Archive for the ‘Saints of the 1850s’ Category

Feast of Leo XIII (July 20)   Leave a comment

Above:  His Holiness, Pope Leo XIII

Image in the Public Domain

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GIACCHINO VINCENZO PECCI (MARCH 2, 1810-JULY 20, 1903)

Bishop of Rome

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I want to see the church so far forward that my successor will not be able to turn it back.

–Pope Leo XIII, quoted in Robert Ellsberg, All Saints:  Daily Reflections on Saints, Prophets, and Witnesses for Our Time (New York:  The Crossroad Publishing Company, 1997), 308

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That successor, St. Pius X (1903-1914), turned the Church back for more than half a century, until Popes St. John XXIII (1958-1963) and Blessed Paul VI (1963-1978) presided over the Second Vatican Council (1959-1965).

One of the patterns in organized Christianity since the Enlightenment has been conflict between traditions (especially in theology) and the modern world.  Sometimes, as Leo XIII understood well, conflicts have been unnecessary–even detrimental to the Church, while having their origins in the Church.

Giacchino Vincenzo Pecci, born in Carpinto, near Rome, on March 2, 1810, came from lesser nobility.  At an early age he manifested a keen intellect, which he used throughout his life.  Pecci, studying at Viterbo (1818-1824), the Roman College (1824-1832), and the Academy of Noble Ecclesiastics (1832-1837), joined the ranks of priests in 1837.

Father–later Archbishop, Bishop, and Cardinal–Pecci engaged with the realities of industrial Europe.  He, the Titular Archbishop of Damietta in 1843 and simultaneously the nuncio to Belgium (1843-1846), served as the Bishop of Perugia (1846-1878).  Our saint, Cardinal Pecci from 1853, modernized the curriculum of the seminary in his diocese, encouraged Scholastic theology, and, by 1878, had become the Camerlengo of the Church.  In 1878, Blessed Pius IX, a reactionary Supreme Pontiff who preferred Medieval Catholicism, favored the divine right of kings, considered constitutional government incompatible with Christianity, and practiced Anti-Semitism, died.  Pecci, as the Camerlengo, was in charge between Popes. In February 1878 he became the next Pope as Leo XIII.  He was 67 years old and not in the best of health.  The man predicted to be a stop-gap Pope served for a quarter of a century, until 1903, dying at the age of 93.

Leo XIII stood firmly within Roman Catholic tradition, for better and worse.  In some ways he was quite conservative when he should not have been.  He sought the restoration of Papal temporal power, the Index survived, and, in 1896, the Church declared Anglican holy orders invalid, for example.  Yet Leo XIII was also relatively progressive.  In 1879 he elevated Father John Henry Newman (1801-1890), suspected of heterodoxy, to the College of Cardinals.  (How conservative must one have been to call Newman too liberal?)  This decision upset many conservatives in the Church.  When Leo XIII recognized the French Third Republic he scandalized French Roman Catholic monarchists.  Lifting Blessed Pius IX’s ban on Roman Catholics voting in Italian elections was another indication of liberalism.  Roman Catholicism and representative government, Leo XIII declared, contradicting his predecessor.

Economic justice was crucial, Leo XIII.  He condemned Marxism, communism, and laissez-faire capitalism.  The Pope wrote in favor of labor unions, the right of collective bargaining, a living wage, and safe working conditions.  All of this was a matter of ethics and the dignity or work, for the Supreme Pontiff.

Leo XIII was also open to science and scholarship.  He encouraged some critical scholarship of the Bible (St. Pius X did not encourage any.), reopened the Vatican Observatory, opened the Vatican Library to scholars without regard to creed, and encouraged Roman Catholic scholars to do their work objectively.  The author of 86 encyclicals in 25 years stood within the strain of Roman Catholicism that found faith and reason compatible.  That strain included St. Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274), whose theology Leo XIII had long encouraged people to study.

Leo XIII, while affirming his papal authority (of course), engaged the non-Roman Catholic Christian world.  The 1896 decree about the invalidity of Anglican holy orders was a setback, but he did call non-Roman Catholic Christians “separated brothers.”  St. John XXIII (1958-1963) did the same in a more ecumenical age.  Leo XIII also invited “separated brothers” to reunite with Holy Mother Church.

Leo XIII would have made St. Justin de Jacobis (1800-1860) glad.  The Pope encouraged evangelization, especially outside Europe.  Leo XIII also favored educating indigenous priests, an effective strategy in missions.

Leo XIII, aged 93 years, died at the Vatican on July 20, 1903.  He was simultaneously conservative and liberal, by the standards of his time.  He foreshadowed reforms that started decades after his death.

Consider ecclesiastical politics, O reader.  The reactionary Pius IX is a Blessed, on the path to canonization.  Leo XIII is not even a Venerable.  Pius X, slightly less reactionary than Pius IX, is a full saint.  The less one says and writes about Pius XII, a Venerable, the better.  John XXIII, who opened Vatican II, is a full saint.  (How can Pius X and John XXIII both be full saints?)  Paul VI, who concluded the Second Vatican Council, is a Blessed.  The very nice John Paul I, who forgot to take his medicine and therefore had a brief Pontifficate, is a Venerable.  And John Paul II is a full saint, due to a fast-tracked canonization process.  To some extent one can identify the legacy of Leo XIII in each of his successors.  The legacy of Leo XIII is especially strong in Pope Francis.

I, as an Episcopalian, a member of a church with valid holy orders, belong to a tradition that teaches that history makes saints.  I count legacies, not miracles.  I, one of those “separated brothers” of whom Leo XIII and St. John XXIII wrote and spoke, hereby enroll Leo XIII, Servant of the Servants of God, in my Ecumenical Calendar of Saints’ Days and Holy Days.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

MAY 21, 2018 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF CHRISTIAN DE CHERGÉ AND HIS COMPANIONS, MARTYRS OF TIBHIRINE, ALGERIA, 1996

THE FEAST OF EUGENE DE MAZENOD, BISHOP OF MARSEILLES AND FOUNDER OF THE CONGREGATION OF THE MISSIONARIES, OBLATES OF MARY IMMACULATE

THE FEAST OF SAINT FRANZ JÄGGERSTÄTTER, AUSTRIAN ROMAN CATHOLIC CONSCIENTIOUS OBJECTOR AND MARTYR, 1943

THE FEAST OF JOSEPH ADDISON AND ALEXANDER POPE, ENGLISH POETS

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Almighty God, you have raised up faithful bishops of your church,

including your servant Pope Leo XIII.

May the memory of his life be a source of joy for us and a bulwark of our faith,

so that we may serve and confess your name before the world,

through Jesus Christ, our Savior and Lord, who lives and reigns

with you and the Holy Spirit, one God, now and forever.  Amen.

Ezekiel 34:11-16 or Acts 20:17-35

Psalm 84

1 Peter 5:1-4 or Ephesians 3:14-21

John 21:15-17 or Matthew 24:42-47

–Adapted from Evangelical Lutheran Worship (2006), 60

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Feast of St. Justin de Jacobis and Blessed Michael Ghebre (July 14)   1 comment

Above:  Map of Ethiopia (Abyssinia) in 1850

Image in the Public Domain

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SAINT JUSTIN DE JACOBIS (OCTOBER 9, 1800-JULY 31, 1860)

Roman Catholic Missionary Bishop in Ethiopia

Also known as Saint Giustino de Jacobis

His feast transferred from July 31

converted

BLESSED MICHAEL GHEBRE (1788/1791-JULY 30, 1855)

Ethiopian Roman Catholic Priest and Martyr

Also known as Ghébre-Michael

Alternative feast day = September 1

One of my goals in renovating my Ecumenical Calendar of Saints’ Days and Holy Days is to emphasize relationships and influences.  July 14, on the Roman Catholic calendar, is the Feast of Blessed Michael Ghebre.  On the same calendar July 31 is the feast of St. Justin (Giustino in Italian) de Jacobis, who converted him.  One can tell their stories separately, of course, but one can tell those stories more effectively together.

St. Justin fame from and worked in southern Italy, prior to national unification on that peninsula.  He, born in Sam Fele, Luciana, south of Naples, came from a once-wealthy family.  He, after having grown up mostly in Naples, joined the Vincentians in on October 17, 1818.  He was 18 years old.  St. Justin took his vows on October 18, 1820.  Then, at Brindisi, he became a priest on June 12, 1824.  St. Justin spent most of fifteen years giving missions and retreats in southern Italy, with some time off for other duties.  By 1834 he had become a much sought-after preacher and confessor also.  From 1834 to 1836 St. Justin was the Vincentian superior in Leece.  Next he directed seminarians in Naples, emphasizing personal prayer.  At Naples, in 1836-1837, our saint ministered to victims of an outbreak of cholera.  In 1838-1839 St. Justin was the superior of the Vincentian Provincial House at Naples.  He was on track to become a bishop in the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies when he chose instead to found the Roman Catholic in Ethiopia (Abyssinia).

The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church, subordinate to the Coptic Church (Egyptian) until 1959, dated to the 300s, when St. Athanasius of Alexandria (d. 373) dispatched St. Frumentius (d. circa 380) as a missionary.  St. Frumentius became the first Abuna, or Patriarch, of of the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church, often called simply the Ethiopian Orthodox Church.  Christianity in that region of Africa owed much to St. Philip the Evangelist, one of the earliest Christian deacons, hopefully not confused with St. Philip the Apostle.  Over time the Ethiopian Orthodox Church parted Christological ways with Rome, embracing monophysitism, the heresy that Christ had just one nature–divine.

The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church has long been one of the great, defining cultural institutions in that country.  It has coexisted with strong Jewish elements (due to the presence of one of the ten Lost Tribes of Israel–one descended from the tribe of Dan, to be precise) and varieties of paganism.  Since the Arab conquest of much of northern Africa in the 600s Islam has been a factor in the region.  As if all that were not enough, political struggles between Ethiopia emperors and provincial potentates were contributing to a tense situation by the 1830s.  What was political?  What was religious?  Was there a difference?

St. Justin stepped into this political and religious milieu in 1839.  He pioneered effective missionary tactics that proved controversial in the Roman Catholic Church in general and the Vincentian order in particular.  St. Justin, headquartered in the northern part of the country, adopted Ethiopian attire, mastered the three languages essential to his work, and emphasized the education of indigenous priests.  The Apostolic Vicar was so effective that, despite persecution of the Roman Catholic mission by the government, he converted about 12,000 people.  In January 1849 he became the Titular Bishop of Nilopolis; he became a bishop anyway.  In 1856 Guglielmo Massaia (1809-1889; a Venerable since 2016; see a subsequent post I plan to write before the end of 2018) joined St. Justin in the good work.

Blessed Michael Ghebre, also known as Ghébre-Michael, was one of St. Justin’s converts.  Blessed Michael, born in Dido, West Gojjam, in 1788 or 1791, had been an Ethiopian Orthodox monk since the age of 19 years.  He, a Roman Catholic since 1844, joined the Vincentians.  In 1851 St. Justin ordained him to the priesthood.

Emperor Tewodros II of Ethiopia (reigned 1855-1868) continued the persecution of Roman Catholicism.  He, a member of the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church, even outlawed Roman Catholicism in 1860.  Authorities had arrested Blessed Michael and four companions in 1854.  For thirteen months the evangelists suffered abuse in prison.  Blessed Michael died in transit between Meccia Coreccia and Molicha Gebaba, Mirab Shewa, on July 30, 1855.  St. Justin died five years later, after having spent several months in prison then having endured a forced march to the Halai region of Eritrea.  He spent the final stage of his life as a missionary in Eritrea.  St. Justin died, aged 60 years, on July 30, 1855.

Pope Pius XI declared Michael Ghebre a Venerable then a Blessed in 1926.

Holy Mother Church recognized Holy Mother Church as a Venerable (in 1935, by Pope Pius XI), a Blessed (in 1939, by Pope Pius XII), and a full saint (in 1975, by Pope Paul VI).

Often accounts of the persecution of Christians, from antiquity to current events, are of persecution by adherents of other religions.  Sometimes these are stories of persecution by antitheists, to use Reza Aslan‘s term.  (Aslan distinguishes between atheists and antitheists.  Atheism is the rejection of belief in God or any deity; antitheism includes the desire to destroy religion.)  In this post, however, you, O reader, have read of persecution of some Christians by other Christians.

Blaise Pascal (1623-1662) wrote,

Men never do evil so completely and cheerfully as when they do it from religious conviction.

The history of organized religion has confirmed this statement, unfortunately.  Frequently adherents of one branch of a faith have persecuted and martyred members of other branches of that faith.  This was true in ancient times.  It has remained true to this day.  So has the reality of inter-religious persecution and martyrdom.  None of it has ever been holy.

May all who commit evil–especially from religious conviction–understand the error of their ways and repent.  Theological differences and arguments will always exist, but they can–and should–exist without the evil in the name of religious conviction accompanying one or more sides.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

MAY 12, 2018 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF SAINT GERMANUS OF CONSTANTINOPLE, PATRIARCH OF CONSTANTINOPLE AND DEFENDER OF ICONS

THE FEAST OF CHRISTIAN FRIEDRICH HASSE, GERMAN-BRITISH MORAVIAN COMPOSER AND EDUCATOR

THE FEAST OF SAINT GREGORY OF OSTIA, ROMAN CATHOLIC ABBOT, CARDINAL, AND LEGATE; AND SAINT DOMINIC OF THE CAUSEWAY, ROMAN CATHOLIC HERMIT

THE FEAST OF ROGER SCHÜTZ, FOUNDER OF THE TAIZÉ COMMUNITY

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God of grace and glory, we praise you for your servants

Saint Justin de Jacobis and Blessed Michael Ghebre,

who made the good news known in Ethiopia.

Raise up, we pray, in every country, heralds of the gospel,

so that the world may know the immeasurable riches of your love,

and be drawn to worship you, Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, one God, now and forever.  Amen.

Isaiah 62:1-7

Psalm 48

Romans 10:11-17

Luke 24:44-53

–Adapted from Evangelical Lutheran Worship (2006), 59

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Feast of Sts. Eumenios and Parthenios of Koudoumas (July 10)   Leave a comment

Above:  Crete, 1935

Scanned from Rand McNally World Atlas and International Gazetteer–Special Household Edition (1935), 87

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SAINT PARTHENIOS OF KOUDOUMAS (1829-1905)

Monk

Born Nikolaus Charitakis

Also known as Nestor

brother of

SAINT EUMENIOS OF KOUDOUMAS (1846-SEPTEMBER 5, 1920)

Monk

Born Emmanuel Charitakis

Also known as Methodios

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FOUNDERS OF KOUDOUMAS MONASTERY, CRETE

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Charikaos Charitakis and Maria Androulaki were devout villagers of Pitsidia, near Matala and Phaistos, Crete.  Two of their children were Nikolaus (the future St. Parthenios) and Emmanuel (the future St. Eumenios).  The children grew up steeped in Eastern Orthodox Christianity.  Charikaos died in 1856.  Two years later Nikolaus and Emmanuel became monks.

At Odigitria Monastery, in 1862, Nikolaus became Nestor and Emmanuel became Methodios.  They spent their monastic lives together, living in caves much of the time.  At Koudoumas there were caves.  There was also a ruined, abandoned monastery, with just the church remaining.  The brothers, since 1867 Eumenios and Parthenios, founded a new monastery, at Koudoumas.  They did this after Parthenios reported having received instructions to do so from St. Mary of Nazareth in a vision.  They built the monastery with the help of many lay people.

St. Parthenios, allegedly a wonder-worker, died at Koudoumas Monastery in 1905.  He was about 76 years old.

St. Eumenios, a deacon in 1868 and a priest two years later, died at Koudoumas Monastery on September 5, 1920.  He was about 74 years old.

The Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople canonized the brothers and set their feast day as July 10 on July 8, 2007.

Can any devout Christian legitimately question the value of lives, such as those of Sts. Eumenios and Parthenios, devoted to God?  Of course not!

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

MAY 9, 2018 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF SAINTS STEFAN AND KAZIMIERZ GRELEWSKI, POLISH ROMAN CATHOLIC PRIESTS AND MARTYRS,  1941 AND 1942

THE FEAST OF DIETRICH BUXTEHUDE, LUTHERAN ORGANIST AND COMPOSER

THE FEAST OF DOROTHY DAY AND PETER LAURIN, COFOUNDERS OF THE CATHOLIC WORKER MOVEMENT

THE FEAST OF THOMAS TOKE LYNCH, ENGLISH CONGREGATIONALIST MINISTER AND HYMN WRITER

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O God, whose blessed Son became poor that we though his poverty might be rich:

Deliver us from an inordinate love of this world, that we, inspired by the devotion of your servants

Saints Eumenios and Parthenios of Koudoumas,

may serve you with singleness of heart,

and attain to the riches of the age to come;

through Jesus Christ our Lord, who lives and reigns with you,

in the unity of the Holy Spirit, one God, now and for ever.  Amen.

Song of Songs 8:6-7

Psalm 34

Philippians 3:7-15

Luke 12:33-37 or 9:57-62

–Adapted from Holy Women, Holy Men:  Celebrating the Saints (2010), 722

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Feast of Josiah and Eustace Conder (July 7)   2 comments

Above:  The Flag of England

Image in the Public Domain

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JOSIAH CONDER (SEPTEMBER 17, 1789-DECEMBER 27, 1855)

English Journalist and Congregationalist Hymn Writer

father of

EUSTACE ROGERS CONDER (APRIL 5, 1820-JULY 6, 1892)

English Congregationalist Minister and Hymn Writer

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INTRODUCTION

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The Conders were a distinguished family of English Dissenters–Congregationalists, to be precise.  Their Huguenot (properly pronounced u-guh-no) ancestry helped to explain this.

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JOSIAH CONDER

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Josiah Conder, born on September 17, 1789, at Falcon Street, Aldersgate, London, was a son of a bookseller, who was, in turn, son of a Congregationalist minister.  Thomas Conder, Josiah’s father, operated a bookstore.  Josiah, blind in the right eye since the age of six years because of small pox, went to work in the family business in his teens.  There he read voraciously, educating himself in many topics.  Josiah assumed control of the bookstore in 1811.

Josiah worked hard throughout his life yet never achieved financial security.  He was the editor of The Eclectic Review and The Patriot from 1814 to 1836.  Our saint also wrote may books, such as collections of original poems, a biography of John Bunyan, and a volume about geography.  Some of those poems were hymns.  Three of them graced Hymns Partly Collected and Partly Original, Designed as a Supplement to Dr. Watts’s Psalms and Hymns (1812), edited by William Bengo Collyer (1782-1854).  Twenty-four years later Josiah edited a seminal work, The Congregational Hymn-Book, A Supplement to Dr. Watts’s Psalms and Hymns (1836), for the Congregational Union of England and Wales.  The editor contributed about 60 of his hymns to this, the denomination’s first official hymnal.

Josiah, a friend of James Montgomery, was a political radical.  So was Josiah’s wife, Joan Elizabeth Thomas Conder (d. 1877), another writer.  The Conders were, for example, abolitionists in a society that accepted slavery.

Josiah died in London on December 27, 1855.  He was 66 years old.

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EUSTACE CONDER

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Eustace Conder was his father’s son, in the full sense of that term.  Eustace, like his great-grandfather, became a minister in the Congregationalist/Independent tradition.  After studying at Spring Hill College, Birmingham; and the University of London; Eustace joined the ranks of the clergy.  For 17 years he served at Poole.  Then, from 1861 to 1892, he was the pastor at East Parade Chapel, Leeds.  In 1873 Eustace became the leader of the Congregational Union of England and Wales.  He wrote about theology, as well as the life of Christ, and penned a collection of fairy tales, as well as a biography of his father.

Eustace wrote one hymn that has endured.  “Ye Fair Hills of Galilee,” written for the Congregational Church Hymnal (1887), seems to be the text of his that has proven most popular.

Eustace, aged 72 years, died in Poole on July 6, 1892.

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CONCLUSION

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A good hymnal is a fine source for names of saints.  The examples of Josiah and Eustace Conder prove this assertion.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

MAY 9, 2018 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF SAINTS STEFAN AND KAZIMIERZ GRELEWSKI, POLISH ROMAN CATHOLIC PRIESTS AND MARTYRS,  1941 AND 1942

THE FEAST OF DIETRICH BUXTEHUDE, LUTHERAN ORGANIST AND COMPOSER

THE FEAST OF DOROTHY DAY AND PETER LAURIN, COFOUNDERS OF THE CATHOLIC WORKER MOVEMENT

THE FEAST OF THOMAS TOKE LYNCH, ENGLISH CONGREGATIONALIST MINISTER AND HYMN WRITER

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Dear God of beauty,

you have granted literary ability and spiritual sensitivity to

Josiah Conder, Eustace Conder, and others, who have composed hymn texts.

May we, as you guide us,

find worthy hymn texts to be icons,

through which we see you.

In the Name of God:  Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.  Amen.

Sirach/Ecclesiasticus 44:1-3a, 5-15

Psalm 147

Revelation 5:11-14

Luke 2:8-20

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

APRIL 20, 2013 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF SAINTS AMATOR OF AUXERRE AND GERMANUS OF AUXERRE, ROMAN CATHOLIC BISHOPS; SAINT MAMERTINUS OF AUXERRE, ROMAN CATHOLIC ABBOT; AND SAINT MARCIAN OF AUXERRE, ROMAN CATHOLIC MONK

THE FEAST OF JOHANNES BUGENHAGEN, GERMAN LUTHERAN PASTOR

THE FEAST OF SAINT MARCELLINUS OF EMBRUN, ROMAN CATHOLIC BISHOP

THE FEAST OF OLAVUS AND LAURENTIUS PETRI, RENEWERS OF THE CHURCH

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Feast of Washington Gladden (July 2)   1 comment

Above:  Theodore Roosevelt and Washington Gladden at Columbus, Ohio, 1900

Image Creator = Bain News Service

Image Source = Library of Congress

Reproduction Number = LC-DIG-ggbain-06699

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WASHINGTON GLADDEN (FEBRUARY 11, 1836-JULY 2, 1918)

U.S. Congregationalist Minister, Hymn Writer, and Social Reformer

In 2009 The Episcopal Church added Washington Gladden to its calendar of saints, with a feast day of July 2, shared with Walter Rauschenbusch and Jacob Riis.  However, I have decided, during this time of renovation of my Ecumenical Calendar of Saints’ Days and Holy Days, to break up that commemoration.

Gladden was a revolutionary in his time.  If he were alive in 2018, he would still be revolutionary in many theological and political circles.

Gladden’s destiny was ordained ministry.  He, born at Pottsgrove, Pennsylvania, on February 11, 1836, was a son of Solomon and Amanda Daniels Gladden.  Solomon died prior to our saint’s sixth birthday.  Washington’s uncle and grandfather helped to raise him.  They, realizing that the farm was not where he belonged, encouraged our saint to leave.  He followed their advice.  Gladden, educated at Owego Academy then at Williams College, Williamstown, Massachusetts, entered the Congregationalist ministry in 1859, at the age of 23 years.

Gladden had a varied ministerial career.  His first pastorate was First Congregational Church, LeRaysville, Pennsylvania (1859-1860).  Our saint overworked himself at First Congregational Church, Brooklyn, New York (1860-1861), so he transferred to a less stressful position at a church in Morrisania, New York (1861-1866).  There he was active in the Union war effort, serving on the Christian Commission and meeting President Abraham Lincoln and General Ulysses S. Grant in the field.  Ministry in North Adams, Massachusetts, followed from 1866 to 1871.  For three years our saint served as the religion editor of The Independent.  In that capacity he exposed political corruption in New York.  Then Gladden served at North Congregational Church, Springfield, Massachusetts (1874-1882) and First Congregational Church, Columbus, Ohio (1882-1914).  Along the way Gladden served as one of two Associate Editors of The Pilgrim Hymnal (1904) and as Moderator (1904-1907) of his denomination, the National Council of Congregational Churches in the United States.

Gladden’s partner in life for nearly half a century was his wife, Jennie Cohoon, of Brooklyn.  They wed on December 5, 1860.  She died on May 8, 1909.  The couple had one son, George Gladden, a journalist and encyclopedia editor.

Gladden, the author of more than 32 published works, received high honors and advocated for social justice.  Roanoke College awarded our saint a D.D. in 1882.  The University of Wisconsin granted Gladden a LL.D. the previous year; the University of Notre Dame followed suit in 1895.  For a Roman Catholic university to honor a Protestant clergyman in that way in that era was remarkable.  Our saint was also a pioneer among U.S. ministers in siding with labor unions against exploitative employers during frequently violent strikes.  “Predatory wealth” (Gladden’s term) in U.S. society troubled his social conscience.  Thus he favored the Progressive Era policy of breaking up monopolies.  He also spoke out against Jim Crow laws.

Gladden also wrote at least four hymns, which I have added to my GATHERED PRAYERS weblog.

Gladden, retired from active ministry in 1914, died at Columbus, Ohio, on July 2, 1918.  He was 82 years old.

I grew up singing “O Master, Let Me Walk with Thee” in a pietistic, individualistic, and conservative milieu in southern Georgia.  I was unaware of the hymn’s Social Gospel meaning at the time.  So was the rest of the congregation, probably.  Gladden’s theology would have angered many of the people in the pews, had they known of it.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

APRIL 25, 2018 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF SAINT MARK THE EVANGELIST, MARTYR

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Holy and righteous God, you created us in your image.

Grant us grace to contend fearlessly against evil and to make no peace with oppression.

Help us, like your servant Washington Gladden,

to work for justice among people and nations, to the glory of your name,

through Jesus Christ, our Savior and Lord, who lives and reigns

with you and the Holy Spirit, one God, now and forever.  Amen.

Hosea 2:18-23

Psalm 94:1-15

Romans 12:9-21

Luke 6:20-36

–Adapted from Evangelical Lutheran Worship (2006), 60

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Feast of Lyman Beecher, Harriet Beecher Stowe, and Henry Ward Beecher (July 1)   1 comment

Above:  A Partial Beecher Family Tree

Image by Kenneth Randolph Taylor

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LYMAN BEECHER (OCTOBER 12, 1775-JANUARY 10, 1863)

U.S. Congregationalist and Presbyterian Minister, and Abolitionist

father of

HARRIET ELIZABETH BEECHER STOWE (JUNE 14, 1812-JULY 1, 1896)

U.S. Novelist, Hymn Writer, and Abolitionist

sister of

HENRY WARD BEECHER (JUNE 24, 1813-MARCH 8, 1887)

U.S. Presbyterian and Congregationalist Minister, and Abolitionist

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A FAMILY STORY

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INTRODUCTION

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In The Episcopal Church July 1 is the Feast of Harriet Beecher Stowe, listed as a “Writer and Prophetic Witness.”  In Holy Women, Holy Men:  Celebrating the Saints (2010), in which her feast debuted, and A Great Cloud of Witnesses:  A Calendar of Commemorations (2016), the successor volume, the collect for her feast is:

Gracious God, we thank you for the witness of Harriet Beecher Stowe, whose fiction inspired thousands with compassion of the shame and sufferings of enslaved peoples, and who enriched her writings with the cadences of The Book of Common Prayer.  Help us, like her, to strive for your justice, that our eyes may see the glory of your Son, Jesus Christ, when he comes to reign with you and the Holy Spirit in reconciliation and peace, one God, now and always.  Amen.

The assigned readings in Holy Women, Holy Men (2010) are Isaiah 26:7-13, Psalm 94:16-23, 1 Peter 3:1-12, and Matthew 23:1-12.  A Great Cloud of Witnesses (2016) provides more options.

One cannot tell the story of Harriet Beecher Stowe properly without considering her relatives, however.  Thus, here in my Ecumenical Calendar of Saints’ Days and Holy Days, I expand the feast to include her father (Lyman) and one of her brothers (Henry Ward).

The 1962 edition of The Encyclopedia Americana, an essential source for this post, includes an article for the Beecher family plus an article each for Lyman, Harriet, and Henry Ward, as well as for four other Beechers, all children of Lyman.  Very quickly then, and for the sake of thoroughness, he other four are:  Catharine Esther Beecher (1800-1878), Edward Beecher (1803-1895), James Chaplin Beecher (1828-1886), and Thomas Kinnicutt Beecher (1824-1900).

Catharine Esther Beecher (September 6, 1800-May 12, 1878) was an educator.  She operated a girls’ school in Hartford, Connecticut, from 1824 to 1832, and another one (with Harriet’s help) at Cincinnati, Ohio, from 1832 to 1837.  Catharine also helped to organize the Ladies Society for Promoting Education in the West, which founded schools in Iowa, Wisconsin, and Illinois.  She was also a vocal opponent of the Jacksonian policy of Indian Removal.

Edward Beecher (August 27, 1803-July 28, 1895) became a Congregationalist minister, seminary professor and president, writer, and missionary.

James Chaplin Beecher (January 8, 1828-August 25, 1886) also became a Congregationalist minister.  He, a chaplain in Hong Kong prior to the U.S. Civil War, served the Union cause first as a chaplain and finally as a brevet brigadier general.  After the war he returned to parish ministry.

Thomas Kinnicutt Beecher (February 10, 1824-March 14, 1900), brother of James Chaplain Beecher and half-brother of Catherine Esther Beecher, also became a Congregationalist minister.  He was also a U.S. Army chaplain during the Civil War, a philanthropist, a lecturer, and an author of juvenile stories.

The Beechers were a remarkable family.

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LYMAN AND ROXANA

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Lyman Beecher, born in New Haven, Connecticut, on October 12, 1775, became the patriarch of an influential family.  His father was a blacksmith.  At the age of 18 years Lyman matriculated at Yale College.  After graduating in 1797, he studied theology privately under the tutelage of President Timothy Dwight until 1798.  That year Lyman became the supply pastor of a Congregationalist church at East Hampton, Long Island; there he remained until 1810.  Our saint, ordained in 1799, preached the funeral for Alexander Hamilton in 1804.

Lyman married three times. His first wife was Roxana Foote (d. September 24, 1816) who operated a girls’ school.  He was also the mother of Catharine Esther (b. 1800), Edward (b. 1803), Harriet (b. 1812), and Henry Ward (b. 1813), among others.  The birthplace of the last two Beechers listed was Litchfield, Connecticut.

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RAISING A FAMILY AND FIGHTING UNITARIANISM

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Lyman’s second wife was Harriet Porter, with whom he had more children, including James Chaplin (b. 1828) and Thomas Kinnicutt (b. 1824).  He had thirteen children, eleven of whom lived to adulthood.  Harriet was child number six; Henry Ward was child number seven.

Harriet Elizabeth Beecher (1812-1896), after her mother died in 1816, grew up in the household of her grandmother in Guilford, Connecticut, for some years.  Harriet was back in Litchfield by her late childhood.  There, at the age of 12 years, she wrote an essay on the topic, “Can the Immortality of the Soul Be Proved by the Light of Nature?”  She answered in the affirmative.  Her father, who argued to the contrary, found her essay impressive.  Harriet continued her education at the girls’ school her sister Catharine had founded and operated at Hartford.  Then Harriet joined the faculty there.

Henry Ward Beecher (1813-1887) studied at the Boston Latin School then at Mount Pleasant School, Amherst, Massachusetts, before matriculating at Amherst College (Class of 1834).  He was well on his way to becoming a prominent minister.

Lyman, active in campaigns against intemperance, also organized Bible and missionary societies.  In 1826 he left Litchfield, Connecticut, to become the pastor of Hanover Street Church, Boston, Massachusetts, and to inveigh against the rising tide of Unitarianism.  He remained in Boston until 1832.

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ABOLITIONIST ACTIVISM

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Lyman accepted the presidency of Lane Theological Seminary, Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1832.  He remained in that post (as well as that of Chair of Sacred Theology) for 20 years.  Those were decades filled with controversies both theological and political.  For the first of the two decades Lyman also doubled as the pastor of the Second Presbyterian Church, Cincinnati.

Also in 1832, Catharine and Harriet moved to Cincinnati, where they spent a girls’ school, which they operated for five years.

In 1833 a controversy over abolitionism almost destroyed Lane Theological Seminary.  Certain slaveholders from Kentucky eve threatened violence.  The crisis resulted in a gag order (passed by trustees) and an exodus of antislavery students to the new Oberlin College, Oberlin, Ohio, founded at that time.  Some antislavery students returned to Lane, and Lyman and Calvin E. Stowe spent the better part of two decades trying to rebuild the seminary.

Stowe became Lyman’s son-in-law in 1836, when he married Harriet.  The home of Calvin E. and Harriet Beecher Stowe at Cincinnati was a station of the Underground Railroad.  In 1850 Calvin accepted a faculty position at Bowdoin College, Brunswick, Maine.  Then he taught at Andover Theological Seminary from 1852 to 1864. Harriet was a prolific writer, with more than 40 titles to her credit.  Her most famous and influential work was Uncle Tom’s Cabin, published as a serial in 1851 ad 1852.

Lyman was a New School Presbyterian.  The conflict between the Old School and the New School divided the original Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. (reorganized from the old Synod of New York and Philadelphia in 1789) in 1837 and 1838.  Before then, however, it led to a heresy trial for Lyman in 1835.  The verdict was in his favor.

To Lyman’s left was his seventh child, Henry Ward, who studied at Lane Theological Seminary after graduating from Amherst College in 1834.  As the author of the article about Henry Ward in the 1962 edition of The Encyclopedia Americana wrote, the son objected to his father’s

sulfurous theology.

Henry Ward, editor of an abolitionist newspaper in Cincinnati in 1837, married Eunice White Bullard (1812-1897) that year.  From 1837 to 1839 he was pastor of a church in rural Lawrenceburg, Indiana.  Then, form 1839 to 1847, he was the senior pastor of Second Presbyterian Church, Indianapolis, Indiana, a large congregation.  From 1847 to 1887 Henry Ward was the senior pastor (and first pastor) of Plymouth Congregational Church, Brooklyn, New York, which grew into a larger church.  Henry Ward, who emphasized the love, not the judgment, of God, was, according to Mark A. Noll,

the Billy Graham of his era.

America’s God:  From Jonathan Edwards to Abraham Lincoln (New York:  Oxford University Press, 2002), 427

Henry Ward Beecher, although a moderate abolitionist, was, in some ways, still revolutionary.  He preached against slavery and quoted the Bible while doing so, but argued that a Sharps rifle was more persuasive to many slaveholders.  Thus, in the middle and late 1850s, as Kansas bled amid vigilante violence, Henry Ward raised funds to equip antislavery settlers with Sharps rifles, which became know as “Beecher’s Bibles.”  Henry Ward, unambiguous in his support of the Union cause during the Civil War, went so far as to place, in his words, the “whole guilt” for that war on Confederate leaders in 1865.

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REST IN PEACE, LYMAN BEECHER

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Lyman retired to Boston, Massachusetts, in 1852.  His last years were difficult, for what the author of the article about him in the 1962 edition of The Encyclopedia Americana called

paralysis of the brain

overtook the great man.  In other words, he suffered from dementia–perhaps Alzheimer’s Disease.  Lyman died in Brooklyn on January 10, 1863.  He was 87 years old.

The author of that article praised Lyman’s scholarship, oratory, and theological orthodoxy while noting the great man’s “humorous audacities of speech” and “racy and picturesque wit” that “often shocked dignified propriety.”  Lyman Beecher must have been an interesting and wonderful man to know.

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THE BILLY GRAHAM OF HIS ERA

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Henry Ward Beecher was, according to some, a heretic.  (Then again, who is not?)  He emphasized the love of God and rejected penal substitutionary atonement.  The deity of that theory, he argued, was

barbaric, heinous, and hideous.

Henry Ward seems to have become more radical with age, going so far as to support women’s suffrage and argue that Christianity and Evolution were mutually compatible.  While opposing slavery he had already employed an argument against the verbal inspiration of the Bible, a volume many supporters of the Peculiar Institution of the South quoted chapter and verse.  Furthermore, Henry Ward vigorously opposed the nativist politics of Chinese exclusion, failing in preventing yet at least delaying the passage of that law until 1882.  Our saint, a member of the Republican Party since 1854 (the year of its founding), caused quite a controversy when he campaigned and quoted for Democrat (Stephen) Grover Cleveland for President in 1884.

Henry Ward was a prolific writer.  His published works included volumes of prayers and sermons.  In 1855 he edited the Plymouth Collection of Hymns, an influential hymnal.  From 1861 to 1863 Henry Ward edited the Independent.  In 1870 he founded the Christian Union, which he edited until 1881.  Our saint also wrote the Life of Jesus the Christ.

Yet Henry Ward Beecher was, in some ways, a troublesome figure.  He was, for example, a Social Darwinist.  Philandering was also a motif in his life.  The latter damaged his reputation at the end of his life.  In 1875 Henry Ward went on trial for having allegedly committed adultery with Elizabeth Tilton, the wife of Theodore Tilton, his successor as editor of the Independent.  The court acquitted Henry Ward and the leadership of Plymouth Congregational Church supported him, but he lost much credibility and public influence in the national scandal.

Henry Ward Beecher died in Brooklyn on March 8, 1887.  He was 73 years old.

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THE STOWES

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Harriet Beecher Stowe and Calvin E. Stowe kept a winter home near Jacksonville, Florida, from 1867 to 1884.  They helped to convince the Freedmen’s Bureau to establish a school for former slaves in the area.  The family also helped to found the Episcopal Church of Our Savior, for African Americans.  The Stowes, once Presbyterians, ended their days as Episcopalians.

After Calvin died on August 22, 1886, Harried moved in with daughters in Hartford, Connecticut.  Her twilight years were like those of her father–beset with dementia.  It was a cruel fate for such a great woman.  She died on July 1, 1896, aged 84 years.

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CONCLUSION

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The legacies of Lyman Beecher, Harriet Beecher Stowe, and Henry Ward Beecher have enriched the United States and the world.  In the case of Harriet, Uncle Tom’s Cabin has certainly echoed down the corridors of time–more prominently than her excellent hymns, for sure.  These saints, like all of us, had shortcomings, but their virtues outweighed their vices.  Their virtues contributed to the end of chattel slavery in the United States of America.

That is impressive.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

APRIL 24, 2018 COMMON ERA

GENOCIDE REMEMBRANCE

THE FEAST OF SAINT EGBERT OF LINDISFARNE, ROMAN CATHOLIC MONK; AND SAINT ADALBERT OF EGMONT, ROMAN CATHOLIC MISSIONARY

THE FEAST OF SAINT FIDELIS OF SIGMARINGEN, CAPUCHIN FRIAR AND MARTYR

THE FEAST OF SAINT MELLITUS, BISHOP OF LONDON AND ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY

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Holy and righteous God, you created us in your image.

Grant us grace to contend fearlessly against evil and make no peace with oppression.

Help us like your servants

Lyman Beecher, Harriet Beecher Stowe, and Henry Ward Beecher,

to work for justice among people and nations,

to the glory of your name, through Jesus Christ, our Savior and Lord,

who lives and reigns with you and the Holy Spirit,

one God, now and forever.  Amen.

Hosea 2:18-23

Psalm 94:1-15

Romans 12:9-21

Luke 6:20-36

–Adapted from Evangelical Lutheran Worship (2006), 60

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Feast of Catherine Winkworth and John Mason Neale (July 1)   2 comments

Above:  The Flag of England

Image in the Public Domain

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CATHERINE WINKWORTH (SEPTEMBER 13, 1827-JULY 1, 1878)

Translator of Hymns

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JOHN MASON NEALE (JANUARY 24, 1818-AUGUST 6, 1866)

Anglican Priest, Hymn Writer, and Hymn Translator

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That these hymns and tunes first sprang up on a foreign soil is no reason why they should not take root among us; all who use our Common Prayer know well how the unity of the Christian sentiment is felt to swallow up all diversity of national origin.  In truth, any embodiment of Christian experience and devotion, whether in the form of hymn or prayer or meditation, or whatever shape art may give it, if it do but go to the heart of our common faith, becomes at once the rightful and most precious inheritance of the whole Christian Church.

–Catherine Winkworth, The Chorale Book for England (1862), vii

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The thought that, in conclusion, strikes one is this:  the marvellous ignorance in which English ecclesiastical scholars are content to remain of this huge treasure of divinity–the gradual completion of nine centuries at least.  I may safely calculate that not one out of twenty who peruse these pages will ever have read a Greek ‘Canon’ though; yet what a glorious mass of theology do these offices present!  If the following pages tend in any degree to induce the reader to study these books for himself, my labour could hardly have been spent to a better result.

–John Mason Neale, Hymns of the Eastern Church (1862), xli

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INTRODUCTION

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Catherine Winkworth and John Mason Neale were Anglicans who enriched English-language hymnody with their translations–Winkworth contributed translations of German hymns while Neale, her contemporary, delved into the treasures of Eastern Orthodoxy and Roman Catholicism.

To celebrate the lives of these saints is appropriate.  My Ecumenical Calendar of Saints’ Days and Holy Days now follows the custom of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (ELCA) and the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Canada (ELCIC), which, since the Lutheran Book of Worship (1978), have commemorated Winkworth and Neale in one feast, dated July 1.  The Episcopal Church, my denomination, also celebrates these saints, but in separate feasts, both on August 7–Neale since at least 1970 and Winkworth since 2009.  The Church of England’s feast day for Neale is also August 7.  In this post I follow the Lutheran feast, but with the Episcopal propers–certainly an ecumenical approach.

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JOHN MASON NEALE

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John Mason Neale, whose health was always fragile, entered the world at London, England, on January 24, 1818.  He studied at Sherborne Grammar School as well as privately under the tutelage of the Reverend William Russell and one Professor Challis.  Next Neale was a student at Trinity College, Cambridge, at which he matriculated in 1836.  Our saint, who graduated with his undergraduate degree in 1840 and his M.A. five years later, became involved in the Anglo-Catholic movement at Cambridge, as an undergraduate.  Between degrees Neale joined the ranks of the clergy–as a deacon in 1841 and a priest the following year.  Our saint, near death in 1843, could not accept the Incumbency of Crawley, Sussex; we went to Madeira instead, and there remained until the summer of 1844.  He also married Sarah Norman Webster in 1842.

Neale, back in England, and his lungs in somewhat better condition than 1843, settled into the obscure and low-paying position of Warden of Sackville, College, East Grimland, in 1846.  There he spent the rest of his life as a studious servant of God.  At a time when many Evangelical Anglicans and other Evangelicals considered the Anglo-Catholic movement to be in league with Satan, Neale’s Anglo-Catholicism was quite controversial.  Somehow he remained good-natured despite vitriolic and even violence.  At Sackville College our saint delved into ancient and medieval liturgies and hymnody, publishing the following:

  1. Medieval Hymns and Sequences (1851);
  2. The Hymnal Noted (1851);
  3. Hymns, Ancient and Modern (1859);
  4. Hymns of the Eastern Church (1862);
  5. Essays on Liturgiology and Church History (1863); and
  6. Hymns, Chiefly Medieval, on the Joys and Glories of Paradise (1865).

Original Sequences, Hymns, and Other Ecclesiastical Verses debuted posthumously.

In 1854 Neale co-founded the Sisterhood of Saint Margaret.  Members lived in convents, operated orphanages, helped women escape prostitution, and visited ill girls and women in their homes.  His last pubic act was to lay the foundation for a new convent.

On August 6 (the Feast of the Transfiguration), 1866, Neale died after having been seriously ill for months.  He was 48 years old.

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CATHERINE WINKWORTH

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Catherine Winkworth did not survive past the age of 48 years.  Her contributions to English-language hymnody, like those of Neale, have survived her and blessed many.

Winkworth, born in Ely Place, Holborn, London, England, on September 13, 1827 (not 1829, as some of the hymnal companion volumes I consulted stated), was a daughter of Henry Winkworth, a silk merchant of Alderley Edge, Cheshire.  Our saint, a well-educated woman, was a feminist who spent much of her adult life promoting the higher education of women.  She did this in various capacities over decades.  She, having grown up mostly in Manchester, moved with the family to Clifton, near Bristol, in 1862.  Thus the geographical concentration of much of her educational work was the area of Bristol and Clifton.

Winkworth, a devout Anglican, was deeply interested in economic justice, in literature, and in German hymnody.  Her biographies–Life of Pastor Fliedner (1861) and Life of Amelia Sieveking (1863)–represented our saint’s social conscience.  The Reverend Theodor Fliedner (1800-1864) had renewed the female diaconate in the Lutheran Church.  Amelia Wilhemina Sieveking/Amalie Wilhemine Sieveking (1794-1859) had done much to help poor people and pioneer social work in Germany.

Winkworth, more than any other translator, was responsible for the revival of the English use of German hymns.  Her major works in this field were the two series (1855 and 1858) of Lyra Germanica as well as the Chorale Book for England (1863).  In Christian Singers of Germany (1869) our saint provided biographies.  John Percival (1895-1917), the Headmaster of Clifton College and later the Bishop of Hereford, commented on Winkworth:

She was a person of remarkable intellectual and social gifts and very unusual attainments; but what specially distinguished her was her rare ability and great knowledge with a certain tender and sympathetic refinement which constitutes the special charm of the womanly character.

–Quoted in Armin Haeussler, The Story of Our Hymns:  The Handbook to the Hymnal of the Evangelical and Reformed Church (St. Louis, MO:  Eden Publishing House, 1952), 989.

Winkworth, while traveling to an international conference on women’s issues, died of heart disease at Monnetier, Savoy.  She was 50 years old.

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CONCLUSION

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If one values quality in English-language hymnody, one should thank God for the legacies of Catherine Winkworth and John Mason Neale.  Winkworth’s contributions include “Now Thank We All Our God;” “Jesus, Priceless Treasure;” “If Thou But Suffer God to Guide Thee;” and “Deck Thyself, My Soul, with Gladness.”  She has 10 entries in the Episcopal Hymnal 1982 (1985), 30 in the Lutheran Book of Worship (1978), 41 in Lutheran Worship (1982), 19 in Evangelical Lutheran Worship (2006), and 40 in the Lutheran Service Book (2006).

Neale, responsible for translating or writing about one-eighth of the hymns in the first edition of Hymns Ancient and Modern, has bequeathed a glorious legacy of hymnody also.  If one has sung “Of the Father’s Love Begotten;” “Good Christian Men, Rejoice;” “What Star is This, with Beams So Bright;” and “All Glory, Laud, and Honor;” for example, one has encountered Neale’s work.  He has remained prominent in hymnals, with 45 entries in The Hymnal 1982, 21 in the Lutheran Book of Worship, 18 in Lutheran Worship, 14 in Evangelical Lutheran Worship, and 26 in the Lutheran Service Book.

I thank God for the legacies of Catherine Winkworth and John Mason Neale.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

APRIL 22, 2018 COMMON ERA

THE FOURTH SUNDAY OF EASTER, YEAR B

THE FEAST OF GENE BRITTON, EPISCOPAL PRIEST

THE FEAST OF DONALD S. ARMENTROUT, U.S. LUTHERAN MINISTER AND SCHOLAR

THE FEAST OF KATHE KOLLWITZ, GERMAN LUTHERAN ARTIST AND PACIFIST

THE FEAST OF SAINT VITALIS OF GAZA, MONK, HERMIT, AND MARTYR

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Grant, O God, that in all time of testing we may know and obey your will;

that, following the example of your servant John Mason Neale,

we may with integrity and courage accomplish what you give us to do,

and endure what you give us to bear;

through Jesus Christ our Lord, who lives and reigns with

you and the Holy Spirit, one God, for ever and ever.  Amen.

2 Chronicles 20:20-21

Psalm 106:1-5

1 Corinthians 1:1-9

Matthew 13:44-52

Holy Women, Holy Men:  Celebrating the Saints (2010), 511

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Comfort your people, O God of peace, and prepare a way for us in the desert,

that, like your poet and translator Catherine Winkworth,

we may preserve the spiritual treasures of your saints in former years

and sing our thanks to you with hearts and hands a voices,

eternal triune God whom earth and heaven adore;

for you live and reign for ever and ever.  Amen.

Exodus 6:28-7:2

Psalm 47:5-9

1 Corinthians 14:20-25

Mark 1:35-38

Holy Women, Holy Men:  Celebrating the Saints (2010), 513

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