Elizabeth of the Trinity

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

St. Elizabeth of the Trinity comes to this, A Great Cloud of Witnesses:  An Ecumenical Calendar of Saints’ Days and Holy Days, via the Roman Catholic Church and The Episcopal Church.

The brief life of St. Élizabeth Catez epitomized spiritual growth and struggle.  Our saint, born on July 18, 1880, at the French military base at Avord, Cher, was the eldest child of Marie Rolland Catez and Captain Joseph Catez (d. October 2, 1887).  St. Elizabeth, baptized at the base’s chapel when she was four days old, moved with her family to Dijon after her father died.  Her upbringing was devout and Roman Catholic, full of milestones such as her first Confession, First Communion, and Confirmation.

Spiritual maturation transformed St. Elizabeth.  She gained control over her temper.  Our saint, a pianist and a chorister, also visited the sick and taught the catechism to children who worked in factories.  St. Elizabeth developed an interest in joining the Discaled Carmelite Order.  She rejected marriage proposals.  Marie (the mother) did not want St. Elizabeth to become a nun.  Yet our saint did, at Dijon, on August 2, 1901, at the age of 21 years.

St. Elizabeth sought a deeper understanding of the love of God through spiritual peaks and valleys.  She sensed God in mundane activities, such as washing clothes.  She found happiness, and wrote about mystical encounters with God.  By the end of her life, St. Elizabeth called herself Laudem Gloriae (Praise of Glory).  Looking forward to Heaven, our saint anticipated that she would bring souls out of themselves and encourage them to cling to God in simple love.

St. Elizabeth, 26 years old, died of Addison’s Disease on November 9, 1906.

Holy Mother Church recognized St. Elizabeth formally.  Pope John Paul II declared her a Venerable in 1982 then beatified her in 1984.  Pope Francis canonized our saint in 2016.

I refer you, O reader, to St. Elizabeth’s prayer to the Holy Trinity.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

APRIL 22, 2021 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF GENE BRITTON, EPISCOPAL PRIEST

THE FEAST OF DONALD S. ARMENTROUT, U.S. LUTHERAN MINISTER AND SCHOLAR

THE FEAST OF HADEWIJCH OF BRABERT, ROMAN CATHOLIC MYSTIC

THE FEAST OF KATHE KOLLWITZ, GERMAN LUTHERAN ARTIST AND PACIFIST

THE FEAST OF SAINT VITALIS OF GAZA, MONK, HERMIT, AND MARTYR, CIRCA 625

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

O God, whose blessed Son became poor that we through his poverty might be rich:

Deliver us from an inordinate love of this world, that we,

inspired by the devotion of your servant Saint Elizabeth of the Trinity,

may serve you with singleness of heart,

and attain to the riches of the age to come;

through Jesus Christ our Lord, who lives and reigns with you,

in the unity of the Holy Spirit, one God, now and for ever.  Amen.

Song of Songs 8:6-7

Psalm 34

Philippians 3:7-15

Luke 12:33-37 or Luke 9:57-62

–Adapted from Holy Women, Holy Men:  Celebrating the Saints (2010), 722

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

Feast of the Martyrs of Lien-Chou, China, October 28, 1905 (October 29)   Leave a comment

Above:  The Late Imperial Flag of China

Image in the Public Domain

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

ELEANOR CHESTNUT, M.D. (JANUARY 8, 1868-OCTOBER 28, 1905)

U.S. Presbyterian Medical Missionary and Martyr, 1905

++++++++++++++

JOHN ROGERS PEALE (SEPTEMBER 17, 1879-OCTOBER 28, 1905)

U.S. Presbyterian Minister, Missionary, and Martyr, 1905

husband of

REBECCA GILLESPIE PEALE (AUGUST 16, 1878-OCTOBER 28, 1905)

U.S. Presbyterian Missionary and Martyr, 1905

++++++++++++++

ELLA MAY WOOD MACHLE (DIED OCTOBER 28, 1905)

U.S. Presbyterian Missionary and Martyr, 1905

mother of

AMY MACHLE (1894-OCTOBER 28, 1905)

U.S. Presbyterian Martyr

++++++++++++++

In loving memory of the missionary martyrs of Lien-chou, China, Eleanor Chestnut, M.D.; Mrs. Ella Wood Machle; and her little daughter, Amy; Rev John Rogers Peale and Mrs. Rebecca Gillespie Peale; who for Christ’s sake suffered cruel death at Lien-chou, China, October 28, 1905.  “They loved not their lives unto the death.”  (Rev. xii 11)

–A plaque at the Presbyterian Foreign Mission Board, New York, New York; quoted in G. Scott Cady and Christopher L. Webber, A Year with American Saints (2006), 34

++++++++++++++

INTRODUCTION

++++++++++++++

Dr. Eleanor Chestnut comes to this, A Great Cloud of Witnesses:  An Ecumenical Calendar of Saints’ Days and Holy Days, via Cady and Webber, A Year with American Saints (2006).  The other four saints martyred with her come her via my desire to include all five martyrs in this post.

++++++++++++++

DOCTOR CHESTNUT

++++++++++++++

Above:  Dr. Eleanor Chestnut

Image in the Public Domain

Chestnut grew up without her parents.  She, born in Waterloo, Iowa, on January 8, 1868, was essentially an orphan.  Our saint’s father deserted the family.  Chestnut’s mother died shortly after our saint’s birth.  The Merwins, childless neighbors, raised Chestnut a few years.  Then our saint grew up with relatives on a struggling farm at Hatton, Missouri.  Chestnut sought a way out of her precarious existence and into a better future.

Education was that route.  Chestnut graduated from Park College (now University), a Presbyterian school in Parksville, Missouri, in 1888.  Next, she studied at the Chicago Women’s Medical College, the Illinois Training School for Nurses, and the Moody Bible Institute.  Our saint prepared to become a medical doctor and missionary.  She, who preferred to treat the most vulnerable and most impoverished patients, applied to the Presbyterian Foreign Missions Board in 1893.  Chestnut sailed for China in August 1894.  She had worked in a women’s reformatory in Framingham, Massachusetts.  Our saint had experience as a physician, but none as a missionary (yet).

The missionary compound at Lien-chou dated to 1891.  Chestnut worked there, starting in 1894.  She operated a women’s hospital in Lien-chou.  She also rode to local villages and provided medical care.  Our saint also trained local women as nurses, advocated for public health measures and the construction of schools.   Furthermore, she translated a nursing textbook and the Gospel of Matthew into the local dialect.

Chestnut was a dedicated and compassionate medical missionary.  Yet, while on furlough in the United States of America in 1902-1903, our saint confided to a friend:

I do not feel that I am spiritual enough to be a missionary.

++++++++++++++

THE MACHLES

++++++++++++++

Other Presbyterian missionaries labored for God and Lien-chou.  For example, the Machles were there.  Dr. Edward Machle operated another hospital.  His wife, Ella (May) Wood Machle, and children (some of them, depending on the year), were present, too.

Edward Machle and Ella May Wood had met at Wharton Street Presbyterian Church, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in the 1880s.  He had been a student at the Medical College of Philadelphia, and she a teacher.  After the couple married, they applied to the Presbyterian Board of Foreign Missions.  They arrived in China in 1889.

The Machles had four children:

  1. Elsie (born May 3, 1890),
  2. Victor (born in 1892), and
  3. Amy and Howard (born in 1894).

The Machles, in the United States of America on furlough in 1897, left Elsie and Victor at the Presbyterian Homes for Children of Foreign Missionaries, Wooster, Ohio,  That decision saved the children’s lives.  The parents and their children corresponded with each other frequently and on a regular basis.

Amy and Howard were fraternal twins.  Howard died of diptheria in 1904.

++++++++++++++

THE PEALES

++++++++++++++

John Rogers Peale and Rebecca Gillespie Peale hoped to serve as missionaries in China for forty years.  They did not get to serve even forty hours before they received the crown of martyrdom.

John Rogers Peale grew up a Presbyterian.  He, a son of Samuel Alexander Peale and Elizabeth (McIntire) Peale, debuted in New Bloomfield, Pennsylvania, on September 17, 1879.  John joined the New Bloomfield Presbyterian when he was 12 years old.  After graduating from Lafayette College, Easton, Pennsylvania, in 1902.  John matriculated at Princeton Theological Seminary.  His interest in foreign missions was obvious at seminary.  He graduated from Princeton University (M.A., 1904) and Theological Seminary (1905).  John, licensed to preach in the old Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. on April 11, 1905, and ordained on May 15, married Rebecca Gillespie on June 29.

Rebecca Gillespie, born on August 16, 1878, was a native of Colora, Maryland.  She joined the West Nottingham Presbyterian Church at the age of 14 years, and attended and graduated from West Nottingham Academy.

++++++++++++++

OCTOBER 28, 1905

++++++++++++++

The Rogerses, who had sailed from San Francisco, California, on August 16, 1905, arrived in Hong Kong around September 28.  The long, arduous journey to the missionary station awaited the couple.  Dr. Edward Machle picked them up and delivered them to Lien-chou.  On October 26 or 27, the young couple, in the twenties, arrived at their new home, the site of hospitals, a boys’ school, a girls’ school, a church building, that sat 700 people, and residences for missionaries.

Dr. Machle came home to a Chinese festival celebration, underway near one of the hospitals.  The noise was disturbing patients.  The pagan nature of the festival upset Dr. Machle.  He spoke to local elders and, in accordance with local custom, removed a ceremonial object (a miniature cannon).  Many local people took great offense and committed violence.  A mob attacked the compound.  Only two missionaries, including Dr. Machle, survived; they got so deep inside a cave that nobody pulled them out.  However, those who did not get sufficiently deep into that cave died.  The mob damaged some buildings and burned others.  They also beat and stabbed five missionaries (including young Amy Machle) and threw the bodies into the river.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

APRIL 15, 2021 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF SAINT OLGA OF KIEV, REGENT OF KIEVAN RUSSIA; SAINT ADALBERT OF MAGDEBURG, ROMAN CATHOLIC BISHOP; SAINT ADALBERT OF PRAGUE, ROMAN CATHOLIC BISHOP AND MARTYR, 997; AND SAINTS BENEDICT AND GAUDENTIUS OF POMERANIA, ROMAN CATHOLIC MARTYRS, 997

THE FEAST OF SAINTS DAMIEN AND MARIANNE OF MOLOKAI, WORKERS AMONG LEPERS

THE FEAST OF SAINT FLAVIA DOMITILLA, ROMAN CHRISTIAN NOBLEWOMAN; AND SAINTS MARO, EUTYCHES, AND VICTORINUS OF ROME, PRIESTS AND MARTYRS, CIRCA 99

THE FEAST OF SAINT HUNNA OF ALSACE, THE “HOLY WASHERWOMAN”

THE FEAST OF LUCY CRAFT LANEY, AFRICAN-AMERICAN PRESBYTERIAN EDUCATOR AND CIVIL RIGHTS ACTIVIST

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

Almighty and everlasting God,

who kindled the flame of your love in the heart of your holy martyrs

Eleanor Chestnut,

John Rogers Peale,

Rebecca Gillespie Peale,

Ella May Wood Machle,

and Amy Machle:

Grant to us, your humble servants, a like faith and power of love,

that we who rejoice in their triumph may profit by their example;

through Jesus Christ our Lord, who lives and reigns with

you and the Holy Spirit, one God, for ever and ever.  Amen.

Jeremiah 15:15-21

Psalm 124 or 31:1-5

1 Peter 4:12-19

Mark 8:34-38

–Adapted from Holy Women, Holy Men:  Celebrating the Saints (2010), 715

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++