Archive for the ‘Saints of the 1830s’ Category

Feast of Sts. Domingo Henares de Zafira Cubero, Phanxico Do Van Chieu, and Clemente Ignacio Delgado Cebrian (June 25)   Leave a comment

Above:  Indochina, 1837

Image in the Public Domain

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SAINT DOMINGO HENARES DE ZAFIRA CUBERO (DECEMBER 19, 1765-JUNE 25, 1838)

Roman Catholic Bishop of Phunhay, Vietnam, and Martyr

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SAINT PHANXICÔ ÐO VAN CHIEU (CIRCA 1797-JUNE 25, 1838)

Vietnamese Roman Catholic Catechist and Martyr

Also known as Saint Francis Chieu

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SAINT CLEMENTE IGNACIO DELGADO CEBRIÁN (NOVEMBER 23, 1761-JULY 12, 1838)

Roman Catholic Bishop and Martyr in Vietnam

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Alternative feast day = November 24 (as Martyrs of Vietnam)

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St. Domingo Henares de Zafira Cubero spent much of his life in Vietnam.  He, born in Baena, Cordoba, Spain, on December 19, 1765, came from a poor family.  He joined the Dominicans (the Order of Preachers) at Granada, Spain, in 1783.  On September 29, 1785, Henares sailed from Asia.  He arrived in the Philippines on July 9, 1786.  There our saint studied theology at the College of St. Thomas, Manila and became a teacher.  Henares, ordained to the priesthood on September 18, 1790, became an Apostolic Vicar and the Titular Bishop of Fez on September 9, 1800.  From 1893 Henares was the Bishop of Phunhay, Vietnam.

One of his aides was St. Phanhixô Ðo Van Chieu, born in Trung Le, Liên Thùy, Nam Ðinh, Vietnam, circa 1797.  Chieu grew up a Christian.  He served as a catechist and assisted missionary priests.

The third saint was Clemente Ignacio Delgado Cebrián, born in Villafeliche, Zaragoza, Spain, on November 23, 1761.  He came from a devout family.  In 1780 Cebrián joined the Order of Preachers.  He, later ordained a priest, served as a missionary in the Philippines then in Vietnam.  Cebrián, from 1794 the Titular Bishop of Metellopolis, was, with Henares, an Apostolic Vicar.

Emperor Minh Mang (reigned 1820-1841) considered Christianity to be a threat to Vietnamese culture.  He therefore persecuted Christians, both foreign and domestic.  In 1838, at the beginning of the persecution, authorities arrested our three saints.  Henares and Chieu became martyrs (by beheading) on June 25, 1838.  Cebrián and several other Dominicans hid in a cave until May 13, 1838, when, after a betrayal, they became prisoners.  Cebrián spent his final weeks in a public cage, subject to abuse.  He died of thirst, hunger, and exposure to elements on July 12, 1838.

The Roman Catholic Church has recognized these saints.  Pope Leo XIII declared them Venerables in 1799 then Blesseds the following year.  Pope John Paul II canonized them in 1988.

Minh Mang’s policy of persecuting Christians failed to eliminate Christianity in Vietnam, obviously and fortunately.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

JANUARY 28, 2018 COMMON ERA

THE FOURTH SUNDAY AFTER THE EPIPHANY, YEAR B

THE FEAST OF SAINT ALBERT THE GREAT AND HIS PUPIL, SAINT THOMAS AQUINAS, ROMAN CATHOLIC THEOLOGIANS

THE FEAST OF CHARLES KINGSLEY, ANGLICAN PRIEST, NOVELIST, AND HYMN WRITER

THE FEAST OF JOSEPH BARNBY, ANGLICAN CHURCH MUSICIAN AND COMPOSER

THE FEAST OF RICHARD FREDERICK LITTLEDALE, ANGLICAN PRIEST AND TRANSLATOR OF HYMNS

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Almighty and everlasting God, who kindled the flame of your love in the hearts of your holy martyrs

Saint Domingo Henares de Zafira Cubero,

Saint Phanxicô Ðo Van Chieu, and

Saint Clemente Ignacio Delgado Cebrián:

Grant to us, your humble servants a like faith, and power of love,

that we who rejoice in their triumph may profit by their examples;

through Jesus Christ our Lord, who lives and reigns with you

and the Holy Spirit, one God, for ever and ever.  Amen.

Jeremiah 15:15-21

Psalm 124 or 31:1-5

1 Peter 4:12-19

Mark 8:34-38

–Adapted from Holy Women, Holy Men:  Celebrating the Saints (2010), page 715

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Feast of Enmegahbowh (June 12)   1 comment

Above:  Enmegahbowh

Image in the Public Domain

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ENMEGAHBOWH (1807/1813-JUNE 11/12, 1902)

Episcopal Priest and Missionary to the Ojibwa Nation

Also known as John Johnson

One route to a calendar of saints is to be the first person to do something.  Thus we come to case of Enmegahbowh, the first Native American to become an Episcopal priest, in 1867.  He was not, however, the first Native American to become a priest in the Anglican Communion; that man was Sakachuwescum, also known as Henry Budd, a Canadian Cree, in 1850.

Enmegahbowh, literally “the One who Stands Before his People,” was also from Canada.  He, born at Rice Lake, Ontario, in 1807 or 1813 (depending on the official Episcopal Church resource one consults), was Odawa (Ottawa)-Ojibwa/Chippewa.  He grew up a Christian, and a Methodist minister baptized him as John Johnson.  In 1832 our saint, then a Methodist missionary, arrived in the United States.  Eventually he attempted to return to Canada, but a storm on Lake Superior and a vision of Jonah stopped him.

Enmegahbowh became an Episcopalian in time, after receiving a copy of The Book of Common Prayer prior to 1850.  Eventually me met James Lloyd Breck, with whom he founded St. Columba’s Mission, Gull Lake, Minnesota.  Enmegahbown was a peacemaker.  The way he pursued that calling made him persona non grata among many Ojibwa/Chippewa for a time, but he did facilitate peace between the Dakota and the Ojibwa/Chippewa, in 1869.  Our saint, a missionary to the Ojibwa/Chippewa, became an Episcopal deacon (by the hands of Bishop Jackson Kemper) in 1859 then a priest (by the hands of Bishop Henry Benjamin Whipple of Minnesota) in 1867.  Enmegahbowh ministered at the White Earth Reservation in Minnesota until his death on June 11 or 12 (depending on the official Episcopal Church resource one consults), 1902.

Certainly part of Enmegahbowh’s legacy is the active presence of The Episcopal Church among indigenous peoples in Minnesota.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

JANUARY 23, 2018 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF SAINT JOHN THE ALMSGIVER, ROMAN CATHOLIC PATRIACH OF ALEXANDRIA

THE FEAST OF CASPAR NEUMANN, GERMAN LUTHERAN MINISTER AND HYMN WRITER

THE FEAST OF PHILLIPS BROOKS, EPISCOPAL BISHOP OF MASSACHUSETTS

THE FEAST OF THOMAS A. DOOLEY, PHYSICIAN AND HUMANITARIAN

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Almighty God, you led your pilgrim people of old with fire and cloud:

Grant that the ministers of your Church, following the example of blessed Enmegahbowh,

may stand before your holy people, leading them with fiery zeal and gentle humility.

This we ask through Jesus, the Christ, who lives and reigns with

you in the unity of the Holy Spirit, one God now and for ever.  Amen.

Isaiah 52:7-10

Psalm 129

1 Peter 5:1-4

Luke 6:17-23

Holy Women, Holy Men:  Celebrating the Saints (2010), page 423

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Feast of Chief Seattle (June 7)   Leave a comment

Above:  Chief Seattle

Image in the Public Domain

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SEATTLE (CIRCA 1786-JUNE 7, 1866)

First Nations Chief, War Leader, and Diplomat

Also known as Si’al and Si’ahl

Chief Seattle comes to my Ecumenical Calendar of Saints’ Days and Holy Days via the calendar of saints of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America.  In Frederick E. Hoxie’s Encyclopedia of North American Indians (1996) Jay Miller’s profile of Seattle describes him as

Duwamish, Suquamish, and Lushootseed war leader and diplomat.

The chief is a welcome addition to my project of hagiographies.

Chief Seattle commanded respect from tribesman and White settlers alike.  His birthplace was the location now known as Blake Island, in Elliott Bay, near the site of the city of Seattle.  Our saint, born circa 1786, came from tribal nobility.  His father was Shweabe, of the Suquamish, from the west side of Puget Sound.  Seattle’s mother was Sholitza, of he Duwamish, from the other side of Puget Sound.  Our saint became a chief in the early twenties.  With his first wife, Ladaila, Seattle had a daughter, Kikioblu (Angeline).  After Ladaila died the chief married Owiyal, with whom he had two sons and three daughters.

Seattle was a respected chief, war leader, and orator.  By the late 1700s the unfortunate combination of guns and epidemics had led to a series of tribal wars in the area of the Puget Sound.  The subsequent addition of White settlers made the troubles of indigenous people greater.  Over the years Chief Seattle led a number of successful raids.  He was, not, however, a warmonger.  Our saint understood matters of self-defense.

Chief Seattle became a Christian in 1838.  That year a Roman Catholic priest baptized him and gave him the baptismal name Noah.  The reason for this choice was Seattle’s enjoyment of the parallels between the flood stories of the Suquamish people and the Book of Genesis.

Chief Seattle gave up violence in 1847, when one of his sons died in a raid on another Indian village.  Our saint then turned to diplomacy full-time.  In the Treaty of Port Elliott (1855) tribes in the Puget Sound area exchanged 54,000 acres for hunting rights, fishing rights, education, health care, payments, and reservations.  Violations of the treaty by some White settlers led to the Indian War (1855-1858).  In 1856 Chief Seattle learned of a planned attack on the settlement of Seattle, named after him against his wishes.  He helped the White settlers by sharing the information with them.  He was done waging war.

In 1855 Chief Seattle wrote a profound letter to U.S. President Franklin Pierce, one of the least of the American leaders, in terms of quality:

THE GREAT CHIEF in Washington sends word that he wishes to buy our land. The Great Chief also sends us words of friendship and good will. This is kind of him, since we know he has little need of our friendship in return. But we will consider your offer, for we know if we do not so the white man may come with guns and take our land. What Chief Seattle says you can count on as truly as our white brothers can count on the return of the seasons. My words are like the stars – they do not set.

How can you buy or sell the sky – the warmth of the land? The idea is strange to us. Yet we do not own the freshness of the air or the sparkle of the water. How can you buy them from us? We will decide in our time. Every part of this earth is sacred to my people. Every shining pine needle, every sandy shore, every mist in the dark woods, every clearing, and every humming insect is holy in the memory and experience of my people.

We know that the white man does not understand our ways. One portion of land is the same to him as the next, for he is a stranger who comes in the night and takes from the land whatever he needs. The earth is not his brother, but his enemy, and when he has conquered it, he moves on. He leaves his father’s graves and his children’s birthright is forgotten. The sight of your cities pains the eyes of the redman. But perhaps it is because the redman is a savage and does not understand.

There is no quiet place in the white man’s cities. No place to listen to the leaves of spring or the rustle of insect wings. But perhaps because I am a savage and do not understand – the clatter only seems to insult the ears. And what is there to life if a man cannot hear the lovely cry of the whippoorwill or the arguments of the frogs around a pond at night? The Indian prefers the soft sound of the wind itself cleansed by a mid-day rain, or scented by a pinõn pine: The air is precious to the redman. For all things share the same breath – the beasts, the trees, and the man. The white man does not seem to notice the air he breathes. Like a man dying for many days, he is numb to the stench.

If I decide to accept, I will make one condition. The white man must treat the beasts of this land as his brothers. I am a savage and I do not understand any other way. I have seen thousands of rotting buffaloes on the prairie left by the white man who shot them from a passing train. I am a savage and do not understand how the smoking iron horse can be more important than the buffalo that we kill only to stay alive. What is man without the beasts? If all the beasts were gone, men would die from great loneliness of spirit, for whatever happens to the beast also happens to the man.

All things are connected. Whatever befalls the earth befalls the sons of the earth.

Our children have seen their fathers humbled in defeat. Our warriors have felt shame. And after defeat they turn their days in idleness and contaminate their bodies with sweet food and strong drink. It matters little where we pass the rest of our days – they are not many. A few more hours, a few more winters, and none of the children of the great tribes that once lived on this earth, or that roamed in small bands in the woods will remain to mourn the graves of the people once as powerful and hopeful as yours.

One thing we know that the white man may one day discover. Our God is the same God. You may think that you own him as you wish to own our land, but you cannot. He is the Body of man, and his compassion is equal for the redman and the white. This earth is precious to him, and to harm the earth is to heap contempt on its Creator. The whites, too, shall pass – perhaps sooner than other tribes. Continue to contaminate your bed, and you will one night suffocate in your own waste. When the buffalo are all slaughtered, the wild horses all tamed, the secret corners of the forest heavy with the scent of many men, and the view of the ripe hills blotted by the talking wires, where is the thicket? Gone. Where is the eagle? Gone. And what is it to say goodbye to the swift and the hunt? The end of living and the beginning of survival.

We might understand if we knew what it was the white man dreams, what hopes he describes to his children on long winter nights, what visions he burns into their minds, so they will wish for tomorrow. But we are savages. The white man’s dreams are hidden from us. And because they are hidden, we will go our own way. If we agree, it will be to secure your reservation you have promised.

There perhaps we may live out our brief days as we wish. When the last redman has vanished from the earth, and the memory is only the shadow of a cloud passing over the prairie, these shores and forests will still hold the spirits of my people, for they love this earth as the newborn loves its mother’s heartbeat. If we sell you our land, love it as we have loved it. Care for it as we have cared for it. Hold in your memory the way the land is as you take it. And with all your strength, with all your might, and with all your heart – preserve it for your children, and love it as God loves us all. One thing we know – our God is the same. This earth is precious to him. Even the white man cannot escape the common destiny.

Chief Seattle, who frequently visited the settlement named after him and was at love and charity with his neighbors, died at the Port Madison Reservation on June 7, 1866.  He was about 80 years old.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

JANUARY 18, 2018 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF THE CONFESSION OF SAINT PETER THE APOSTLE

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Holy and righteous God, you created us in your image.

Grant us grace to contend fearlessly against evil and to make no peace with oppression.

Help us, like your servant Chief Seattle, to work for justice among people and nations,

to the glory of your name, through Jesus Christ, our Savior and Lord,

who lives and reigns with you and the Holy Spirit, one God, now and forever.  Amen.

Hosea 2:18-23

Psalm 94:1-15

Romans 12:9-21

Luke 6:20-36

–Adapted from Evangelical Lutheran Worship (2006), page 60

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Feast of Josephine Butler (May 30)   Leave a comment

Above:  One of Josephine Butler’s Political Handbills

Image in the Public Domain

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JOSEPHINE ELIZABETH GREY BUTLER (APRIL 13, 1828-DECEMBER 30, 1906)

English Feminist and Social Reformer

The feast day for Josephine Butler–suffragette, advocate for educational equality for males and females, and activist against human trafficking–in The Church of England is May 30.

Josephine Elizabeth Grey came from a politically active family.  Her mother, Hannah Annett Butler, descended from Huguenots, an oppressed population.  Our saint’s father, John Grey, was an antislavery activist.  His cousin, Charles Grey, the Second Earl Grey, was the leader of the Whig Party and the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1830 to 1834 whose government abolished slavery in the British Empire.  Our saint, born on April 13, 1828, married George Butler, an academic and later the Canon of Winchester, in 1852.  The couple had four children.

Josephine became politically and socially involved after the death of her six-year-old daughter in 1863.  Our saint channeled her grief into social reform–initially regarding women’s suffrage and the fight against child prostitution.  She was partially responsible for Parliament increasing the age of consent from 13 to 16 years.  After the Butlers moved to Liverpool in 1866 Josephine began her work related to the rehabilitation of prostitutes.  The Contagious Diseases Acts (1864, 1866, and 1869) allowed for the arrest of women suspected of being prostitutes at naval stations and in garrison towns.  Those laws also mandated the medical examination of these suspects and, upon diagnosis of venereal disease, their hospitalization.  Our saint created a scandal by speaking and writing openly about this “unladylike” topic in Victorian England.  She argued that the Contagious Disease Acts were not only ineffective as public health measures but also in violation of the constitutional rights of suspects.  Parliament suspended the laws in 1883 and 1886.  Josephine also lobbied European governments no longer to license brothels, frequently hubs of human trafficking, including the sale of children, and founded the International Abolitionist Federation (in 1877) to combat human trafficking.  Supporters of her international anti-human trafficking crusade included William Lloyd Garrison and Victor Hugo.

Our saint also advocated for the educational equality of males and females.  Her lobbying of the administration of Cambridge University led to the founding of Newnham College for women in 1871.  Butler also served as the President of the North of England Council for the Higher Education of Women, starting in 1867,

Our saint, aged 78 years, died on December 30, 1906, at Wooler, Northumberland, England.  She had not lived long enough to see women gain the right to vote, but she had left the world better than she had found it.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

DECEMBER 9, 2017 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF KARL BARTH, SWISS REFORMED MINISTER, THEOLOGIAN, AND BIBLICAL SCHOLAR; FATHER OF MARKUS BARTH, SWISS LUTHERAN MINISTER AND BIBLICAL SCHOLAR

THE FEAST OF GEORG FRIEDRICH HELLSTROM, DUTCH-GERMAN MORAVIAN MUSICIAN, COMPOWER, AND EDUCATOR

THE FEAST OF SAINT PETER FOURIER, “THE GOOD PRIEST OF MATTAINCOURT;” AND SAINT ALIX LE CLERC, FOUNDRESS OF THE CONGREGATION OF NOTRE DAME OF CANONESSES REGULAR OF SAINT AUGUSTINE

THE FEAST OF SAINT WALTER CISZEK, ROMAN CATHOLIC MISSIONARY PRIEST AND POLITICAL PRISONER

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Holy and righteous God, you created us in your image.

Grant us grace to contend fearlessly against evil and to make no peace with oppression.

Help us, like your servant Josephine Butler, to work for justice among people and nations,

to the glory of your name, through Jesus Christ, our Savior and Lord,

who lives and reigns with you and the Holy Spirit, one God, now and forever.  Amen.

Hosea 2:18-23

Psalm 94:1-15

Romans 12:9-21

Luke 6:20-36

–Adapted from Evangelical Lutheran Worship (2006), page 60

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Feast of Amelia Bloomer (May 27)   1 comment

Above:  Amelia Bloomer

Image in the Public Domain

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AMELIA JENKS BLOOMER (MAY 27, 1818-DECEMBER 18, 1894)

U.S. Suffragette

On the calendar of saints of The Episcopal Church the feast of Amelia Bloomer is July 20.  On that calendar, however, she shares that date with Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Sojourner Truth, and Harriet Ross Tubman.  On this, my Ecumenical Calendar of Saints’ Days and Holy Days, I am in the process of breaking up that joint commemoration.

Amelia Jenks, born in Homer, New York, on May 27, 1818, came from a devout Presbyterian family.  She, the youngest of six children, grew up to become a teacher and an activist.  She worked for temperance, the end of slavery, and the establishment of equal rights for women with men in the United States.  She married attorney Dexter Bloomer in Seneca Falls, New York, on April 13, 1840.  Our saint wrote political articles for her husband’s newspaper.  She attended the first women’s rights convention in Seneca Falls in 1848.  The following year our saint began to publish The Lily, a newspaper advocating for temperance, women’s suffrage, and legal and social equality for women.  She published that newspaper through 1855.  Furthermore, she began her journeys on the lecture circuit in 1851.

Above:  Title Page of the Bloomer Waltz, 1851

Image Source = Library of Congress

Reproduction Number = LC-USZC4-3591

In 1851 Bloomer began to wear the loose-fitting clothes (designed by Elizabeth Smith Miller) that became known as bloomers.  Bloomers came to replace corsets for many women, for corsets were not only uncomfortable but the causes of health problems.  Certain ministers, citing the Law of Moses’s injunction against women dressing like men, condemned bloomers as immoral.  Our saint replied that (1) the Law of Moses was irrelevant in this matter and (2) if these clergymen really cared about the Law of Moses, they would add fringes to their garments.

Our saint, associate editor of The Western Home Journal in the early 1850s, resided with her husband in Mount Vernon, Ohio, in 1854-1855, before they relocated to the frontier town of Council Bluffs, Iowa.  There the family remained.  There our saint, an Episcopalian, became deeply involved in civic life, helping to start schools and a library.  She also served as the first President of the Iowa Suffrage Association from 1871 to 1873.  Furthermore, Bloomer supported a variety of charities to help poor people.

Bloomer died, aged 76 years, at Council Bluffs on December 30, 1894.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

DECEMBER 9, 2017 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF KARL BARTH, SWISS REFORMED MINISTER, THEOLOGIAN, AND BIBLICAL SCHOLAR; FATHER OF MARKUS BARTH, SWISS LUTHERAN MINISTER AND BIBLICAL SCHOLAR

THE FEAST OF GEORG FRIEDRICH HELLSTROM, DUTCH-GERMAN MORAVIAN MUSICIAN, COMPOWER, AND EDUCATOR

THE FEAST OF SAINT PETER FOURIER, “THE GOOD PRIEST OF MATTAINCOURT;” AND SAINT ALIX LE CLERC, FOUNDRESS OF THE CONGREGATION OF NOTRE DAME OF CANONESSES REGULAR OF SAINT AUGUSTINE

THE FEAST OF SAINT WALTER CISZEK, ROMAN CATHOLIC MISSIONARY PRIEST AND POLITICAL PRISONER

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Holy and righteous God, you created us in your image.

Grant us grace to contend fearlessly against evil and to make no peace with oppression.

Help us, like your servant Amelia Bloomer, to work for justice among people and nations,

to the glory of your name, through Jesus Christ, our Savior and Lord,

who lives and reigns with you and the Holy Spirit, one God, now and forever.  Amen.

Hosea 2:18-23

Psalm 94:1-15

Romans 12:9-21

Luke 6:20-36

–Adapted from Evangelical Lutheran Worship (2006), page 60

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Feast of Sts. Madeleine-Sophie Barat and Rose Philippine Duchesne (May 25)   Leave a comment

Above:  Sacred Heart Convent, Saint Charles, Missouri

Image Source = Library of Congress

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SAINT MADELEINE-SOPHIE BARAT (DECEMBER 12, 1779-MAY 25, 1865)

Foundress of the Society of the Sacred Heart

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SAINT ROSE PHILIPPINE DUCHESNE (AUGUST 29, 1769-NOVEMBER 18, 1852)

Roman Catholic Nun and Missionary

Her feast transferred from November 18

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Let us attach ourselves to God alone, and turn our eyes and hopes to Him.

–St. Madeleine-Sophie Barat

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We cultivate a very small field for Christ, but we love it, knowing that God does not require great achievements but a heart that holds back nothing for self.

–St. Rose Philippine Duchesne

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This post is about two nuns, members of the Society of the Sacred Heart.

The founder of that order was St. Madeleine-Sophie Barat, born in the village of Joigny, Burgundy, France, on December 12, 1779.  When she was young our saint worked in vineyards, to which her father, Jacques Barat, supplied the barrels.  Her older brother Louis, a monk, supervised her early education.  He took her to Paris in 1795.  At the time our saint aspired to become a Carmelite lay sister.  The turmoil of the French Revolution changed her mind, however.  On November 21, 1800, with the help of Father Joseph Varin and four women, the first sisters of the new order, our saint founded the Society of the Sacred Heart.

Like many other female monastic orders, the Society of the Sacred Heart specialized in the education of girls and women.  Another purpose of the new order was to restore Christian life in France, in the wake of the French Revolution, which Napoleon Bonaparte had recently put out of its misery.  Barat, Superior General of the order from 1806 until her death in Paris on May 25, 1865, presided over the expansion of the Society to include 105 houses and 3,359 women in Europe, Africa, and the Americas.

Barat’s leadership style was one more people should study and emulate.  She preferred to consult rather than to dictate.  Our saint also aimed for realistic resolutions, not impossible goals.  Her style of leadership yielded great results, for the glory of God and the benefit of many people.

Some of those houses and nuns were in the United States of America.  The nun who introduced the Society of the Sacred Heart to the U.S.A. was St. Rose Philippine Duchesne, born in Grenoble, France, on August 29, 1769.  She came from a wealthy and politically connected family.  Her father, Pierre François Duchesne, was an attorney and a businessman.  Her mother, Rose Perier (Duchesne), came from a family prominent in the Dauphine region of France.  Our saint, as a girl of eight years, developed a vocation to become a missionary to the Americas after hearing a Jesuit missionary to the Americas speak.  She, tutored at home until the age of 12 years, studied under the tutelage of the Visitation Sisters at Grenoble until her nineteenth year of life.  Then Duchesne joined that order.

Then the French Revolution intervened.  In 1792 the government closed Duchesne’s convent.  She spent the next few years as a lay woman, educating poor children, caring for the sick, and providing shelter for priests.  In 1804 she became a postulant in the Society of the Sacred Heart.  Our saint made her final vows the following year.  Ten years later Duchesne founded a convent in Paris.

Duchesne spent much of her life in the United States.  She and four sisters sailed for the port of New Orleans on March 14, 1818.  Due to diseases she nearly died during the voyage.  Then Duchesne almost died during the trip up the Mississippi River.  She established her first mission in Saint Charles, Missouri.  She operated the first free school west of the Mississippi River.  During the ensuing decades Duchesne founded six more houses, including schools and orphanages.

Duchesne, who retired from her administrative duties at the age of 71 years, card deeply about the indigenous people of North America.  Their problems troubled her, so she acted.  She fought the abuse of alcohol and extended educational efforts to First Nations females.  At the age of 71 years Duchesne began a year-long effort to evangelize members of the Pottawatomie Nation, with whose language she struggled.  Tribesmen called her “Woman-Who-Prays-Always.”

Duchesne spent the final decade of her life praying constantly while dwelling in a shack at the convent in Saint Charles, Missouri.  She died, aged 82 years, on November 18, 1852.

Holy Mother Church recognized these great women.  Pope Pius X declared Barat a Venerable in 1905 then a Blessed three years later.  Pope Pius XI canonized her in 1925.  Ten years later he declared Duchesne a Venerable.  Pope Pius XII beatified her in 1940.  Pope John Paul II canonized Duchesne in 1988.

It is fitting to consider the lives of these two saints in the context of each other.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

DECEMBER 2, 2017 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF CHANNING MOORE WILLIAMS, EPISCOPAL MISSIONARY BISHOP IN CHINA AND JAPAN

THE FEAST OF ALICE FREEMAN PALMER, U.S. EDUCATOR AND HYMN WRITER

THE FEAST OF SAINT BRIOC, ROMAN CATHOLIC ABBOT; AND SAINT TUDWAL, ROMAN CATHOLIC ABBOT AND BISHOP

THE FEAST OF SAINT OSMUND OF SALISBURY, ROMAN CATHOLIC BISHOP

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Our God, by whose grace your servants

Saint Madeleine-Sophie Barat and Saint Rose Philippine Duchesne,

kindled with the flame of your love, became a burning and a shining light in your Church:

Grant that we may also be aflame with the spirit of love and discipline,

and walk before you as children of light;

through Jesus Christ our Lord, who lives and reigns with you,

in the unity of the Holy Spirit, one God, now and for ever.  Amen.

Acts of the Apostles 2:42-47a

Psalm 133 or 34:1-8 or 119:161-168

2 Corinthians 6:1-10

Matthew 6:24-33

Holy Women, Holy Men:  Celebrating the Saints (2010), page 723

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Feast of Jackson Kemper (May 24)   1 comment

Above:  Jackson Kemper, 1855

Image Source = Library of Congress

Reproduction Number = LC-DIG-cwpbh-01884

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JACKSON KEMPER (DECEMBER 24, 1789-MAY 24, 1870)

Episcopal Missionary Bishop

Jackson Kemper was the first missionary bishop in The Episcopal Church.  He held various titles during his ministerial career.  Perhaps the most appropriate one was “Bishop of All Outdoors,” which he applied to himself.  Also apt was “The Bishop of the Whole Northwest,” given his importance to The Episcopal Church in the Old Northwest of the United States.

Kemper, who spent most of his life in the Midwest and the Old Northwest, came from the East.  He, born on February 24, 1789, hailed from Pleasant Valley, New York.  He studied at Columbia College, where John Henry Hobart (1775-1830), who became the Bishop of New York in 1816, became his mentor.  Kemper, who graduated in 1809, joined the ranks of Episcopal deacons two years later and became a priest in 1814.  From 1811 to 1831 he was one of the assistants serving under William White (1747-1836).  White was a major figure in The Episcopal Church.  He was an assistant priest at Christ Church, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (1772-1779); the Rector of Christ Church, Philadelphia (1779-1836); the Chaplain of the Second Continental Congress (1777-1781); the Chaplain of the Confederation Congress (1781-1788); the Chaplain of the United States Senate (1789-1800); the Bishop of Pennsylvania (1787-1836); and the Presiding Bishop of The Episcopal Church (1789 and 1795-1836).  Kemper was White’s agent in western Pennsylvania, traveling in the wilds on behalf of the Diocese of Pennsylvania and the new Society for the Advancement of Christianity in Pennsylvania while keeping track of Episcopal Church work on the frontier of that state.  He also traveled into western Virginia (now West Virginia) and Ohio in that capacity.  Kemper convinced the 78-year-old White to embark on a 800-mile long journey into western Pennsylvania, to pay pastoral visits in 1826.

Kemper was also a pioneer in the Sunday School movement in the United States.  In 1814 he and another assistant, James Milnor, founded a Sunday school immediately north of Philadelphia.  This was the first Sunday school in The Episcopal Church and the United States.

Kemper left the Diocese of Pennsylvania in 1831.  For four years he was the Rector of St. Paul’s Church, Norwalk, Connecticut.

On September 25, 1835, Kemper acquired another title and a different set of responsibilities when he became the Bishop of Missouri and Indiana.  He, a high churchman, became the first missionary bishop in The Episcopal Church.  In 1836, at St. Louis, Missouri, our saint founded a college for training priests.  Kemper College, as friends called it contrary to his wishes, struggled financially due to the Panic of 1837 and closed in 1845.  Despite his title, Kemper’s work extended far beyond Missouri and Indian.  In 1837 and 1838 he and Bishop James Harvey Otey of Tennessee visited Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, and Florida.

The Diocese of Georgia, organized with three parishes (Christ Church, Savannah; Christ Church, Frederica, St. Simon’s Island; and St. Paul’s, Augusta) in 1823, did not have its own bishop until 1841.  By that time the diocese had grown to six congregations.  The newer churches were Christ Church, Macon; Trinity Church, Columbus; and Grace Church, Clarkesville.  On March 25, 1838, Kemper dedicated the new edifice of Christ Church, Macon, and conducted the first confirmation service in Middle Georgia.  On June 3 of that year our saint dedicated the new building of Trinity Church, Columbus.

The territorial range of Kemper’s episcopal jurisdiction expanded and contracted over time.  After 1838, for example, our saint was also responsible for Iowa and Wisconsin, but Bishop Leonidas Polk’s new territory covered parts of the South.  Over time Kemper became responsible for Kansas, Nebraska, and Minnesota, also.  Along the way new dioceses elected their bishops.  He visited the East to recruit missionary priests and raise funds.  Two of his recruits were John Henry Hopkins, Jr., and James Lloyd Breck (1818-1876), “The Apostle of the Wilderness.”  These men were some of the founders of St. John-in-the-Wilderness Church, Waukesha, Wisconsin, in 1841, and Nashotah House, Nashotah, Wisconsin, the following year.  Kemper also founded Racine College, Racine, Wisconsin, in 1852.

Kemper’s legacy was impressive.  It included seven dioceses–Missouri (1840), Indiana (1841), Wisconsin (1847), Iowa (1853), Minnesota (1857), Kansas (1859), and Nebraska (1868).  From 1859 until his death in 1870 Kemper was simply the Bishop of Wisconsin.  His legacy also included ministry to indigenous people.  Our saint, an advocate of such work, helped to found a mission to Native Americans in Minnesota, in 1859.

Kemper, aged 80 years, died at Nashotah, Wisconsin, on May 24, 1870.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

NOVEMBER 22, 2017 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF ROBERT SEAGRAVE, ANGLICAN PRIEST AND HYMN WRITER

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Lord God, in your providence Jackson Kemper was chosen first missionary bishop in this land,

and by his arduous labor and travel congregations were established in scattered settlements of the West:

Grant that the Church may always be faithful to its mission,

and have the vision, courage, and perseverance to make known to all people the Good News of Jesus Christ;

who with you and the Holy Spirit lives and reigns, one God, for ever and ever.  Amen.

Exodus 15:22-25

Psalm 67

1 Corinthians 3:8-11

Matthew 28:16-20

Holy Women, Holy Men:  Celebrating the Saints (2010), page 385

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