Archive for the ‘Saints of the 1830s’ Category

Feast of Joseph Barber Lightfoot (April 13)   3 comments

Above:  Joseph Barber Lightfoot

Image in the Public Domain

++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

JOSEPH BARBER LIGHTFOOT (APRIL 13, 1828-DECEMBER 21, 1889)

Anglican Bishop of Durham

++++++++++++++++++++

Joseph Barber Lightfoot, lifelong bachelor, was a great scholar.  Our saint, born at Liverpool, England, on April 13, 1828, manifested academic inquisitiveness at an early age.  He, one of the children of accountant John Jackson Lightfoot and Ann Lightfoot, studied at King Edward’s School, Birmingham, where the great James Prince Lee was the headmaster.  At King Edward’s School Lightfoot forged lifelong friendships with Brooke Foss Westcott, Edward White Benson (later the Archbishop of Canterbury), and Fenton John Anthony Hort. Lightfoot also revered the headmaster.  Our saint continued his studies at Trinity College, Cambridge, starting in 1847.  There he continued to excel academically, studied privately under the tutelage of Westcott, and, in 1852, became a fellow.  James Prince Lee, in his new capacity as the Bishop of Manchester, ordained Lightfoot to the diaconate in 1864 and to the priesthood four years later.  In 1862 our saint became the Hulsean Professor of Divinity at Cambridge.  Nine years later he became the Canon of St. Paul’s Cathedral, London, having withdrawn from consideration for appointment to the Regius Professorship of Divinity (in favor of Westcott) in 1870.  Lightfoot, Westcott, and Benson worked on the translation of the New Testament of the Revised Version (1881), starting in 1870.  In the midst of that project our saint became the Lady Margaret Professor of Theology at Cambridge in 1875.

Over decades Lightfoot engaged in Biblical and Patristic scholarship that has stood the test of time.  He wrote commentaries on several New Testament books, mainly Galatians, Philippians, Colossians, and Philemon (all published during his lifetime) and Acts, John, 2 Corinthians, and 1 Peter (published only in recent years).  Lightfoot also delved into Patristics, in particular the epistles of Sts. Clement of Rome, Ignatius, and Polycarp.  Our saint also helped to found the Journal of Classical and Sacred Philology, published from March 1854 to December 1859.

From 1879 to 1889 Lightfoot served as the Bishop of Durham.  He proved to be a capable administrator, building up the diocese (literally) and helping to create the new Diocese of Newcastle (in 1882).  As Bishop of Durham Lightfoot became involved in social reform.  He started the White Cross Movement in 1883.  The purpose of the movement, which spread quickly around the world, was to encourage strong morality without any double standards, namely those grounded in gender.  The movement called for treating all women with respect, reducing the frequency of coarse language, and maintaining personal purity.

Lightfoot died at Bournemouth on December 21, 1889.  Westcott succeeded him as Bishop of Durham.

The University of Durham has a Lightfoot Professorship of Divinity.  That is a fitting tribute to such a scholar.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

JUNE 24, 2017 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF THE NATIVITY OF SAINT JOHN THE BAPTIST

++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

O God, you have endowed us with memory, reason, and skill.

We thank you for the faithful legacy of [Joseph Barber Lightfoot and all others]

who have dedicated their lives to you and to the intellectual pursuits.

May we, like them, respect your gift of intelligence fully and to your glory.

In the Name of God:  Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.  Amen.

Deuteronomy 6:4-9

Psalm 103

Philippians 4:8-9

Mark 12:28-34

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

MARCH 6, 2013 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF SAINT CHRODEGANG OF METZ, ROMAN CATHOLIC BISHOP

THE FEAST OF EDMUND KING, ANGLICAN BISHOP OF LINCOLN

++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

Feast of Henry Melchior Muhlenberg, William Augustus Muhlenberg, and Anne Ayres (April 8)   Leave a comment

Above:  The Church of the Holy Communion, New York, New York

Image Source = New York Public Library

++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

HENRY MELCHIOR MUHLENBERG (SEPTEMBER 6, 1711-OCTOBER 7, 1787)

Patriarch of American Lutheranism

His feast day transferred from October 7

great-grandfather of

WILLIAM AUGUSTUS MUHLENBERG (SEPTEMBER 16, 1796-APRIL 8, 1877)

Episcopal Priest, Hymn Writer, and Liturgical Pioneer

colleague of

ANNE AYRES (JANUARY 3, 1816-1896)

Foundress of the Sisterhood of the Holy Communion

++++++++++++++++++++++++++

One church, one book.

–Henry Melchior Muhlenberg

++++++++++++++++++++++++++

October 7 is the feast day of Henry Melchior Muhlenberg in The Episcopal Church, the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Canada, The Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod, and The Lutheran Church–Canada.  A Great Cloud of Witnesses:  A Calendar of Commemorations (The Episcopal Church, 2016) lists William Augustus Muhlenberg and Anne Ayres on April 8.  However, since one of my purposes in renovating my Ecumenical Calendar of Saints’ Days and Holy Days is to emphasize relationships and influences, I have merged the commemorations.

++++++++++++++++++++++++++

Henry Melchior Muhlenberg became the Patriarch of American Lutheranism.  He, born at Einbeck, Saxony, on September 6, 1711, attended the University of Gottingen.  Then our saint taught in the orphanage at Halle for 15 months.  He wanted to become a missionary to India, but became a pastor in Grosshennersdorf, Saxony, instead.  In September 1741 Muhlenberg visited Halle.  Soon thereafter he was en route to America, sent there by pastor August Herman Francke, who had also sent other missionaries to the New World.

Lutheranism was in a sorry state in America.  There was little organization above the parish level, liturgies varied widely, there were no firm standards for become an ordained minister, and adjacent Lutheran churches frequently had little to do with each other.  In 1741 Count Nicholas Ludwig von Zinzendorf, a Saxon Lutheran layman and Moravian bishop, was visiting America.  While in Pennsylvania, he functioned as a Lutheran pastor at Philadelphia, creating a controversy in the church there.

Muhlenberg had a difficult set of tasks to complete.  His motto was Ecclesia Plantanda, or

The Church Must Be Planted.

Our saint arrived in Charleston, South Carolina, in 1742.  Then he spent a week with the Jerusalem Lutheran Church at Ebenzezer, Georgia.  Muhlenberg arrived in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, on November 25, 1742.  Within a month he had ousted Zinzendorf from the pulpit.  On December 27, 1742, Muhlenberg became the pastor of several congregations.  He went on, within a year, to found a school per congregation and to found new churches.

During the following decades Muhlenberg planted and organized the church.  He founded new congregations, fostered unity among them, and established standards for ordination.  On August 26, 1748, at St. Michael’s Church, Philadelphia, ministers from 10 of the 70 Lutheran congregations in North America formed “The United Preachers of the Evangelical Lutheran Congregations of German Nationality in These American Colonies, Especially Pennsylvania,” the first synod.  In 1781, with the adoption of a constitution, the synod became the German Evangelical Lutheran Ministerium in North America.  The ministerium gave rise to other synods, such as the Evangelical Lutheran Ministerium in the State of New-York and Adjacent States and Countries (1786), led by John Christopher Kunze, Muhlenberg’s son-in-law.  The original synod became the German Evangelical Lutheran Ministerium of Pennsylvania and Adjacent States in 1792.

Muhlenberg did much to build up the Ministerium in North America/of Pennsylvania.  He traveled from the northeast to Georgia.  In 1751 and 1752 he spent much time in New York City, where the dispute over what the proper language for worship should be had created divisions.  Our saint, who prioritized the Gospel of Jesus Christ over languages, preached in English, Dutch, and German every Sunday for months.  Over the years he struggled with Lutheran disunity; many Lutheran ministers did not relate to Halle, as he did.  Our saint also prepared a hymnal late in life.

On the personal side, Muhlenberg married Anna Mary Weiser, daughter of Indian agent Conrad Weiser, in April 1745.  Three of their sons became Lutheran ministers.  Although our saint ranged from Loyalism to neutrality during the American Revolutionary period, two of his sons (both of them ministers) chose to fight under the command of George Washington.  Peter (in full, John Peter Gabriel Muhlenberg, 1746-1807) went on to serve in the U.S. House of Representatives with Frederick (in full, Frederick Augustus Conrad Muhlenberg, 1750-1801), the first Speaker of the House.

Our saint died at Trappe, Pennsylvania, on October 7, 1787.  He was 76 years old.

++++++++++++++++++++++++++

Frederick Augustus Conrad Muhlenberg, first Speaker of the House of Representatives of the United States, had a son named Henry William Muhlenberg, who became a wine merchant in Philadelphia.  Henry William married Mary Sheefe.  The couple welcomed William Augustus Muhlenberg into the world on September 16, 1796.  He became a figure to rival his great-grandfather in terms of ecclesiastical importance.

William Augustus Muhlenberg, raised in a Lutheran home, became an influential Episcopal priest.  He studied at the University of Pennsylvania from 1812 to 1815, graduating as the English-language salutation.  His affinity for the English language, especially in worship, led him to join The Episcopal Church.  Such conversions were common at a time when German was the preferred language of worship in many Lutheran congregations, the leaders of which referred those who preferred to worship in English to Episcopal churches.  Muhlenberg became a priest, serving first as the assistant at Christ Church, Philadelphia, from 1817 to 1822.  (The rector of the parish was William White, also the Bishop and Pennsylvania and the Presiding Bishop of The Episcopal Church.)  Then, for a few years, Muhlenberg was the Rector of St. James’s Church, Lancaster.  There he opened the first public school in Pennsylvania outside Philadelphia.  Meanwhile, our saint had published a case for singing hymns instead of the traditional metrical Psalms.  Thus he served on the committee for the Prayer Book Collection (1826), an early Episcopal hymnal.

In 1826 Muhlenberg relocated to New York.  He became the Rector of St. George’s Church, Flushing, Long Island.  There he founded the Flushing Institute (later St. Paul’s College), which made him nationally famous for his advocacy of progressive educational methods.  At St. George’s Church Muhlenberg was a pioneer in liturgical renewal.  His church had vested choirs, candles and flowers on the altar, and greenery at Christmas.  If that were not enough, the church sang Christmas carols.  This was groundbreaking in a culture in which much of the dominant Protestant ethos did not support celebrating Christmas.

Muhlenberg received a Doctor of Divinity degree from Columbia College, New York, New York, in 1834.

In 1845 Muhlenberg founded the Church of the Holy Communion in the City of New York.  The architect of the edifice (dedicated in 1846) was Richard Upjohn (1802-1878).  Muhlenberg’s sister, the wealthy widow Mary A. Rogers, financed the construction of the building and much of the parish’s budget for years.  This patronage enabled the church to minister to members of all social classes; that was a priority for the priest and his sister.  One of the novelties at the Church of the Holy Communion was free pews–no pew rentals.  Our saint was also a pioneer in the Sunday School movement; the parish schools reflected this fact.  The church also offered unemployment benefits, operated an employment agency, provided medical services, and offered English-language classes.  Furthermore, the liturgical life of the parish was more advanced than at other churches.  Communion services were weekly, Morning and Evening Prayer were daily, Holy Week was a priority, and the choirs there were the first vested choirs in the city.  Beyond that, the use of colors, flowers, and music to increase the beauty of worship was influential.

++++++++++++++++++++++++++

The parish dispensary became the genesis of St. Luke’s Hospital, New York City.  Muhlenberg served as the Superintendent and Chaplain there from 1858 to 1877.  He and Anne Ayres, a member of his congregation, founded the institution.

Ayres, born in London, England, on January 3, 1816, arrived in New York City in 1836.  For a few years she tutored children of the wealthy, but Muhlenberg’s influence prompted her to change the direction of her life.  In 1845 she and Muhlenberg founded the Sisterhood of the Holy Communion, dedicated to providing social services.  For many years members of the Sisterhood performed most of the nursing duties at St. Luke’s Hospital.  The Sisterhood of the Holy Communion was the first Anglican order for women founded in North America.

++++++++++++++++++++++++++

Muhlenberg was an ecumenist.  In 1853 he presented a proposal before the General Convention of The Episcopal Church.  Our saint, convinced that the rubrics of The Book of Common Prayer (1789) were too rigid, proposed Articles of Union with Protestant bodies in a confederation, complete with Apostolic Succession.  The requirements were:

  1. The Apostles’ Creed;
  2. Ordination not repugnant to the Word of God;
  3. Common hymns, prayers, and Biblical readings; and
  4. A council on common affairs.

This proposal, the natural successor to The Evangelical Catholic (1851-1853), Muhlenberg’s monthly journal, went down in failure.  It did, however, influence the Chicago-Lambeth Quadrilateral (1886, 1888):

  1. The Old and New Testaments as scripture,
  2. The Nicene and Apostles’ Creeds,
  3. The sacraments of Baptism and Holy Communion, and
  4. Apostolic Succession.

In 1868 Muhlenberg served on a committee to discuss revising The Book of Common Prayer (1789).  Revision had to wait, however; the next edition debuted in 1892.

++++++++++++++++++++++++++

Muhlenberg, who wrote hymns, chose to remain unmarried, so that he could have more time for ministry.  His theology was something science did not threaten; he did not oppose Evolution.  His priorities in ministry reflected his proto-Social Gospel ethos.  Among his final projects (with Anne Ayres) was St. Johnland, an intentional community for members of the working class on Long Island, away from the hustle and bustle of New York City.  There were family homes, group homes, businesses, a library, a church, et cetera.  Muhlenberg helped to finance St. Johnland.

++++++++++++++++++++++++++

Muhlenberg died in New York City on April 8, 1877.  He was 80 years old.

Anne Ayres died in New York City on February 9, 1896.  She was 80 years old.

++++++++++++++++++++++++++

The Ministeriums of Pennnsylvania and New York survived into the 1960s, when they, as part of The United Lutheran Church in America, merged into the Lutheran Church in America, a predecessor of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America.

Henry Melchior Muhlenberg’s dream of a common liturgy for North American Lutherans has never become a reality.  The closest it came to reality was the Lutheran Book of Worship (1978), which, by the way, borrowed heavily from The Book of Common Prayer (1979), in development at the same time.

The Church of the Holy Communion closed in 1975 and merged with Calvary Episcopal Church and St. George’s Episcopal Church.  Since then the edifice has housed a series of establishments, including two night clubs (one of them notorious), an upscale store, and a gymnasium.

The Sisterhood of the Holy Communion ceased to exist in 1940.

St. Luke’s Hospital and Mt. Sinai Hospital merged in 1979.

St. Johnland survives as a nursing center.

Flowers and altar candles remain familiar sites in Episcopal hymnals.

The Episcopal Church has made the transition from metrical Psalms to hymns.

The Episcopal Church has entered into full communion agreements with the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America and the Moravian Church in America.

++++++++++++++++++++++++++

Henry Melchior Muhlenberg, William Augustus Muhlenberg, and Anne Ayres did much to glorify God, build up the church, and benefit many people.

++++++++++++++++++++++++++

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

MARCH 15, 2017 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF SAINT ZACHARY OF ROME, POPE

THE FEAST OF SAINTS JAN ADALBERT BALICKI AND LADISLAUS FINDYSZ, ROMAN CATHOLIC PRIESTS IN POLAND

THE FEAST OF OZORA STEARNS DAVIS, U.S. CONGREGATIONALIST MINISTER, THEOLOGIAN, AND HYMN WRITER

THE FEAST OF VETHAPPAN SOLOMON, APOSTLE TO THE SOLOMON ISLANDS

++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

Almighty God, we praise you for your servants

Henry Melchior Muhlenberg, William Augustus Muhlenberg, and Anne Ayres,

through whom you have called the church to its tasks and renewed its life.

Raise up in our own day teachers and prophets inspired by your Spirit,

whose voices will give strength to your church and proclaim the reality of your reign,

through Jesus Christ, our Savior and Lord, who lives and reigns

with you and the Holy Spirit, one God, now and forever.  Amen.

Jeremiah 1:4-10

Psalm 46

1 Corinthians 3:11-23

Mark 10:35-45

–Adapted from Evangelical Lutheran Worship (2006), page 60

++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

Feast of St. Ludovico Pavoni (April 1)   Leave a comment

ludovico-pavoni

Above:  St. Ludovico Pavoni

Image in the Public Domain

++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

SAINT LUDOVICO PAVONI (SEPTEMBER 11, 1784-APRIL 1, 1849)

Roman Catholic Priest and Educator

Also known as Saint Lodovico Pavoni

++++++++++++

Rigorism keeps Heaven empty.

–St. Ludovico Pavoni

++++++++++++

St. Ludovico Pavoni mentored thousands of boys and young men over a period of time measured in decades.  The native of Brescia, in the Duchy of Milan, entered the world on September 11, 1784.  During the Napoleonic period in Italy (1799-1814) the seminaries in at least part of the peninsula were closed, so our saint studied for the priesthood under the tutelage of Father Carlo Domenico Ferrari, who went on to serve as the Bishop of Brescia from 1834 to 1846.  Pavoni, ordained to the priesthood in 1807, opened an oratory for street boys the same year.  The purpose of this work was to help them make good decisions.  In 1812 our saint became the secretary to Bishop Gabrio Nava.  Six years later Pavoni became the pastor of the Church of St. Barnabas, and oratory transformed into a greater project.

In 1818 Pavoni founded an orphanage and an associated vocational school.  Three years later the school became the Institute of St. Barnabas.  He expanded the number of trades taught at the Institute over the years.  These trades included typography and book binding (via the publishing house), carpentry, blacksmithing, silversmithing, shoe making, dye making, and tool making.  He also added agricultural skills (via the farm  attached to the Institute).  In 1823 Pavoni expanded the student body to include deaf mutes.  Two years later he founded a religious institute of priests and brothers and brothers to continue the work of the Institute of St. Barnabas in Brescia.  Pope Gregory XVI granted papal approval for this religious institute in 1843.  Four years later Pavoni became one of the first members of the Congregation of the Sons of Mary Immaculate (the Pavoniani), dedicated to working in Brescia and beyond.

Pavoni died in 1849.  He had already ministered to residents of Brescia during an outbreak of cholera.  His final selfless deed was to lead his boys to safety away from Brescia, which was burning during a rebellion against Austria, on March 24.  They found shelter at the novitiate on the hill of Saviano, about 12 kilometers outside of town.  He died at Saviano on Palm Sunday, April 1, 1849.  Pavoni was 64 years old.

Pavoni is the patron saint of the Congregation of the Sons of Mary Immaculate, members of which work in six countries.

Pope Pius XII declared Pavoni a Venerable in 1947.  Pope John Paul II beatified him in 2002.  Pope Francis canonized our saint in 2016.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

FEBRUARY 11, 2017 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF SAINT ONESIMUS, BISHOP OF BYZANTIUM

++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

O God, your Son came among us to serve and not to be served, and to give his life for the life of the world.

Lead us by his love to serve all those to whom the world offers no comfort and little help.

Through us give hope to the hopeless,

love to the unloved,

peace to the troubled,

and rest to the weary,

through Jesus Christ, our Savior and Lord, who lives and reigns

with you and the Holy Spirit, one God, now and forever.  Amen.

Hosea 2:18-23

Psalm 94:1-15

Romans 12:9-21

Luke 6:20-36

Evangelical Lutheran Worship (2006), page 60

++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

Feast of St. Innocent of Alaska (March 30)   Leave a comment

innocent-of-alaska

Above:  St. Innocent of Alaska

Image Source = Library of Congress

Reproduction Number = LC-USZ62-132144

++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

IVAN EVSEYEVICH POPOV-VENIAMINOV (AUGUST 26, 1797-MARCH 31, 1879)

Equal to the Apostles and Enlightener of North America

Episcopal Church feast day = March 30

Russian Orthodox Church feast days = March 31, October 5, and October 6

St. Innocent, canonized in 1977, was a missionary and a bishop.  He, born at Anginskoye, Verkholensk District, Irkutsk Province, Russian Empire, on August 26, 1797, entered Irkutsk Theological Seminary, Irkutsk, in 1807.  Ten years later our saint became a deacon in the Russian Orthodox Church and the husband of Etaterina (died in 1839), daughter of a priest.  In 1818 he graduated and became a teacher in the parish school at the Church of the Annunciation, Irkutsk.  Three years later he became a priest.

alaska

Above:  Map of Alaska, 1951

Scanned from Hammond’s Complete World Atlas (1951)

Scan by Kenneth Randolph Taylor

In 1823 our saint volunteered to go to the Aleutian Islands as a missionary.  He, his wife, mother, brother, and infant son left Irkutsk on May 7, 1823, and arrived at the island of Unalaska on July 29, 1824.  For nearly 51 years Alaska was his posting.  He moved, settling at Sitka in 1834 and at Yakutsk in 1853.  Our saint founded churches, converted and baptized many people, mastered dialects and wrote texts about them, translated service books, the catechism, and parts of the Bible; and developed an Aleut alphabet.

alaska-2

Above:  A Detail:  The Aleutian Islands

Scan by Kenneth Randolph Taylor

1839 and 1840 were eventful years in the life of our saint.  In St. Petersburg, on Christmas Day (January 5), 1839, he became an archpriest.  Later that year his wife died while visiting Irkutsk.  He subsequently became a monk (taking the name Innocent), an archimandrite (a monk-priest), and the Bishop of Kamchatka and the Kuril Islands, with responsibilities in Alaska.  He returned to Sitka in 1841.  Nine years later St. Innocent became an archbishop.

alaska-3

Above:  A Detail:  Part of the Alaskan Panhandle

Scan by Kenneth Randolph Taylor

St. Innocent spent 1865-1879 in Russia.  In 1865 he joined the Holy Synod of the Russian Orthodox Church.  Two years later he became the Metropolitan of Moscow, the office he held until he died, aged 81 years, on March 31, 1879.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

FEBRUARY 8, 2017 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF SAINT JOSEPHINA BAKHITA, ROMAN CATHOLIC NUN

THE FEAST OF SAINT JEROME EMILIANI, FOUNDER OF THE COMPANY OF THE SERVANTS OF THE POOR

THE FEAST OF SAINTS JOHN OF MALTA AND FELIX OF VALOIS, FOUNDERS OF THE ORDER OF THE MOST HOLY TRINITY

THE FEAST OF SAINT JOSEPHINA GABRIELLA BONINO, FOUNDRESS OF THE SISTERS OF THE HOLY FAMILY

++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

Holy Immortal One, you blessed your people by calling Innocent

from leading your Church in Russia to be an apostle and a light to the people of Alaska,

and to proclaim the dispensation and grace of God:

Guide our steps, that as he labored humbly in danger and hardship,

we may witness to the Gospel of Christ wherever we are led,

and serve you as gladly in privation as in power;

through Jesus Christ our Lord, who lives and reigns

with you and the Holy Spirit, one God, to the ages of ages.  Amen.

Isaiah 41:17-20

Psalm 148:7-13

Philippians 1:3-11

Mark 3:7-15

Holy Women, Holy Men:  Celebrating the Saints (2010), page 297

++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

This is post #1500 of SUNDRY THOUGHTS.

++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

Feast of John Keble (March 29)   1 comment

Donkin (Miss); John Keble (1792-1866); Oriel College, University of Oxford; http://www.artuk.org/artworks/john-keble-17921866-222899

Above:  John Keble

Image in the Public Domain

++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

JOHN KEBLE (APRIL 23, 1792-MARCH 29, 1866)

Anglican Priest and Poet

Episcopal Church feast day = March 29

Church of England feast day = July 14

John Keble was an influential priest and hymn writer.  Our saint was a son of an Anglican priest, also named John Keble.  (Aside:  Would it have been difficult to add suffixes, such as Jr. and III?)  The younger Keble’s life was one of devotion to his father and to the Church.  Our saint, a great intellectual, thrived at Oxford University, where he was present for many years.  He graduated from Corpus Christi College in 1897, received double first class honors from Oriel College in 1810, and became a fellow at Oriel College in 1811.  He, ordained to the diaconate in 1815 and to the priesthood the following year, left Oxford in 1823 to assist his father in parish ministry.  Four years later our saint published The Christian Year, a collection of poems for Sundays and feast days.  The volume helped to spread High Church ideals widely.  In 1831 Keble returned to Oxford as Professor of Poetry.

Perhaps Keble’s greatest legacy was the Oxford Movement, which he launched on July 14, 1833 (hence his feast day in The Church of England), with a sermon, “National Apostasy.”  In the sermon our saint condemned the government’s suppression of Irish bishoprics.  Thus not only was Keble a leading Tractarian, but the original one.  During the ensuing years he published translations of theological works, from the Church Fathers to Richard Hooker.

Keble finished his life as a married man and a rural vicar.  He married in 1835, after the death of his father.  The following year he became the Vicar of Hursley (near Wincester).  He died at Bournemouth, Hampshire, on March 29, 1866, aged 73 years.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

FEBRUARY 7, 2017 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF HELDER CAMARA, ROMAN CATHOLIC ARCHBISHOP OF OLINDA AND RECIFE

THE FEAST OF SAINT ADALBERT NIERYCHLEWSKI, ROMAN CATHOLIC PRIEST AND MARTYR

THE FEAST OF MITCHELL J. DAHOOD, ROMAN CATHOLIC PRIEST AND BIBLICAL SCHOLAR

THE FEAST OF SAINT MOSES, APOSTLE TO THE SARACENS

++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

Father of the eternal Word, in whose encompassing love all things in peace and order move:

grant that, as your servant John Keble adored you in all creation,

so we may have a humble heart of love for the mysteries of your Church

and know your love to be new every morning, in Jesus Christ your Son our Lord.  Amen.

Common Worship:  Daily Prayer (2005), page 482

+++++++++++++

Grant, O God, that in all time of our time of testing we may know your presence and obey your will;

that, following the example of your servant John Keble,

we may accomplish with integrity and courage what you give us to do,

and endure what you give us to bear;

through Jesus Christ our Lord, who lives and reigns

with you and the Holy Spirit, one God, for ever and ever.  Amen.

Ecclesiastes 3:1-11

Psalm 26:1-8

Romans 12:9-21

Matthew 5:1-12

Holy Women, Holy Men:  Celebrating the Saints (2010), page 295

++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

Feast of Harriet Tubman (March 26)   Leave a comment

harriet-tubman

Above:  Harriet Tubman

Image in the Public Domain

++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

HARRIET ROSS TUBMAN DAVIS (1820?-MARCH 10, 1913)

Abolitionist

The Episcopal Church celebrates the lives and legacies of Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Amelia Bloomer, Sojourner Truth, and Harriet Tubman on July 20.  I have decided, however, to break up that commemoration on this, my Ecumenical Calendar of Saints’ Days and Holy Days.  Therefore I establish her feast day as being separate and set it at March 26, following the lead of Robert Ellsberg, author of All Saints:  Daily Reflections on Saints, Prophets, and Witnesses for Our Time (1997).

Our saint, born circa 1820 in Dorcester County, Maryland, was originally Araminta “Minty” Ross, a slave.  She endured the humiliations and injustices of slavery; her Christian faith, among other things, helped her to do this.  Our saint was a mystic; she entered into trances and understood God to speak to her.  After a trance in 1849 she escaped to freedom in Canada.

“Minty” became Harriet Tubman in 1844, when she married John Tubman.  He died in 1851.

Tubman’s faith compelled her to put her life at risk for the freedom of slaves.  From 1851 to 1861 she made at least 19 trips to Maryland and back to Canada, to bring more than 300 slaves to freedom.  “Moses,” as many slaves called her, was a physically slight person and a moral giant.  She put her life at risk to help others; the bounty for her capture was $40,000.  (Aside: $40,000 in 1861 currency = $1,110,000 in 2015 currency.)  Tubman relocated to upstate New York in 1858/1859.  During the Civil War she worked as a nurse, a scout, and a spy for the U.S. Army.  She even participated in a raid that freed more than 750 slaves.

Tubman continued her good works after the Civil War.  She, although poor, took African-American orphans and elderly people into her home.  Although she was illiterate, our saint founded schools for African-American children.  When she came into more money, she helped those who were more impoverished than she was.  Our saint, who married Nelson Davis (died in 1888) in 1869, was the adoptive mother of Gertie Davis (born in 1876).  Our saint also advocated for feminist causes, working with Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony.  Tubman, however, chose to focus more on the problems of African Americans than on those of women in general.

Tubman died at Auburn, New York, on March 10, 1913.  She was in her nineties.

In 2016, when the U.S. Department of the Treasury announced plans to replace President Andrew Jackson‘s image on the $20 bill with the likeness of Tubman, candidate Donald Trump denounced the proposed change as an example of political correctness.  Actually, Tubman did more that was positive for the United States than Jackson did.  Jackson, for example, executed the policy of Indian removal, set the stage for the morally indefensible Trail of Tears, and led the charge to destroy the Second Bank of the United States.  The last item alone makes his place on money dubious.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

FEBRUARY 4, 2017 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF SAINT CORNELIUS THE CENTURION, WITNESS TO THE CRUCIFIXION

++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

Holy and righteous God, you created us in your image.

Grant us grace to contend fearlessly against evil and make no peace with oppression.

Help us, like your servant Harriet Tubman, to work for justice among people and nations,

to the glory of your name, through Jesus Christ, our Savior and Lord,

who lives and reigns with you and the Holy Spirit, one God, now and forever.  Amen.

Hosea 2:18-23

Psalm 94:1-15

Romans 12:9-21

Luke 6:20-36

–Adapted from Evangelical Lutheran Worship (2006), page 60

++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

Feast of Edward King (March 8)   Leave a comment

NPG Ax38337; Edward King

Above:  Edward King

Image in the Public Domain

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

EDWARD KING (DECEMBER 29, 1829-MARCH 8, 1910)

Bishop of Lincoln

+++++++++++++++

We must not give up on any soul as hopeless.

–Edward King

+++++++++++++++

We should acknowledge God in trade by truthfulness of work, by fair dealing, and by fair wages.

–Edward King

+++++++++++++++

The housing of the people is in reality immediately connected with the social and moral condition of the nation.

–Edward King

+++++++++++++++

The Feast of Edward King comes from the calendar of saints of The Church of England.

Edward King came from an ecclesiastical family and served God via the Church.  His grandfather was Walker King (Sr.) (1751-1827), the Bishop of Rochester from 1809 to 1827.  Our saint’s parents were Anne Heberden and Walker King (Jr.), Rector of Stone, Kent.  Edward, born at London on December 29, 1829, was the third of ten children.  He had a reputation for kindliness from an early age.  Anne, one of his sisters, was an invalid for twelve years.  Our saint sat by her bedside many nights and learned Italian so he could share her love of the writing of Dante Alighieri.  Edward’s constitution was also weak; he remained at home while John Day, his father’s curate (and later the Vicar or Ellesmere, Shropshire) tutored him.  Our saint helped Day with the choir and a Bible class for men. In February 1848 King matriculated at Oriel College, Oxford.  There he became a Tractarian.  Our saint had to leave Oxford for health reasons in 1851, but he accepted an honorary degree.  Next he toured the Holy Land and environs (in 1852) and worked as a private tutor (in 1853).  King, ordained deacon in 1854 and priest the following year, served as the Curate of Wheatley from 1854 to 1858.  It was his only pastorate.  Cuddesdon Theological College (now Ripon College), Cuddesdon, beckoned next.  He was chaplain from 1858 to 1863 and principal from 1863 to 1873.  From Cuddesdon our saint returned to Oxford; he became the Chair of Pastoral Theology and the Canon of Christ Church in 1873.  Six years later King helped to found St. Stephen’s House, Oxford, an Anglo-Catholic theological college.  In 1885 King succeeded Christopher Wordsworth (1807-1885) as the Bishop of Lincoln.  Our saint remained in that post for the rest of his life.  King remained kindly and concerned about the plight of a wide range of people, from farmers to industrial workers to prisoners condemned to die.  The Gospel commanded him to minister to them, he understood.

King’s liturgical “innovations,” actually returns to older practices, proved controversial and got him into trouble.  At the time members of the Evangelical and Anglo-Catholic wings of The Church of England clashed, with some Evangelical Anglicans went so far as to accuse Anglo-Catholics of being in league with Satan and certain Anglo-Catholics accused Evangelical Anglicans of practicing false religion.  Also, Parliament passed the Public Worship Regulation Act of 1874, forbidding certain ritualistic practices.  In 1888 King had to contend with eight allegations of supposed liturgical malfeasance:

  1. Mixing water and wine in the chalice;
  2. Administering the mixed elements to communicants;
  3. Washing the communion vessels ceremonially then drinking the water;
  4. Facing eastward before communion;
  5. Standing during the prayer of consecration so that nobody in the congregation could see him perform the Manual Acts of Consecration;
  6. Having two lit candles not necessary for illumination on the altar during the service;
  7. Permitting the singing of the Agnus Dei after the consecration of the elements; and
  8. Making the sign of the cross in the air with his hand at the benediction.

Archbishop of Canterbury Edward White Benson (1829-1896) spared King a civil prosecution by convening an ecclesiastical court.  In 1890 the court exonerated the Bishop of Lincoln on all but two counts:  (5) and (6).  Benson ordered King not to commit them any longer.  King obeyed that judgment.  The ordeal, however, stressed him spiritually and physically. The matter should never have come to the attention of any court.

King, who never married, died on March 8, 1910.  He was 80 years old.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

JANUARY 9, 2017 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF SAINTS PEPIN OF LANDEN, ITTA OF METZ, THEIR RELATIONS, AMAND, AUSTREGISILUS, AND SULPICIUS II OF BOURGES, FAITHFUL CHRISTIANS ACROSS GENERATIONAL LINES

THE FEAST OF SAINT ANTHONY MARY PUCCI, ROMAN CATHOLIC PRIEST

THE FEAST OF JULIA CHESTER EMERY, UPHOLDER OF MISSIONS

THE FEAST OF SAINT PHILIP II OF MOSCOW, METROPOLITAN OF MOSCOW AND ALL RUSSIA AND MARTYR

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

O God, our heavenly Father, who raised up your faithful servant Edward King

to be a bishop in your Church and to feed your flock:

Give abundantly to all pastors the gifts of your Holy Spirit,

that they may minister in your household as true servants of Christ

and stewards of your divine mysteries;

through Jesus Christ our Lord, who lives and reigns with you

and the Holy Spirit, one God, for ever and ever.  Amen.

Acts 20:17-35

Psalm 84 or 84:7-11

Ephesians 3:14-21

Matthew 24:42-47

–Adapted from Holy Women, Holy Men:  Celebrating the Saints (2010), page 719

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++