Archive for the ‘Saints of the 1400s’ Category

Feast of Johannes Bugenhagen (April 20)   1 comment

Above:  Johannes Bugenhagen

Image in the Public Domain

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JOHANNES BUGENHAGEN (JUNE 24, 1485-APRIL 20, 1558)

German Lutheran Theologian, Minister, Liturgist, and “Pastor of the Reformation”

Also known as Johannes Pomeranus

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If you know Christ well, it is enough, though you know nothing else; if you know not Christ, what else you learn does not matter.

–Motto of Johannes Bugenhagen

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Johannes Bugenhagen, whose Latinized surname was Pomeranus, was a foundational figure for the Lutheran Church.

His feast comes to my Ecumenical Calendar of Saints’ Days and Holy Days from the calendar of The Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod.

Bugenhagen, born at Wollin, Pomerania (now Wolin, Poland) on June 24, 1485, converted from Roman Catholicism.  He, educated at the University of Greifswald from 1502 to 1504, joined the Premonstratensian Canons, also known as the Norbertines and the White Canons.  Our saint, rector of the school at Treptow, Pomerania (now Trzebiatow, Poland), from 1504, became a priest in 1509 then began to serve as vicar of the church.  In 1520 Bugenhagen converted under the direct influence of Martin Luther.  Our saint arrived in Wittenberg the following year and lectured on the Psalms.  The following year he married Walpurga (original surname unknown).  The couple had three children–Johannes the Younger, Martha, and Sara.  That year Bugenhagen, through Luther’s influence, became the pastor of St. Mary’s Church, Wittenberg, a post he held for the rest of his life.  In 1523 our saint became Luther’s confessor.  Two years later Bugenhagen acquired another portfolio–professor of theology.  Our saint and Luther also collaborated on the Low German translation of the Bible.

Bugenhagen was a liturgist and organizer of the Lutheran Church.  He and Luther prepared the simplified German Mass (1526), intended for the benefit of uneducated lay people, not to replace the Latin order permanently.  Our saint was crucial in the organization of Lutheranism in Denmark, Brunswick, Hamburg, Lubeck, and Pomerania.  Early Lutheranism had a variety of liturgical forms; Bugenhagen’s influential Brunswick Order (1528), more informal than the Brandenburg-Nuremburg type of service, provided for Matins, Vespers, and a Sunday Mass.  The Brunswick Order was still relatively conservative; it approved of traditional vestments (not deeming them mandatory, though), required the retention of traditional elements of the old Latin Mass, and forbade unnecessary novelties.  Bugenhagen, a superintendent (functionally a bishop) since 1533, accepted the invitation of King Christian III (reigned 1534-1559) in 1537 to reorganize the Danish church along Lutheran lines.  Our saint did so, consecrating seven superintendents, establishing the liturgy, and crowning the King and the Queen.

Bugenhagen, who preached Luther’s funeral (1546) then took care of the reformer’s wife and children, wrote Biblical commentaries, became a figure of controversy within Lutheranism during his final years.  In 1548 Holy Roman Emperor Charles V issued the Augsburg Interim, which would have reimposed Roman Catholicism on the Lutherans of Saxony.  Bugenhagen and Philipp Melancthon made a counter-offer.  They proposed the Leipzig Interim, according to which, the affected Lutherans would maintain their core beliefs while following many Medieval Roman Catholic practices.  Charles V approved.  Gnesio-Lutherans (literally, Genuine Lutherans), for whom any compromise was excessive, objected strenuously.

Bugenhagen died at Wittenberg on April 20, 1558.  He was 72 years old.

His liturgies have been influential for centuries.  They have, however, proven to be less influential in North America since the introduction of the Common Service in 1888.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

JULY 12, 2017 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF DESIDERIUS ERASMUS, ROMAN CATHOLIC THEOLOGIAN

THE FEAST OF JOHN GUALBERT, FOUNDER OF THE VALLOMBROSAN BENEDICTINES

THE FEAST OF JOHANNES RENATUS VERBEEK, MORAVIAN MINISTER AND COMPOSER

THE FEAST OF PETER RICKSECKER, U.S. MORAVIAN MINISTER, MISSIONARY, MUSICIAN, MUSIC EDUCATOR, AND COMPOSER; STUDENT OF JOHANN CHRISTIAN BECHLER, MORAVIAN MINISTER, MUSICIAN, MUSIC EDUCATOR, AND COMPOSER; FATHER OF JULIUS THEODORE BECHLER, U.S. MORAVIAN MINISTER, MUSICIAN, EDUCATOR, AND COMPOSER

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Almighty God, we praise you for your servant Johannes Bugenhagen,

through whom you have called the church to its task and renewed its life.

Raise up in our own day teachers and prophets inspired by your Spirit,

whose voices will give strength to your church and proclaim the reality of your reign,

through Jesus Christ, our Savior and Lord, who lives and reigns

with you and the Holy Spirit, one God, now and forever.  Amen.

Jeremiah 1:4-10

Psalm 46

1 Corinthians 3:11-23

Mark 10:35-45

–Adapted from Evangelical Lutheran Worship (2006), page 60

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Feast of St. Nicholas of Flue and Blessed Conrad Scheuber (March 21)   Leave a comment

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Above:  St. Nicholas of Flue

Image in the Public Domain

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SAINT NICHOLAS OF FLUE (MARCH 21, 1417-MARCH 21, 1487)

Swiss Hermit and Statesman

Also known as Brother Klaus and Saint Nicholas von Flue

His feast day = March 21

Alternative feast day = September 25

grandfather of 

BLESSED CONRAD SCHEUBER (1481-MARCH 5, 1559)

Swiss Hermit

His feast transferred from March 5

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My Lord and my God,

remove from me

whatever keeps me from you.

My Lord and my God,

confer upon me

whatever enables me to reach you.

My Lord and my God,

free me from self

and make me wholly yours.

–St. Nicholas of Flue

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The vocation to be a hermit is a legitimate one–one which many people do not have yet which certain ones do.  May no person whom God has chosen not to grant that calling ridicule or underestimate it in those whom God has called to become hermits.

St. Nicholas of Flue lived for 70 years to the day.  He, born on March 21, 1417, in Sachsen, Switzerland, came from a relatively wealthy peasant family.  He was a farmer and a councilor and a judge in the canon of Unterwalden.  He also rejected an opportunity to become the governor.  During a war against the secessionist canon of Zurich our saint commanded soldiers.  He also condemned wars of aggression and the slaughter of non-combatants as immoral.

At the age of 30 St. Nicholas married Dorothy Wiss.  The couple had 10 children in 20 years.  Shortly after the birth of his youngest child our saint discerned a vocation to become a hermit.  He reported a vision of a harnessed draft horse (representing his life as a farmer) eating a lily (representing his spiritual life).  With his family’s consent he became a hermit.  St. Nicholas spent most of his time as a hermit in the Ranft Valley.  Each day he assisted with the Mass and spent most of his time in prayer.  The hermit, renowned for his piety, attracted many spiritual students.  In 1481 he left his hermitage long enough to mediate a dispute that threatened to lead to a civil war.  Once our saint had ensured national unity, he resumed his routine as a hermit.  St. Nicholas died, surrounded by his family, in 1487.

Pope Innocent X beatified St. Nicholas in 1649.  Pope Pius XII canonized him in 1947.

St. Nicholas is the patron of Switzerland, councilmen, separated spouses, difficult marriages, Swiss Guards, large families, parents of large families, and magistrates.

One of the descendants of St. Nicholas was a grandson, Blessed Conrad Scheuber, born at Altfallen, Switzerland, in 1481.  He was a hermit first at the hermitage of St. Nicholas then at Wolfenschiessen.  He died at Bettelrutti, Switzerland, on March 5, 1559.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

JANUARY 21, 2017 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF SAINTS MIROCLES OF MILAN AND EPIPHANIUS OF PAVIA, ROMAN CATHOLIC BISHOPS

THE FEAST OF SAINTS ALBAN ROE AND THOMAS REYNOLDS, ROMAN CATHOLIC PRIESTS AND MARTYRS

THE FEAST OF SAINT GASPAR DEL BUFALO, FOUNDER OF THE MISSIONARIES OF THE PRECIOUS BLOOD

THE FEAST OF SAINT JOHN YI YON-ON, ROMAN CATHOLIC CATECHIST AND MARTYR IN KOREA

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O God, whose blessed Son became poor that we through his poverty might be rich:

Deliver us from an inordinate love of this world, that we,

inspired by the devotion of your servants Saints Nicholas of Flue and Blessed Conrad Scheuber,

may serve you with singleness of heart, and attain to the riches of the age to come;

through Jesus Christ our Lord, who lives and reigns with you,

in the unity of the Holy Spirit, one God, now and for ever.  Amen.

Song of Songs 8:6-7

Psalm 34

Philippians 3:7-15

Luke 12:33-37 or Luke 9:57-62

–Adapted from Holy Women, Holy Men:  Celebrating the Saints (2010), page 722

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Feast of St. Frances of Rome (March 9)   Leave a comment

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Above:  St. Frances of Rome

Image in the Public Domain

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SAINT FRANCES OF ROME (1384-MARCH 9, 1440)

Foundress of the Collatines

St. Frances of Rome, a native of that city, came from an aristocratic family.  Her parents were Paul Bussa and Jacobella de’ Roffredeschi.  At the age of 12 years our saint married Lorenzo de’ Ponziani, to whom she remained wedded for 40 years.  The couple had three children.  St. Frances, as a widow , became a Benedictine nun.  She continued to do what she had done as a laywoman–to serve the sick and the poor.  In 1433 she founded the Oblates for the Tor de’ Specchi (the Collatines).  Our saint also founded the first home for abandoned children in Rome.  Furthermore, she reported 97 visions, in which she saw, among other things, Hell and Purgatory.  Our saint died on March 9, 1440.  She was about 56 years old.

Pope Paul V canonized her in 1608.

St. Frances is the patron of women, Rome, motorists, motorcyclists, aviators, Roman housewives, taxi cab drivers, and people ridiculed for their faith.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

JANUARY 13, 2017 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF SAINT HILARY OF POITIERS, ROMAN CATHOLIC BISHOP OF POITIERS, “ATHANASIUS OF THE WEST,” AND HYMN WRITER; MENTOR OF SAINT MARTIN OF TOURS, ROMAN CATHOLIC BISHOP OF TOURS

THE FEAST OF CHRISTIAN KEIMANN, GERMAN LUTHERAN HYMN WRITER

THE FEAST OF SAINT KENTIGERN, A.K.A. MUNGO, ROMAN CATHOLIC BISHOP OF GLASGOW

THE FEAST OF SAINT MARGUERITE BOURGEOYS, FOUNDRESS OF THE SISTERS OF NOTRE DAME

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O God, by whose grace your servant Saint Frances of Rome,

kindled with the flame of your love, became a burning and shining light in your Church:

Grant that we also may be aflame with the spirit of love and discipline,

and walk before you as children of light,

through Jesus Christ our Lord, who lives and reigns with you,

in the unity of the Holy Spirit, one God, now and for ever.  Amen.

Acts 2:42-47a

Psalm 133 or 34:1-8 or 119:161-168

2 Corinthians 6:1-10

Matthew 6:24-33

–Adapted from Holy Women, Holy Men:  Celebrating the Saints (2010), page 723

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Posted January 13, 2017 by neatnik2009 in March, Saints of the 1300s, Saints of the 1400s

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Feast of Blessed Christopher Macassoli of Vigevano (March 5)   Leave a comment

northern-italy

Above:  Northern Italy, 1951

Scanned from Hammond’s Complete World Atlas (1951)

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BLESSED CHRISTOPHER MACASSOLI OF VIGEVANO (CIRCA 1415-MARCH 5, 1485)

Franciscan Priest

Alternative feast day = March 11

Blessed Christopher Macassoli, born at Milan circa 1415, came from Italian nobility.  He became a Franciscan at the age of 20 years.  This was indeed his vocation.  Our saint, ordained, became a famous and popular preacher who attracted large audiences.  Circa 1475 Macassoli founded the monastery of Santa Maria delle Grazie at Vigevano, near Milan.  The abbey became a destination for pilgrims seeking his sage counsel.  He died at Vigevano on March 5, 1485, aged about 70 years.

Pope Leo XIII beatified him in 1890.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

JANUARY 5, 2017 COMMON ERA

THE TWELFTH DAY OF CHRISTMAS

THE FEAST OF SAINT JOHN NEPOMUCENE NEUMANN, ROMAN CATHOLIC BISHOP OF PHILADELPHIA

THE FEAST OF ANTONIO LOTTI, ROMAN CATHOLIC MUSICIAN AND COMPOSER

THE FEAST OF SAINT GENOVEVA TORRES MORALES, FOUNDRESS OF THE CONGREGATION OF THE SACRED HEART OF JESUS AND THE HOLY ANGELS

THE FEAST OF MARGARET MACKAY, SCOTTISH HYMN WRITER

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Heavenly Father, shepherd of your people, we thank you for your servant

Blessed Christopher Macassoli of Vigevano,

who was faithful in the care and nurture of your flock.

We pray that, following his example and the teaching of his holy life,

we may by your grace attain our full maturity in Christ,

through the same Jesus Christ, our Savior and Lord,

who lives and reigns with you and the Holy Spirit,

one God, now and forever.  Amen.

Ezekiel 34:11-16 or Acts 20:17-35

Psalm 84

1 Peter 5:1-4 or Ephesians 3:14-21

John 21:15-17 or Matthew 24:42-47

–Adapted from Evangelical Lutheran Worship (2006), page 60

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Feast of St. Jerome Emiliani (February 8)   Leave a comment

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Above:  St. Jerome Emiliani

Image in the Public Domain

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SAINT JEROME EMILIANI (1481-FEBRUARY 8, 1537)

Founder of the Company of the Servants of the Poor

St. Jerome Emiliani, like Blessed Josephina Gabriella Bonino, whose feast day is also February 8, cared for the ill, the poor, and the orphaned.

Emiliani arrived at this vocation by a circuitous route.  The native of Venice came from a wealthy family.  His father, Angelo, died when our saint was 15 years old.  Young Jerome ran away from home and led a dissolute life.  In 1506 he became a solider.  Five years later, during the War of the League of Cambrai (1508-1516), Emiliani became a prisoner of war chained in a dungeon.  He broke his chains after praying to Our Lady for help.  Our saint gave her credit for his freedom.  Eventually Emiliani decided to study for the priesthood.  Along the way to that vocation our saint supervised the education of his nephews and served as the Mayor of Treviso.

Emiliani, ordained in 1518, spent much of the rest of his life helping people affected by one pestilence or another.  The parts of Italy where Emiliani resided were prone to a series of plagues in the 1500s.  He cared for the sick, took orphans into his home, and buried those who had died unattended on the streets.  Our saint founded six orphanages, a hospital, and a shelter for former prostitutes in northern Italy.  At the city of Somasca Emiliani founded the Company of the Servants of the Poor, also known as the Order of Somaschi, the Somascan Fathers, and the Regular Clergy of Somasca, to care for orphans, in 1532.  Papal approval of the order followed eight years later.  Another accomplishment of Emiliani was pioneering the question-and-answer technique of catechesis.

Emiliani died at Somasca, Italy, on February 8, 1537.  He had contracted an illness while ministering to the sick.  Pope Benedict XIV beatified our saint in 1747.  Pope Clement XIII canonized him 20 years later.

Emiliani is the patron saint of orphans and abandoned people.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

NOVEMBER 29, 2016 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF GEORGE DAWSON, ENGLISH BAPTIST AND UNITARIAN PASTOR

THE FEAST OF THE INAUGURATION OF THE CHURCH OF NORTH INDIA, 1970

THE FEAST OF JENNETTE THRELFALL, ENGLISH HYMN WRITER

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O God, by whose grace your servant St. Jerome Emiliani,

kindled with the flame of your love, became a burning and a shining light in your Church:

Grant that we also may be aflame with the spirit of love and discipline,

and walk before you as children of light;

through Jesus Christ our Lord, who lives and reigns with you,

in the unity of the Holy Spirit, one God, now and for ever.  Amen.

Acts 2:42-47a

Psalm 133 or 34:1-8 or 119:161-168

2 Corinthians 6:1-10

Matthew 6:24-33

–Adapted from Holy Women, Holy Men:  Celebrating the Saints (2010), page 723

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Feast of Nicolaus Copernicus and Galileo Galilei (January 8)   2 comments

copernican-system

Above:  The Copernican System

Image in the Public Domain

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NICOLAUS COPERNICUS (FEBRUARY 18, 1473-MAY 24, 1453)

Scientist

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GALILEO GALILEI (FEBRUARY 15, 1564-JANUARY 8, 1642)

Scientist

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Second. I say that, as you know, the Council [of Trent] prohibits expounding the Scriptures contrary to the common agreement of the holy Fathers. And if Your Reverence would read not only the Fathers but also the commentaries of modern writers on Genesis, Psalms, Ecclesiastes and Josue, you would find that all agree in explaining literally (ad litteram) that the sun is in the heavens and moves swiftly around the earth, and that the earth is far from the heavens and stands immobile in the center of the universe. Now consider whether in all prudence the Church could encourage giving to Scripture a sense contrary to the holy Fathers and all the Latin and Greek commentators. Nor may it be answered that this is not a matter of faith, for if it is not a matter of faith from the point of view of the subject matter, it is on the part of the ones who have spoken. It would be just as heretical to deny that Abraham had two sons and Jacob twelve, as it would be to deny the virgin birth of Christ, for both are declared by the Holy Ghost through the mouths of the prophets and apostles.

St. Robert Bellarmine, 1615

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It is surely harmful to souls to make it a heresy to believe what is proved.

–Galileo Galilei

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I do not feel obliged to believe that the same God who has endowed us with sense, reason, and intellect has intended us to forgo their use.

–Galileo Galilei

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The Bible shows us the way to go to heaven, not the way the heavens go.

–Galileo Galilei

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For biographies of these two saints I refer you, O reader, to the following links:

To bash the Roman Catholic Church for its posthumous treatment of Copernicus and its abuse of Galileo, as well as its tardiness in rescinding the decree of heresy against him, is about as easy as fishing with dynamite.  To do so while ignoring the broader, more complex history of the relationship between Holy Mother Church and science is also deceptive.  Besides, leading Protestants of the time tended to be just as skeptical of the Copernican theory and Galileo’s observations as were Roman Catholic officials.

The Copernican theory contradicted bad and well-established theology.  Sinful humans were on the Earth; God and the angels dwelt out there, according to orthodox theology.  Therefore, according to the orthodox position, to make the Sun the center and the Earth a planet orbiting it was to make a heretical statement about the place of sinful human beings in the cosmos.  Science disproved not only conventional wisdom but foundational theological assumptions.

Now, of course, we know that reality is far more revolutionary (pardon the double entendre) than Copernicus and Galileo could have guessed; the Sun is not the center of the universe.  Furthermore, our galaxy is one of many, and the Sun is far from its center.  We humans are marginal and insignificant in the universe (never mind the multiverse, if there is such a thing).  God’s creation is unimaginably vast and spectacular.

Science helps us to understand our physical reality better, if not completely.  When it does this will we accept objective reality and embrace a religious faith for the modern age?  Or will we restrict our theological horizons to those of previous eras?  Will we honor those scientists who teach us this “new” knowledge?  Or will we scorn–even persecute–them?

As Galileo understood, that which seems like orthodoxy might actually be heresy.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

NOVEMBER 14, 2016 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF JOHN AMOS COMENIUS, FATHER OF MODERN EDUCATION

THE FEAST OF THE CONSECRATION OF SAMUEL SEABURY, FIRST EPISCOPAL BISHOP

THE FEAST OF WILLIAM ROMANIS, ANGLICAN PRIEST AND HYMN WRITER

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God of grace and glory, you create and sustain the universe in majesty and beauty:

We thank you for Nicolaus Copernicus, Galileo Galilei, and all in whom you have

planted the desire to know your creation and to explore your work and wisdom.

Lead us, like them, to understand better the wonder and mystery of creation;

through Christ your eternal Word, through whom all things were made.  Amen.

Genesis 2:9-20

Psalm 34:8-14

2 Corinthians 13:1-6

John 20:24-27

Holy Women, Holy Men:  Celebrating the Saints (2010), page 738

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Feast of Paul Speratus (December 13)   1 comment

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Above:  Paul Speratus

Image in the Public Domain

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FEAST OF PAUL SPERATUS (DECEMBER 13, 1484-AUGUST 12, 1551)

German Lutheran Bishop, Liturgist, and Hymn Writer

Also known as Paul Hoffer, Paul Offer, and Paulus Speratus

Paul Speratus was an influential German Lutheran minister and liturgist.

Our saint’s name at birth (at Rothlen Castle, Ellswangen, Swabia, now in the Federal Republic of Germany) was Paul Hoffer or Paul Offer; Paulus Speratus was the Latinized version of his name.  In 1502 Hoffer/Offer matriculated at the University of Freiburg (now in the Federal Republic of Germany).  He studied subsequently at Paris and at various universities in Italy.

Hoffer/Offer/Speratus was a Roman Catholic priest who converted to Lutheranism.  He, ordained a priest prior to 1518, became a preacher at Dinkelsbuhl, Bavaria (now the Federal Republic of Germany) in 1518.  There he began to read early theological works by Martin Luther.  Our saint served at Wurzburg (now in the Federal Republic of Germany) in 1519 and at Salzburg (in Austria) in 1520, but had to leave each place because of his increasingly Lutheran theology and his outspokenness about it.  Speratus left for Vienna in Autumn 1520, to work on a Doctor of Divinity degree.  In 1522 he had become one of the first Roman Catholic priests to marry in the sixteenth century.  His wife was Anna.  On January 15, 1522, our saint preached a sermon in favor of marriage and of justification by faith.  The theological faculty of the University of Vienna forced him to leave and the Church excommunicated him.

Speratus, newly and fully Protestant, began the next phase of his life.  He moved to Ofen (now in Hungary) briefly before relocating to Iglau, Moravia (now Jihlava, Czech Republic), where he preached at the cloister church.  In 1523 King Ludwig II of Bohemia (reigned 1516-1526) incarcerated him for 12 weeks and condemned him to death.  Our saint got to live, however; all he had to do was leave Moravia and never return.  In 1523 Speratus went to Wittenberg (now in the Federal Republic of Germany).  There he helped Luther prepare Etlich Christlich Lider (1524), the first Lutheran hymnal.  Among the hymns was our saint’s text (translated into English in more recent hymnals as “Salvation Unto Us Is Come“), which Speratus wrote either in prison or shortly after his release.  Our saint also translated Luther’s Formula Missae (1523) into German.

Speratus became an important figure beyond Wittenberg.  In May 1525, with Luther’s help, he became the court preacher for Duke Albrecht at Konigsberg, East Prussia (now Kaliningrad, Russia).  Our saint drew up the liturgy and canons of the Prussian Church in 1526, the same year he became the clerical commissioner, charged with ensuring adherence to them in local congregations.  Then, in 1531, Speratus became the bishop of Pomerania, with his headquarters at Marienwerder (now Kwidzyn, Poland).  He served in that capacity for the rest of his life.

Speratus died at Marienwerder on August 12, 1551.  He was 66 years old.

Those of us who enjoy religious freedom should (A) give thanks to God for that fact and (B) refrain from trivializing the circumstances of those who lack it by confusing our minor frustrations for infringements on religious freedom.  We ought to do more, of course, but we should definitely do those two things.  We have the account of Paul Speratus, incarcerated, nearly executed, and ultimately exiled for being a Protestant in Moravia when the monarch was a Roman Catholic.  Certainly nothing any government with jurisdiction over me does anything like that or threatens to do so, fortunately.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

OCTOBER 25, 2016 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF HERBERT STANLEY OAKELEY, COMPOSER

THE FEAST OF SAINT PROCLUS, ARCHBISHOP OF CONSTANTINOPLE; AND SAINT RUSTICUS, BISHOP OF NARBONNE

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Holy God, whose majesty surpasses all human definitions and capacity to grasp,

thank you for those (especially Paul Speratus)

who have nurtured and encouraged the reverent worship of you.

May their work inspire us to worship you in knowledge, truth, and beauty.

In the Name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit.  Amen.

1 Chronicles 25:1-8

Psalm 145

Revelation 15:1-4

John 4:19-26

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

NOVEMBER 27, 2012 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF SAINT JAMES INTERCISUS, ROMAN CATHOLIC MARTYR

THE FEAST OF HENRY SLOANE COFFIN, U.S. PRESBYTERIAN THEOLOGIAN

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