Archive for the ‘Saints of the 1810s’ Category

Feast of St. Herman of Alaska (August 9)   Leave a comment

Above:  Kodiak Island, Alaska, 1968

Scanned from Rand McNally World Atlas–Imperial Edition (1968)

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SAINT HERMAN OF ALASKA (1755-DECEMBER 25, 1837)

Russian Orthodox Monk and Missionary to the Aleut

“Herman” was our saint’s monastic name.  His birth name–even his family name–has become lost to historical records.

Our saint, born into a merchant family of Serpukhov, Russia, in 1755, was a devout boy.  In 1771, at the age of 16 years, he entered monastic life at the Monastery of St. Sergius, near St. Petersburg, and became Herman.  After five years he transferred to the Valaam Monastery on Lake Ladoga, Finland.  There, in 1793, St. Herman volunteered to join a missionary journey to Alaska.  The eight missionaries arrived at Kodiak Island on December 25, 1793 (Julian Calendar)/January 5, 1794 (Gregorian Calendar).

The mission was initially to Russian fur traders, not indigenous people.  The founding of Holy Resurrection Church, Kodiak, in 1794, was a pivotal event.  The following year the first martyrdom of a Russian Orthodox missionary in Alaska occurred when Juvenal, a priest-monk, died at Lake Iliamma.  In 1799 Archimandrite Joasaf, head of the Alaska mission, became the Bishop of Kodiak.  Not only were some fur traders mistreating Aleut people, but, in 1800, Russian officialdom forbade missionaries from having any contact with the Natives.  The missionaries, allies of the Aleuts in complaints of mistreatment, were allegedly stirring up resistance to the Russian government there.  Missionaries’ attempts to be faithful led to their house arrest in 1801 and the cessation of services for a year.  They complained to the Holy Synod.  The mission resumed in 1804.

A few years later St. Herman moved to Spruce Island, near Kodiak Island.  He lived in a cave until the Russian American Company built a cell for him.  There St. Herman spent the rest of his life.

Meanwhile, the Kodiak mission lasted until 1820, nine years after the Holy Synod closed the Diocese of Kodiak and transferred missionary work on Kodiak Island to the Bishop of Irkutsk.

On Spruce Island St. Herman ministered to the Aleuts.  From 1820 to 1831 he did this despite official Russian persecution.  Our saint established a school, converted people, fed animals by hand, counseled locals, and baked cookies and biscuits for children.  St. Herman demonstrated his love for the people, who reciprocated.

St. Herman died on December 13 (Julian Calendar)/December 25 (Gregorian Calendar), 1837.  His reputation grew posthumously, leading to his canonization by the Orthodox Church in America on August 9, 1970.  The Episcopal Church added his feast to its calendar of saints in 2009.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

JUNE 14, 2018 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF CHARLES AUGUSTUS BRIGGS, U.S. PRESBYTERIAN MINISTER, EPISCOPAL PRIEST, AND ALLEGED HERETIC; AND HIS DAUGHTER, EMILIE GRACE BRIGGS, BIBLICAL SCHOLAR AND “HERETIC’S DAUGHTER”

THE FEAST OF SAINT METHODIUS I OF CONSTANTINOPLE, DEFENDER OF ICONS AND ECUMENICAL PATRIARCH OF CONSTANTINOPLE; AND SAINT JOSEPH THE HYMNOGRAPHER, DEFENDER OF ICONS AND THE “SWEET-VOICED NIGHTINGALE OF THE CHURCH”

THE FEAST OF WILLIAM HIRAM FOULKES, U.S. PRESBYTERIAN MINISTER AND HYMN WRITER

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Holy God, we bless your Name for Herman, joyful North Star of Christ’s Church,

who came from Russia to bring the Good News of Christ’s love to your native people in Alaska,

to defend them from oppressors and to proclaim the Gospel of peace;

and we pray that we may follow his example in proclaiming the Gospel:

through the same Jesus Christ, who with you and the Holy Spirit

lives and reigns, one God, throughout all ages.  Amen.

Sirach (Ecclesiasticus) 1:1-10

Psalm 148:7-14

2 Timothy 1:3-7

Luke 9:46-48

Holy Women, Holy Men:  Celebrating the Saints (2010), 517

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Feast of Venerable Guglielmo Massaia (August 7)   1 comment

Above:  Venerable Guglielmo Massaia 

Image in the Public Domain

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VENERABLE GUGLIELMO MASSAIA (JUNE 9, 1809-AUGUST 6, 1889)

Italian Cardinal, Missionary, and Capuchin Friar

Born Lorenzo Massaia

Venerable Guglielmo Massaia was a great missionary.  Lorenzo Massaia, born in Piovà, Piedmont, on June 9, 1809, studied at the Collegio Reale, Asti; his older brother, Guglielmo, canon of the cathedral, directed his studies.  After Guglielmo died, Lorenzo matriculated at the diocesan seminary.  On September 25, 1825, at the age of 16, our saint joined the Capuchin Franciscan Order and took the name Guglielmo.

Massaia, ordained a priest in 1832, became a famous preacher, taught theology, and acquired royal connections.  He became the confessor to Prince (later King) Victor Emmanuel (II) of Sardinia (later Italy).  Our saint could have become a bishop in Sardinia via royal favor, but he declined those offers.  No, Massaia, had discerned a vocation to become a missionary.

So he became a missionary bishop as the Vicar-Apostolic of Abyssinia/Ethiopia in 1846.  Our saint ordained priests and consecrated St. Justin de Jacobis (d. 1860) in 1849.  Massaia had to flee Ethiopia in 1849, but Jacobis carried on the good work there.

Massaia, back in Europe in 1850 to generate support for foreign missions, focused on the Oromo speakers of Cush.  He also founded a school at Marseilles for Oromo boys emancipated from slavery and, in 1867, published a grammar of the Oromo language.  Failing health forced Massaia to retire in 1880.  He, from that year the Titular Archbishop of Stauropolis, became the Cardinal-Priest of Sts. Vitale, Gervasio, and Protasio in 1884.  Our saint died at the Capuchin friary in Cremano, Italy, on August 6, 1889.  He was 80 years old.

Pope Francis declared Massaia a Venerable in 2016.

I look forward to Massaia’s cause going the full distance to canonization.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

JUNE 14, 2018 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF CHARLES AUGUSTUS BRIGGS, U.S. PRESBYTERIAN MINISTER, EPISCOPAL PRIEST, AND ALLEGED HERETIC; AND HIS DAUGHTER, EMILIE GRACE BRIGGS, BIBLICAL SCHOLAR AND “HERETIC’S DAUGHTER”

THE FEAST OF SAINT METHODIUS I OF CONSTANTINOPLE, DEFENDER OF ICONS AND ECUMENICAL PATRIARCH OF CONSTANTINOPLE; AND SAINT JOSEPH THE HYMNOGRAPHER, DEFENDER OF ICONS AND THE “SWEET-VOICED NIGHTINGALE OF THE CHURCH”

THE FEAST OF WILLIAM HIRAM FOULKES, U.S. PRESBYTERIAN MINISTER AND HYMN WRITER

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Almighty and everlasting God, we thank you for your servant

Venerable Guglielmo Massaia, whom you called to preach the Gospel

to the people of Ethiopia and the Oromo speakers of Cush.

Raise up, in this and every land evangelists and heralds of your kingdom,

that your Church may proclaim the unsearchable riches of our Savior Jesus Christ;

who lives and reigns with you and the Holy Spirit, one God, now and for ever.  Amen.

Isaiah 52:7-10

Psalm 96 or 96:1-7

Acts 1:1-9

Luke 10:1-9

–Adapted from Holy Women, Holy Men:  Celebrating the Saints (2016), 716

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Feast of Horatius Bonar (July 31)   1 comment

Above:  Horatius Bonar

Image in the Public Domain

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HORATIUS BONAR (DECEMBER 19, 1808-JULY 31, 1889)

Scottish Presbyterian Minister and Hymn Writer

Horatius Bonar was the greatest Scottish hymn writer.  He wrote them quickly, with more attention to theology than to literary style.  By the time Bonar died the tally of his hymns exceeded 600.

Bonar spent much of his life in Edinburgh.  He, born there on December 19, 1808, was son of Marjory Pyott Maitland and James Bonar, the Solicitor of Excise for Scotland.  Our saint’s mentor was Thomas Chalmers (1780-1847), the great Scottish Presbyterian divine.  Chalmers educated Bonar at the University of Edinburgh.  Bonar, ordained into The Church of Scotland in 1838, became the minister of North Parish.  (He had previously been an assistant at Leith.)  Bonar did not remain at North Parish for long, though.  In 1843 the Great Disruption divided The Church of Scotland, and Bonar followed Chalmers into the new Free Church of Scotland.

1843 was also the year our saint married Jane Catherine Lundie (1821-1884).  Jane, daughter of a Presbyterian minister, sister of another Presbyterian minister, and sister of a Presbyterian missionary, was also a poet and a hymn writer.  Her most enduring hymn was “Pass, Pass, All Earthly Joy,” published most frequently as “Fade, Fade, Each Earthly Joy.”  Interestingly, Jane was related by marriage to Josephine Butler (1828-1906).  Horatius Boar and Jane Catherine Lundie wed in the manse at Kelso.  They had nine children, five of whom they buried.

Bonar was active on the denominational level of the Free Church of Scotland.  For many years he edited The Border Watch, the official organ of the Free Church.  In 1866 our saint left Kelso for Chalmers Memorial Church, Edinburgh.  He also served as the Moderator of the Free Church’s General Assembly in 1883.

Biblical prophecy was another interest Bonar pursued.  He developed it in 1855-1856, while traveling in Egypt and Palestine.  For many years he edited The Journal of Prophecy.

Bonar’s catalog of published works included the following:

  1. Songs for the Wilderness (1843);
  2. The Bible Hymn Book (1845);
  3. Hymns, Original and Selected (1846);
  4. Hymns of Faith and Hope (1857, 1861);
  5. The Song of the New Creation (1872); and
  6. Hymns of the Nativity (1879).

Ironically, the Session of Chalmers Memorial Church forbade the singing of hymns and allowed the singing only of metrical Psalms.

Bonar, aged 80 years, died in Edinburgh on July 31, 1889.

Many of his hymns have endured, fortunately.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

JUNE 12, 2018 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF EDWIN PAXTON HOOD, ENGLISH CONGREGATIONALIST MINISTER, PHILANTHROPIST, AND HYMN WRITER

THE FEAST OF CHRISTIAN DAVID JAESCHKE, GERMAN MORAVIAN ORGANIST AND COMPOSER; AND HIS GRANDSON, HENRI MARC VOLDEMAR VOULLAIRE, MORAVIAN COMPOSER AND MINISTER

THE FEAST OF ENMEGAHBOWN, EPISCOPAL PRIEST AND MISSIONARY TO THE OJIBWA NATION

THE FEAST OF JOSEPH DACRE CARLYLE, ANGLICAN PRIEST AND HYMN WRITER

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Dear God of beauty,

you have granted literary ability and spiritual sensitivity to

Horatius Bonar and others, who have composed hymn texts.

May we, as you guide us,

find worthy hymn texts to be icons,

through which we see you.

In the Name of God:  Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.  Amen.

Sirach/Ecclesiasticus 44:1-3a, 5-15

Psalm 147

Revelation 5:11-14

Luke 2:8-20

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

APRIL 20, 2013 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF SAINTS AMATOR OF AUXERRE AND GERMANUS OF AUXERRE, ROMAN CATHOLIC BISHOPS; SAINT MAMERTINUS OF AUXERRE, ROMAN CATHOLIC ABBOT; AND SAINT MARCIAN OF AUXERRE, ROMAN CATHOLIC MONK

THE FEAST OF JOHANNES BUGENHAGEN, GERMAN LUTHERAN PASTOR

THE FEAST OF SAINT MARCELLINUS OF EMBRUN, ROMAN CATHOLIC BISHOP

THE FEAST OF OLAVUS AND LAURENTIUS PETRI, RENEWERS OF THE CHURCH

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Feast of Amalie Wilhemine Sieveking (July 21)   Leave a comment

Above:  Stamp Depicting Amalie Wilhemine Sieveking

Image in the Public Domain

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AMALIE WILHEMINE SIEVEKING (JULY 25, 1794-APRIL 1, 1859)

Foundress of the Women’s Association for the Care of the Poor and Invalids

Also known as Amelia Wilhemina Sieveking

German Lutheranism did not provide many avenues for laywomen to serve in the world.  Amalie Wilhemina Sieveking pioneered social work in Germany, inspired the revival of the ancient order of deaconesses in the Lutheran Church, founded an order for laywomen, and advocated for greater educational opportunities for females.

Sieveking, who chose never to marry, and to devote her life to service instead, came from Hamburg.  She, born there on July 25, 1794, was the only daughter and one of four children of Caroline Louise Sieveking and Heinrich Christian Sieveking, a merchant and a senator whose financial fortunes declined due to the Napoleonic Wars interrupting commerce.  Caroline died when our saint was five years old.  Heinrich died in 1809, leaving the four children orphaned.  The children scattered among relatives, and Sieveking’s educated suffered because she had to work sewing embroidery.  Yet, in 1813, she opened a school for girls.  She spent the rest of her life pursuing various causes, including opening more educational opportunities to females.

Under the influence of Pietism (which is not all bad) Sieveking, aware that the poor would always exist, decided to help many of them.  On May 23, 1832, she and 12 other women became the original members of the Women’s Association for the Care of the Poor and Invalids.  The Association consisted of laywomen who volunteered in their spare time.  In 1859, when Sieveking died at Hamburg, the Association had grown to 85 members and included a number of institutions.  One of those was the hospital at Kaiserwerth–the first Protestant hospital in Germany and, in time, the first modern school of nursing.  Florence Nightingale (1820-1910) trained there, and Pastor Theodor Fliedner derived inspiration to revive the order of deaconesses in the Lutheran Church.

If Wikipedia is trustworthy (a questionable proposition much of the time) regarding Sieveking, April 1 is her feast on a Lutheran Calendar of Saints.  However, my primary sources, which contain Lutheran calendars of saints, do not support this claim.  Sieveking does belong on a calendar of saints, of course, so I am glad to add her to my Ecumenical Calendar of Saints’ Days and Holy Days, with a feast day in July.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

JUNE 10, 2018 COMMON ERA

PROPER 5:  THE THIRD SUNDAY AFTER PENTECOST, YEAR B

THE FEAST OF SAINT JAMES OF NISIBIS, BISHOP; AND SAINT EPHREM OF EDESSA, “THE HARP OF THE HOLY SPIRIT”

THE FEAST OF SAINTS GETULIUS, AMANTIUS, CAERAELIS, AND PRIMITIVUS, MARTYRS AT TIVOLI, 12O; AND SAINT SYMPHOROSA OF TIVOLI, MARTYR

THE FEAST OF SAINT LANDERICUS OF PARIS, ROMAN CATHOLIC BISHOP

THE FEAST OF THOR MARTIN JOHNSON, U.S. MORAVIAN CONDUCTOR AND MUSIC DIRECTOR

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O God, your Son came among us to serve and not to be served, and to give his life for the life of the world.

Lead us by his love to serve all those to whom the world offers no comfort and little help.

Through us give hope to the hopeless,

love to the unloved,

peace to the troubled,

and rest to the weary,

through Jesus Christ, our Savior and Lord, who lives and reigns

with you and the Holy Spirit, one God, now and forever.  Amen.

Hosea 2:18-23

Psalm 94:1-15

Romans 12:9-21

Luke 6:20-36

Evangelical Lutheran Worship (2006), 60

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Feast of William White (July 17)   3 comments

Above:  Second Street North from Market Street, with Christ Church, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1800

Engraver = William Russell Birch (1755-1834)

Image Source = Library of Congress

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WILLIAM WHITE (MARCH 24, 1747-JULY 17, 1836)

Presiding Bishop of The Episcopal Church

On the Episcopal calendar of saints July 17 is the Feast of William White, one of the three original bishops (with Samuel Seabury and Samuel Provoost), and the father of the denominational constitution.

White was a man of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.  Eventually he developed a well-earned reputation as the “first citizen” of that city.  He, born there on March 24, 1747, was a son of Esther Hawlings and attorney and surveyor Thomas White.  Our saint graduated from the College of Philadelphia in 1765 then studied theology privately under the tutelage of the priests at Christ Church as well as Provost William Smith of the College of Philadelphia.  White, ordained to the diaconate in England on December 23, 1770, returned to that country for his ordination to the priesthood, April 25, 1772.  The following year our saint married Mary Harrison.  The couple had eight children.

White balanced overlapping ecclesiastical portfolios from the 1770s until his death in 1836.  He, for a time during  the Revolutionary War the only Anglican priest in Pennsylvania, due to the expulsion of Loyalist clergymen, was the following:

  1. Assistant Priest, Christ Church and St. Peter’s Church, Philadelphia (1772-1779);
  2. Chaplain of the Second Continental Congress (1777-1781);
  3. Rector, Christ Church and St. Peter’s Church, Philadelphia (1779-1836);
  4. Chaplain of the Confederation Congress (1781-1788);
  5. Bishop of Pennsylvania (1787-1836);
  6. Chaplain of the U.S. Senate (1789-1800); and
  7. Presiding Bishop of The Episcopal Church (1789, 1795-1836).

Meanwhile, White also served as a trustee of the College of Philadelphia and the University of the State of Pennsylvania (until 1791) as well as the merged University of Pennsylvania (1791f).

Above:  Christ Church, Philadelphia, 1814

Engraver = James Peller Malcolm (1767-1815)

Image Source = Library of Congress

From 1782 to 1789 White made an effective case for a national “Protestant Episcopal Church” separate from The Church of England.  He presided over the first three General Conventions (1785, 1786, and 1789), helped to write the Proposed Book of Common Prayer of 1786 (never adopted), and sought to reconcile factions and unite them into one denomination.  Samuel Seabury, from 1784 the Bishop of Connecticut, was an old Loyalist.  Samuel Provoost and White, from 1787 the Bishops of New York and Pennsylvania, respectively, had been rebels.  Provoost and Seabury were not on writing or speaking terms with each other for a while.  There were also regional and theological-liturgical differences; the churches from Virginia to New York disagreed with those of the South and New England with regard to the proper roles of bishops and lay members.  Delegates to the General Convention of 1789, with White presiding, forged a constitution and produced The Book of Common Prayer (1789), in use for 103 years.

Above:  William White

An image from July 19, 1838

Image Source = Library of Congress

White was influential in other ways too.  Our saint taught theology to John Henry Hobart (1775-1830) in 1797-1798 and ordained him a deacon (1798) and a priest (1800).  Hobart, from 1816 to 1830 the Bishop of New York, was also a towering figure in The Episcopal Church.  Over the decades White had various assistants.  One of these, from 1811 to 1831, was Jackson Kemper (1789-1870), a protégé of Hobart and the first missionary bishop (consecrated in 1835) in The Episcopal Church.  Another circle of influence radiated from Kemper.  One member of that circle was James Lloyd Breck (1818-1876)William Augustus Muhlenberg (1796-1877) assisted White from 1817 to 1822.  Muhlenberg became influential in The Episcopal Church by, among other legacies, encouraging the use of flowers, the singing of hymns, and the founding of ecclesiastical institutions to provide social services.  He and Anne Ayres (1816-1896) founded the Sisterhood of the Holy Communion (1845), the first Anglican religious community for women in North America.

White, unlike Muhlenberg, preferred traditional metrical Psalms to hymns, which were new in The Episcopal Church in the 1800s.  The bishop considered hymns too Evangelical and prone to enthusiasm, which he described as

animal sensibility.

White, aged 89 years, died in Philadelphia, on July 17, 1836.  His direct and indirect influences on The Episcopal Church have never ceased to exist, however.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

MAY 19, 2018 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF JACQUES ELLUL, FRENCH REFORMED THEOLOGIAN AND SOCIOLOGIST

THE FEAST OF SAINT CELESTINE V, BISHOP OF ROME

THE FEAST OF SAINT DUNSTAN OF CANTERBURY, ABBOT OF GLASTONBURY AND ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY

THE FEAST OF SAINT IVO OF KERMARTIN, ROMAN CATHOLIC ATTORNEY, PRIEST, AND ADVOCATE FOR THE POOR

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O Lord, in a time of turmoil and confusion you raised up your servant William White,

and endowed him with wisdom, patience, and a reconciling temper,

that he might lead your Church into ways of stability and peace:

Hear our prayer, and give us wise and faithful leaders,

that through their ministry your people may be blessed and your will be done;

through Jesus Christ our Lord, who lives and reigns with

you and the Holy Spirit, one God, for ever and ever.  Amen.

Jeremiah 3:15-19

Psalm 92:1-4, 11-14

1 Timothy 3:1-10

John 21:15-17

Holy Women, Holy Men:  Celebrating the Saints (2010), 467

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Feast of St. Justin de Jacobis and Blessed Michael Ghebre (July 14)   2 comments

Above:  Map of Ethiopia (Abyssinia) in 1850

Image in the Public Domain

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SAINT JUSTIN DE JACOBIS (OCTOBER 9, 1800-JULY 31, 1860)

Roman Catholic Missionary Bishop in Ethiopia

Also known as Saint Giustino de Jacobis

His feast transferred from July 31

converted

BLESSED MICHAEL GHEBRE (1788/1791-JULY 30, 1855)

Ethiopian Roman Catholic Priest and Martyr

Also known as Ghébre-Michael

Alternative feast day = September 1

One of my goals in renovating my Ecumenical Calendar of Saints’ Days and Holy Days is to emphasize relationships and influences.  July 14, on the Roman Catholic calendar, is the Feast of Blessed Michael Ghebre.  On the same calendar July 31 is the feast of St. Justin (Giustino in Italian) de Jacobis, who converted him.  One can tell their stories separately, of course, but one can tell those stories more effectively together.

St. Justin fame from and worked in southern Italy, prior to national unification on that peninsula.  He, born in Sam Fele, Luciana, south of Naples, came from a once-wealthy family.  He, after having grown up mostly in Naples, joined the Vincentians in on October 17, 1818.  He was 18 years old.  St. Justin took his vows on October 18, 1820.  Then, at Brindisi, he became a priest on June 12, 1824.  St. Justin spent most of fifteen years giving missions and retreats in southern Italy, with some time off for other duties.  By 1834 he had become a much sought-after preacher and confessor also.  From 1834 to 1836 St. Justin was the Vincentian superior in Leece.  Next he directed seminarians in Naples, emphasizing personal prayer.  At Naples, in 1836-1837, our saint ministered to victims of an outbreak of cholera.  In 1838-1839 St. Justin was the superior of the Vincentian Provincial House at Naples.  He was on track to become a bishop in the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies when he chose instead to found the Roman Catholic in Ethiopia (Abyssinia).

The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church, subordinate to the Coptic Church (Egyptian) until 1959, dated to the 300s, when St. Athanasius of Alexandria (d. 373) dispatched St. Frumentius (d. circa 380) as a missionary.  St. Frumentius became the first Abuna, or Patriarch, of of the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church, often called simply the Ethiopian Orthodox Church.  Christianity in that region of Africa owed much to St. Philip the Evangelist, one of the earliest Christian deacons, hopefully not confused with St. Philip the Apostle.  Over time the Ethiopian Orthodox Church parted Christological ways with Rome, embracing monophysitism, the heresy that Christ had just one nature–divine.

The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church has long been one of the great, defining cultural institutions in that country.  It has coexisted with strong Jewish elements (due to the presence of one of the ten Lost Tribes of Israel–one descended from the tribe of Dan, to be precise) and varieties of paganism.  Since the Arab conquest of much of northern Africa in the 600s Islam has been a factor in the region.  As if all that were not enough, political struggles between Ethiopia emperors and provincial potentates were contributing to a tense situation by the 1830s.  What was political?  What was religious?  Was there a difference?

St. Justin stepped into this political and religious milieu in 1839.  He pioneered effective missionary tactics that proved controversial in the Roman Catholic Church in general and the Vincentian order in particular.  St. Justin, headquartered in the northern part of the country, adopted Ethiopian attire, mastered the three languages essential to his work, and emphasized the education of indigenous priests.  The Apostolic Vicar was so effective that, despite persecution of the Roman Catholic mission by the government, he converted about 12,000 people.  In January 1849 he became the Titular Bishop of Nilopolis; he became a bishop anyway.  Venerable Guglielmo Massaia (1809-1889) had consecrated St. Justin for this missionary work.

Blessed Michael Ghebre, also known as Ghébre-Michael, was one of St. Justin’s converts.  Blessed Michael, born in Dido, West Gojjam, in 1788 or 1791, had been an Ethiopian Orthodox monk since the age of 19 years.  He, a Roman Catholic since 1844, joined the Vincentians.  In 1851 St. Justin ordained him to the priesthood.

Emperor Tewodros II of Ethiopia (reigned 1855-1868) continued the persecution of Roman Catholicism.  He, a member of the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church, even outlawed Roman Catholicism in 1860.  Authorities had arrested Blessed Michael and four companions in 1854.  For thirteen months the evangelists suffered abuse in prison.  Blessed Michael died in transit between Meccia Coreccia and Molicha Gebaba, Mirab Shewa, on July 30, 1855.  St. Justin died five years later, after having spent several months in prison then having endured a forced march to the Halai region of Eritrea.  He spent the final stage of his life as a missionary in Eritrea.  St. Justin died, aged 60 years, on July 30, 1855.

Pope Pius XI declared Michael Ghebre a Venerable then a Blessed in 1926.

Holy Mother Church recognized Holy Mother Church as a Venerable (in 1935, by Pope Pius XI), a Blessed (in 1939, by Pope Pius XII), and a full saint (in 1975, by Pope Paul VI).

Often accounts of the persecution of Christians, from antiquity to current events, are of persecution by adherents of other religions.  Sometimes these are stories of persecution by antitheists, to use Reza Aslan‘s term.  (Aslan distinguishes between atheists and antitheists.  Atheism is the rejection of belief in God or any deity; antitheism includes the desire to destroy religion.)  In this post, however, you, O reader, have read of persecution of some Christians by other Christians.

Blaise Pascal (1623-1662) wrote,

Men never do evil so completely and cheerfully as when they do it from religious conviction.

The history of organized religion has confirmed this statement, unfortunately.  Frequently adherents of one branch of a faith have persecuted and martyred members of other branches of that faith.  This was true in ancient times.  It has remained true to this day.  So has the reality of inter-religious persecution and martyrdom.  None of it has ever been holy.

May all who commit evil–especially from religious conviction–understand the error of their ways and repent.  Theological differences and arguments will always exist, but they can–and should–exist without the evil in the name of religious conviction accompanying one or more sides.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

MAY 12, 2018 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF SAINT GERMANUS OF CONSTANTINOPLE, PATRIARCH OF CONSTANTINOPLE AND DEFENDER OF ICONS

THE FEAST OF CHRISTIAN FRIEDRICH HASSE, GERMAN-BRITISH MORAVIAN COMPOSER AND EDUCATOR

THE FEAST OF SAINT GREGORY OF OSTIA, ROMAN CATHOLIC ABBOT, CARDINAL, AND LEGATE; AND SAINT DOMINIC OF THE CAUSEWAY, ROMAN CATHOLIC HERMIT

THE FEAST OF ROGER SCHÜTZ, FOUNDER OF THE TAIZÉ COMMUNITY

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God of grace and glory, we praise you for your servants

Saint Justin de Jacobis and Blessed Michael Ghebre,

who made the good news known in Ethiopia.

Raise up, we pray, in every country, heralds of the gospel,

so that the world may know the immeasurable riches of your love,

and be drawn to worship you, Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, one God, now and forever.  Amen.

Isaiah 62:1-7

Psalm 48

Romans 10:11-17

Luke 24:44-53

–Adapted from Evangelical Lutheran Worship (2006), 59

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Feast of Josiah and Eustace Conder (July 7)   2 comments

Above:  The Flag of England

Image in the Public Domain

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JOSIAH CONDER (SEPTEMBER 17, 1789-DECEMBER 27, 1855)

English Journalist and Congregationalist Hymn Writer

father of

EUSTACE ROGERS CONDER (APRIL 5, 1820-JULY 6, 1892)

English Congregationalist Minister and Hymn Writer

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INTRODUCTION

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The Conders were a distinguished family of English Dissenters–Congregationalists, to be precise.  Their Huguenot (properly pronounced u-guh-no) ancestry helped to explain this.

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JOSIAH CONDER

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Josiah Conder, born on September 17, 1789, at Falcon Street, Aldersgate, London, was a son of a bookseller, who was, in turn, son of a Congregationalist minister.  Thomas Conder, Josiah’s father, operated a bookstore.  Josiah, blind in the right eye since the age of six years because of small pox, went to work in the family business in his teens.  There he read voraciously, educating himself in many topics.  Josiah assumed control of the bookstore in 1811.

Josiah worked hard throughout his life yet never achieved financial security.  He was the editor of The Eclectic Review and The Patriot from 1814 to 1836.  Our saint also wrote may books, such as collections of original poems, a biography of John Bunyan, and a volume about geography.  Some of those poems were hymns.  Three of them graced Hymns Partly Collected and Partly Original, Designed as a Supplement to Dr. Watts’s Psalms and Hymns (1812), edited by William Bengo Collyer (1782-1854).  Twenty-four years later Josiah edited a seminal work, The Congregational Hymn-Book, A Supplement to Dr. Watts’s Psalms and Hymns (1836), for the Congregational Union of England and Wales.  The editor contributed about 60 of his hymns to this, the denomination’s first official hymnal.

Josiah, a friend of James Montgomery, was a political radical.  So was Josiah’s wife, Joan Elizabeth Thomas Conder (d. 1877), another writer.  The Conders were, for example, abolitionists in a society that accepted slavery.

Josiah died in London on December 27, 1855.  He was 66 years old.

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EUSTACE CONDER

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Eustace Conder was his father’s son, in the full sense of that term.  Eustace, like his great-grandfather, became a minister in the Congregationalist/Independent tradition.  After studying at Spring Hill College, Birmingham; and the University of London; Eustace joined the ranks of the clergy.  For 17 years he served at Poole.  Then, from 1861 to 1892, he was the pastor at East Parade Chapel, Leeds.  In 1873 Eustace became the leader of the Congregational Union of England and Wales.  He wrote about theology, as well as the life of Christ, and penned a collection of fairy tales, as well as a biography of his father.

Eustace wrote one hymn that has endured.  “Ye Fair Hills of Galilee,” written for the Congregational Church Hymnal (1887), seems to be the text of his that has proven most popular.

Eustace, aged 72 years, died in Poole on July 6, 1892.

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CONCLUSION

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A good hymnal is a fine source for names of saints.  The examples of Josiah and Eustace Conder prove this assertion.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

MAY 9, 2018 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF SAINTS STEFAN AND KAZIMIERZ GRELEWSKI, POLISH ROMAN CATHOLIC PRIESTS AND MARTYRS,  1941 AND 1942

THE FEAST OF DIETRICH BUXTEHUDE, LUTHERAN ORGANIST AND COMPOSER

THE FEAST OF DOROTHY DAY AND PETER LAURIN, COFOUNDERS OF THE CATHOLIC WORKER MOVEMENT

THE FEAST OF THOMAS TOKE LYNCH, ENGLISH CONGREGATIONALIST MINISTER AND HYMN WRITER

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Dear God of beauty,

you have granted literary ability and spiritual sensitivity to

Josiah Conder, Eustace Conder, and others, who have composed hymn texts.

May we, as you guide us,

find worthy hymn texts to be icons,

through which we see you.

In the Name of God:  Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.  Amen.

Sirach/Ecclesiasticus 44:1-3a, 5-15

Psalm 147

Revelation 5:11-14

Luke 2:8-20

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

APRIL 20, 2013 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF SAINTS AMATOR OF AUXERRE AND GERMANUS OF AUXERRE, ROMAN CATHOLIC BISHOPS; SAINT MAMERTINUS OF AUXERRE, ROMAN CATHOLIC ABBOT; AND SAINT MARCIAN OF AUXERRE, ROMAN CATHOLIC MONK

THE FEAST OF JOHANNES BUGENHAGEN, GERMAN LUTHERAN PASTOR

THE FEAST OF SAINT MARCELLINUS OF EMBRUN, ROMAN CATHOLIC BISHOP

THE FEAST OF OLAVUS AND LAURENTIUS PETRI, RENEWERS OF THE CHURCH

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