Archive for the ‘Saints of the 1930s’ Category

Feast of James Carney (September 16)   Leave a comment

Above:  Honduras and Nicaragua, 1957

Scanned from Hammond’s World Atlas–Classics Edition (1957)

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JAMES FRANCIS CARNEY (OCTOBER 28, 1924-SEPTEMBER 16, 1983)

U.S.-Honduran Roman Catholic Priest, Missionary, Revolutionary, and Martyr, 1983

Also known as Padre Guadeloupe

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To be a Christian is to be a revolutionary.

–Father James Carney

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The national security policy that justifies everything that is done in terms of U.S. security is an evil policy.  Father Carney got in trouble because he fell in love with poor people.  Other people get in trouble because they fall in love with riches and power and glory and pomposity.

–Joseph Connolly, brother-in-law of James Carney

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James Francis Carney took up his cross and followed Jesus to his death.

Carney, born in Chicago, Illinois, on October 28, 1924, grew up in a devout and middle-class Roman Catholic family in the Middle West.  He was an altar boy, a football player, and a member of the St. Louis University High School Class of 1942.  Our saint attended St. Louis University on a football scholarship.  While playing the sport he injured a knee; he had a bad knee for the rest of his life.  Myopia and a bad knee did not prevent conscription into the U.S. Army during World War II.  He, serving in the European Theater as a member of the Army Corps of Engineers, found living piously in the military difficult.  The frequent profanity proved especially disturbing.

Carney’s life changed after the war.  In 1946 he resumed studies at St. Louis University for a year.  Our saint matriculated at the University of Detroit, to study civil engineering, in 1947, but left after a year.  Religious life was calling.  While at Detroit Carney first read Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.  He spent the rest of his life synthesizing Christianity and Marxism.  In 1948 our saint matriculated at St. Stanislaus Seminary, Flourissant, Missouri.  Carney joined the Society of Jesus.  He served as a missionary in British Honduras (now Belize) from 1955 to 1958 then studied at St. Mary’s College, St. Mary’s, Kansas.  He became a priest in 1961.

Honduras has a sad political history.  The economically underdeveloped country has a long record of military dictatorships and corrupt and repressive governments.  Poverty is rampant, entrenched, and intergenerational, and institutional.  As in other parts of the former Spanish Empire, relatively few people own most of the land, control the majority of the wealth, and resist attempted at the redistribution of land, wealth, and political power.

From 1961 to 1979 Carney was a missionary priest in Honduras.  He, devoted to Our Lady of Guadeloupe, preferred that the peasants (campesinos) among whom he ministered call him “Padre Guadeloupe.”  Our saint, not content to stop at administering sacraments, became a social and political revolutionary for justice.  He identified with the peasants and lived as they did.  He became active in the peasants’ union, advocated for land reform, became a Honduran citizen, and came to identify as a “Marxist-Christian.”  He criticized the leaders of the Roman Catholic Church in Honduras for their close relationship with the United Fruit Company, which paid far below a living wage, thereby exacerbating poverty.  Our saint also condemned U.S. imperialism in Latin America.

Carney, after spending a few weeks at St. Louis University in 1979, moved to Nicaragua, where the Sandinistas had recently deposed Anastasio Somoza Debayle, the U.S.-backed dictator.  After spending a few years as a member of a revolutionary society, Carney decided to return to Honduras.  Doing so was dangerous.  The U.S.-supported government there arrested or executed alleged subversives–including leftists, liberals, and union activists.  Death squads were active in the Honduran Army.  This was the government that, according to U.S. President Ronald Reagan in 1983, was promoting democracy.  The Honduran government was not promoting democracy while murdering or arresting its politically troublesome citizens.  It was, however, providing a base of operations for the U.S.-backed, anti-Sandinista Contras.

Carney, who resigned from the Society of Jesus in June 1983, had become a committed revolutionary.  He regarded the wealth of the Vatican with disgust and recoiled at bourgeois Christians who supported causes he considered antithetical to the faith.  His pacifism was gone; some violence was sadly necessary, Carney understood.

On July 19, 1983, Carney returned to Honduras as the chaplain to a small band of guerrillas.  The Honduran Army captured or killed the unit quickly; Carney disappeared.  There were, over the years, various proposed fates for Padre Guadeloupe.  The most likely one was that, on Friday, September 19, 1983, the Honduran Army, having tortured Carney, threw him out of a helicopter above a mountain.  Perhaps the priest died when he hit the ground.

Officially, nobody recovered Carney’s physical remains–just his stole and chalice.

Carney’s family has attempted to learn of his fate and what the U.S. Government knows about it.  A federal judge, citing national security, dismissed a lawsuit.  Requests under the Freedom of Information Act have revealed answers, but mostly indirectly.  In 1999 the Central Intelligence Agency (C.I.A.) released many pages of documentation; 75 of those pages were entirely blacked out.  Members of the the family have also had good reasons to suspect that the federal government has tapped their telephones.

The truth of the matter seems clear, especially considering the many redactions and the appeals to national security:  The Honduran Army executed Carney with the support of the U.S. Government, which does not want to admit this.

Carney, in his 1983 autobiography, “The Metamorphosis of a Revolutionary,” wrote:

Since my novitiate, I have asked Christ for the Grace to be able to imitate him, even to martyrdom, to the giving of my life, to being killed for the cause of Christ.  And I strongly believe that Christ might give me this tremendous Grace to become a martyr for justice.

–Quoted in Robert Ellsberg, All Saints (1997), 404-405

The United States of America is, unlike many other nation-states, a country founded on high ideals, which the U.S. Government and society has a long record of trampling, unfortunately.  Human nature makes no exceptions because of U.S. citizenship.  When my country is at its best, it seeks to live those ideals, embodied most nobly in the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution, especially the Fourteenth Amendment.  The case of James Carney’s fate and the subsequent cover-up of U.S. Government knowledge of if poses a difficult question:  If a government founded on high ideals consistently makes a mockery of them, how are citizens supposed to respond to that hypocrisy?

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God of the poor, the oppressed, and the powerless,

we confess our sins, which we have committed either in knowledge or ignorance,

and which have harmed those less fortunate, many of them far away.

We acknowledge that, despite our best intentions,

we are complicit in the sins of our society, governments, institutions, and corporations.

We have the blood of innocents, many of whom we will never encounter, on our hands.

As we praise you and thank you for the moral courage of Father James Carney to take up his cross and follow Christ,

we also pray that you will forgive us and grant us the necessary grace

to confess and repent of our sins, and to act, as you lead us, to help the poor, the oppressed, and the powerless.

We pray through Jesus of Nazareth, executed unjustly as a criminal and a threat to imperial security.

In the Name of God:  Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.  Amen.

Amos 8:4-8

Psalm 15

Revelation 18:9-20

Luke 6:20-26

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

AUGUST 13, 2018 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF JOHN HENRY HOPKINS, JR., EPISCOPAL PRIEST AND HYMNODIST; AND HIS NEPHEW, JOHN HENRY HOPKINS, III, EPISCOPAL PRIEST AND MUSICIAN

THE FEAST OF ELIZABETH PAYSON PRENTISS, U.S. PRESBYTERIAN HYMN WRITER

THE FEAST OF JEREMY TAYLOR, ANGLICAN BISHOP OF DOWN, CONNOR, AND DROMORE

THE FEAST OF JOHN BAJUS, U.S. LUTHERAN MINISTER AND HYMN TRANSLATOR

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This is post #1600 of SUNDRY THOUGHTS.

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Feast of Lynn Harold Hough (September 9)   Leave a comment

Above:  Lynn Harold Hough

Image Source =  Drew University Library

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LYNN HAROLD HOUGH (SEPTEMBER 10, 1877-JULY 14, 1971)

U.S. Methodist Minister, Theologian, and Biblical Scholar

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Once more we are reminded that only God is to be met with a bended knee.  Even the high must not be given the place of the highest–even the good must not be given the place of the best.  The tragedy of mistaken loyalties is one of the greatest tragedies of the world.  Too late Wolsey realized that he had given to his king, Henry VIII, what belonged only to God.

–Dr. Hough’s exposition on Revelation 22:9, in The Interpreter’s Bible, Volume 12 (1957), 545

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Lynn Harold Hough, with his Roman collar, Charlie Chaplin mustache, and keen intellect, comes to A Great Cloud of Witnesses:  An Ecumenical Calendar of Saints’ Days and Holy Days via Volume 12 (1957) of The Interpreter’s Bible.

Hough owed much to Eunice Richey Giles (1856-June 3, 1937), his devoted, single mother.  She had married Franklin M. Hough, father of our saint.  The marriage had ended in divorce in 1877, and Eunice had moved back home, to Cadiz, Ohio, when she gave birth to her only child, Lynn Harold Hough, on September 10, 1877.  Eunice, a devout Methodist, raised her son in the faith.  She also worked hard to provide him with the best education possible.  In 1898 he graduated (with his B.A.) from Scio College, Scio, Ohio, where his mother worked as a cook.  Hough, ordained a minister in the Methodist Episcopal Church (1784-1939), served in churches in New Jersey, New York, and Maryland from 1898 to 1914.  He also became the head of the household, which included his mother until 1936, when he married.

Above:  Drew Theological Seminary

Image Scanned by Kenneth Randolph Taylor from Matthew Simpson, ed., Cyclopedia of Methodism, Embracing Its Rise, Progress, and Present Condition, with Biographical Notices, 6h ed. (1876), 315

Hough continued his education, graduating from Drew Theological Seminary (now Drew Theological School, Drew University), Madison, New Jersey, with his B.D. in 1905.

Above:  Garrett Biblical Institute

Image Scanned by Kenneth Randolph Taylor from Matthew Simpson, ed., Cyclopedia of Methodism, Embracing Its Rise, Progress, and Present Condition, with Biographical Notices, 6h ed. (1876), 389

Our saint, from 1914 to 1918 Professor of Historical Theology at Garrett Biblical Institute (now Garrett-Evangelical Theological Seminary), Evanston, Illinois, graduated from that institution with his D.Th. in 1918.  Our saint, from 1919 to 1920 the President of Northwestern University, host of Garrett Biblical Institute, established the graduate division of the university’s School of Commerce and laid the foundations, metaphorically speaking, for subsequent improvements at the university.  He resigned for health reasons.

Above:  Central Methodist Episcopal Church, Detroit, Michigan

Image Scanned by Kenneth Randolph Taylor from Matthew Simpson, ed., Cyclopedia of Methodism, Embracing Its Rise, Progress, and Present Condition, with Biographical Notices, 6h ed. (1876), 294

Hough returned to parish work for the period of 1920-1930.  For eight years (1920-1928) Hough served as the pastor of Central Methodist Episcopal Church (now Central United Methodist Church), Detroit, Michigan.  Our saint was, the “preacher to the intelligentsia,” according to his contemporary, Reinhold Niebuhr (1892-1971), pastor of Bethel Evangelical Church, Detroit, from 1915 to 1928, and a fellow anti-Ku Klux Klan activist.  The outspoken Hough was not shy about expressing his opinions and opposing bigotry.  Our saint stated that the United States should have joined the League of Nations.  He condemned the Daughters of the American Revolution for being critical of Jane Addams (1860-1935).   In 1923 our saint described the second Ku Klux Klan as

the most diabolical organization this nation ever saw.

(That unequivocal statement was quite different from Donald Trump’s statement about the alleged presence of “very fine people” on both sides in he context of white supremacist violence in Charlottesville, Virginia, in 2017.  That statement’s most avid fans were white supremacists.  This pattern of giving aid and comfort to unapologetic bigots has not surprised me, given Trump’s public statements and over the years, as well as many of his policies, to the present day.  Nativism, xenophobia, and white nationalism have been present in him for a long time.There were no “very fine people” in the Ku Klux Klan, according to our saint.  In 1925 years later Hough’s assertion that Evolution and the Bible were mutually compatible nearly prompted a heresy trial.  Hough was usually a delegate to the denomination’s General Conference, which met every four years, but he was not a delegate in 1928.  The reason for Hough not being a delegate that year was the backlash against his article, “Why Not a Catholic President?” (Plain Talk magazine, 1927).  The article did lead, however, to an honorary degree from the University of Detroit (Roman Catholic).  Of the eleven honorary degrees Hough received, he was proudest of that one.  From 1928 to 1930 Hough was the pastor of the American Presbyterian Church (amalgamated into the Erskine and American United Church, extant 1934-2011; now amalgamated into the Mountainside United Church), Montreal, Quebec, Canada.  During that time he also doubled as the President of the Religious Education Council of Canada.

Hough was active in many organizations, including the Federal Council of Churches, the National Council of Churches, the Society for Biblical Literature, the Masonic Lodge, the Methodist Episcopal Church (1784-1939), The Methodist Church (1939-1968), and The United Methodist Church (1968-).  Furthermore, he traveled across the United States and the world, preaching at prominent churches and, in 1934, addressing the League of Nations, in Geneva, Switzerland, on “The Church and Civilization.”

Hough returned to academia for good in 1930.  At Drew Theological Seminary he was Professor of Homiletics (1930-1933), Professor of Homiletics and Comprehensive Scholarship (1933-1937), Professor of Homiletics and Christian Criticism of Life (1937-1947), and Dean (1934-1947).  Our saint, a well-read Anglophile with an expansive vocabulary, as well as a firm grasp of history and literature, founded the Department of Christian Humanism at Drew.  He retired in 1947.

Hough, like any properly functioning human being, changed his mind as time passed.  He, a pacifist, initially opposed U.S. entry into World War II.  Our saint was not naïve, though; he recognized the necessity of Allied victory, for the sake of civilization.  Hough, with his customary tolerance, supported the causes of conscientious objectors while supporting the war effort and ministering to military personnel.  He remained committed to peace as he adjusted to reality.  Hough’s theology also changed.  He settled into what he called a “new orthodoxy” more liberal than Fundamentalism, more conservative than Modernism, and distinct from the Social Gospel and Neo-Orthodoxy.  The Social Gospel, Hough argued correctly, was utopian, therefore not realistic.  Neo-Orthodoxy, he insisted, went too far by emphasizing the human inability to arrive at Christian faith.

I reject Hough’s critique of Neo-Orthodoxy.

Hough, being a staunch Methodist–a thoroughgoing Methodist, not a Baptist masquerading as one, per the old joke that a Methodist is a Baptist who can read–placed a high premium on the power of human free will.  He came very close to putting the Pelagianism in Semi-Pelagianism.  Karl Barth (1886-1968) and Reinhold Niebuhr (1892-1971), leading Neo-Orthodox theologians, had Reformed backgrounds, however.  Barth, a minister in the Swiss and Reformed Church, emphasized divine actions, not human ones.  Niebuhr, a minister in the Prussian Evangelical (Lutheran-Reformed) tradition, rejected the Social Gospel as placing too little stress on sin and assuming too much human agency.  He emphasized original sin, which he redefined beyond an individual focus to have a strong societal, institutional component.  Barth was probably more optimistic than the sometimes grimly realistic Niebuhr.  Original sin, having corrupted human nature, institutions, and societies, severely hampered one’s ability to act morally, even when one was trying very hard to do so, Niebuhr taught.  My reading of Barth and Niebuhr has convinced me that they were mostly correct.

I am, by the way, an Anglican-Lutheran Single Predestinarian, so my theology makes room for free will to have a role in salvation for those not predestined to Heaven.  My critique of Hough is that he placed too much emphasis on free will.  I hold that nobody finds God, but that God finds people.  Via free will those not destined to Heaven may obey the invitation of the Holy Spirit and say “yes” to God, and therefore find salvation and eternal life, in the Johannine sense of eternal life, which is knowing God via Jesus.

Image Scanned by Kenneth Randolph Taylor

Hough wrote prolifically.  His catalog included 35 books (about one a year for a while) and many articles.  In retirement he, a visiting professor at various elite institutions off-an-on, wrote for The Interpreter’s Bible in the 1950s.  He wrote the exposition on the Book of Revelation in Volume 12 (of 12), published in 1957.  (I quoted a portion of that exposition at the beginning of this post.)

Image Scanned by Kenneth Randolph Taylor

Hough also wrote “The Message of the Book of Revelation,” spanning pages 551-613 of Volume 12.

Hough, a Victorian in terms of morality, resided with his Eunice, mother (or rather, she lived with him) until 1936, when, at the age of 58 or 59, he married.  Our saint’s wife was Blanche Horton Trowbridge, a 57-year-old widow of a Congregationalist minister.  She had also been a missionary in Turkey then Egypt for a quarter of a century.  Sadly, Eunice Hough, who had devoted her life to her only child, died in New York City on June 3, 1937, after an automotive accident.  She was about 81 years old.  The Houghs died less than a year apart; the cause of death in both cases was heart attack.  Blanche, aged about 92 years, died on August 3, 1970.  Lynn, aged 93 years, died on July 14, 1971.

One might justifiably ask why Hough, one of the most famous preachers of his time, has fallen into obscurity.

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I also composed the collect and selected the passages of scripture.

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Compassionate God, you have created us in your image and endowed us with intellect.

We thank you for your servant Lynn Harold Hough,

who loved you with all his heart, mind, and strength, and who loved his neighbors as he loved himself.

May we likewise recognize your presence in history, literature, and each other,

as well as employ our intellects fully, as we confront forms of bigotry;

through Jesus Christ, our Savior and Lord, who,

stretching his arms on the hard word of the cross beckoned all the world to himself.

In the Name of God:  Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.  Amen.

Sirach/Ecclesiasticus 44:1-15

Psalm 1

Philippians 2:1-11

Matthew 7:24-27

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

AUGUST 9, 2018 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF SAINT EDITH STEIN, ROMAN CATHOLIC NUN AND PHILOSOPHER

THE FEAST OF SAINT HERMAN OF ALASKA, RUSSIAN ORTHODOX MONK AND MISSIONARY TO THE ALEUT

THE FEAST OF JOHN DRYDEN, ENGLISH PURITAN THEN ANGLICAN THEN ROMAN CATHOLIC POET, PLAYWRIGHT, AND TRANSLATOR

THE FEAST OF MARY SUMNER, FOUNDRESS OF THE MOTHERS’ UNION

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Feast of Charles Fox (September 6)   Leave a comment

Above:  Map of New Zealand and Melanesia, 1958

Image Scanned and Cropped from Hammond’s World Atlas–Classics Edition (1958)

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CHARLES ELLIOT FOX (OCTOBER 1, 1878-OCTOBER 28, 1977)

Anglican Missionary in Melanesia

A New Zealand Prayer Book (1989), of The Anglican Church in Aotearoa, New Zealand, and Polynesia, lists September 6 as the feast of “Charles Fox, Scholar, Missionary, 1977.”

Charles Fox, an Anglican priest, was a missionary in Melanesia.  He was the longest-serving expatriate missionary in the Solomon Islands, regardless of denominational affiliation.  He served in Oceania for 71 years (1902-1973).

Fox, a native in England, grew up in New Zealand.  Our saint, born in Stalbridge, England, on October 1, 1878, was a son of Canon John Eliot Fox and Emma Phillips.  Fox and his family moved to New Zealand in 1884.  Our saint was physically frail, especially when very young, so home-schooling was initially necessary.  Later he studied at Napier Boys’ High School, Napier, then at the University of New Zealand, Auckland (B.A. in geology then M.A. in theology).

Fox discerned his vocation to missionary work in the 1890s then acted accordingly.  In 1895 our saint, still in school, met a cricket team of Melanesian boys.  He resolved to serve as a missionary to Melanesians.  Years later, after a brief stint as a science teacher in New Zealand, Fox joined the Melanesian Brotherhood at Norfolk Island (east of Australia and north of New Zealand) in 1902.  He took Holy Orders the following year.

Above:  Map Showing Norfolk Island

Fox was initially a teacher at St. Barnabas School, Norfolk Island, the Brotherhood’s main school.

Above:  Map Showing Norfolk Island, New Caledonia, and the New Hebrides

Then Fox spent a few moths on Mota Island, in the New Hebrides.

Above:  Map Showing the Solomon Islands

Next Fox went to Pamua, on Makira Island/San Cristobal Island, in the Solomon Islands.  There he remained until 1905, when he returned to teach on Norfolk Island.  From 1908 to 1918 our saint lived and worked on Makira Island/San Cristobal Island again.  There he opened St. Michael’s School, the first boarding school in the Solomon Islands, in 1911.  The setting was dangerous during the early years; guards were necessary, to protect staff and students from bushmen who beheaded victims.  On the island Fox also became an adopted member of the Arosi tribe and a member of the chief’s household.  Our saint’s exchange name was ‘Takibaina.”  Due to Fox’s short stature, his nickname was “Kakamora.”

Fox earned his Ph.D. in literature from the University of New Zealand in 1922 for his ethnographic study of the Arosi region of Makira Island/San Cristobal Island.

In 1922 the Melanesia Mission closed St. Barnabas School, Norfolk Island, and established its new main school, All Hallows’ School, Pawa, Ugi Island, Solomon Islands.  (Ugi Island is a small isle north of Makira Island/San Cristobal Island.)  From 1924 to 1932 Fox served as the principal of the school.

Fox remained a priest in Melanesia.  In 1932 he declined an opportunity to become the Bishop of Melanesia.  He served at Guadalcanal (1933-1944) then Malaita (1944-1950).  While on Malaita Island Fox served as a coast watcher during World War II.  He also paid pastoral and sacramental visits to villages in the jurisdiction of the anti-colonial Maasina Rule (1944-1952) when his bishop refused to do so.  From 1950 to 1952 Fox was the principal of the diocesan catechists’ school.  He, briefly the chaplain at the headquarters of the Diocese of Melanesia in 1952, went on to serve as the chaplain of the Melanesian Brotherhood at the school at Tabalia in 1952-1954.  Fox, from 1956 the Canon of Melanesia, was again a chaplain, based at Taroaniara, from 1968 to 1970.

Fox retired to New Zealand in 1973.  He, a Member of the Order of the British Empire since 1952, became a Commander of the Order of the British Empire in 1974.  He died in Waipukurau, New Zealand, on October 28, 1977.  He was 99 years old.

Fox’s legacy included not just the usual fruits of missionary work, but also books about the Solomon Islands and dictionaries of several islands.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

AUGUST 3, 2018 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF SAINTS JOANNA, MARY, AND SALOME, WITNESSES TO THE RESURRECTION

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Almighty and everlasting God, we thank you for your servant Charles Fox,

whom you called to preach the Gospel in the Solomon Islands.

Raise up in this and every land evangelists and heralds of your kingdom,

that your Church may proclaim the unsearchable riches of our Savior Jesus Christ;

who lives and reigns with you and the Holy Spirit, one God, now and for ever.  Amen.

Isaiah 52:7-10

Psalm 96 or 96:1-7

Acts 1:1-9

Luke 10:1-9

–Adapted from Holy Women, Holy Men:  Celebrating the Saints (2010), 716

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Feast of William F. Albright and G. Ernest Wright (September 6)   Leave a comment

Above:  The Seal of The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland

Photographer = Carol M. Highsmith

Image Source = Library of Congress

Reproduction Number = LC-DIG-highsm-18405

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WILLIAM FOXWELL ALBRIGHT (MAY 24, 1891-SEPTEMBER 19, 1971)

mentor of

GEORGE ERNEST WRIGHT (SEPTEMBER 5, 1909-AUGUST 29, 1974)

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U.S. BIBLICAL SCHOLARS AND ARCHAEOLOGISTS

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According to an old joke, an Evangelical is one who says to a liberal,

I will agree to call you a Christian if you agree to call me a scholar.

This witticism, like many other jokes, depends on a stereotype.  Stereotypes are overly broad generalizations, of course.  You, O reader, might know or have known at least one person who fits that stereotype.  I know and have known some who do.  (I have taught some of them too.  My experiences as a bookish, ritualistic, introverted, and left-of-center outsider with inherent Catholic tendencies growing up in and in the vicinity of Protestant churches in rural southern Georgia, U.S.A., have left me with an overall negative impression of Evangelicalism.)  

Albright was an exception to that stereotype.

Albright came from Methodist stock.  He, born in Coquimbo, Chile, on May 24, 1891, was a son of missionaries Wilbur Finley Albright and Zephine Vila Foxwell.  Our saint, a graduate of Upper Iowa University, earned his doctorate from The Johns Hopkins University in 1913.  In 1922-1929 and 1933-1936 Albright was the Director of the American School of Oriental Research, Jerusalem.  Furthermore, he was a professor of Semitic languages at The Johns Hopkins University from 1927 to 1958, when he retired.

Albright was an Evangelical, but not a Biblical literalist.  He, a leading figure in Biblical archaeology, followed the evidence to conclude, for example, that the Jewish people were originally polytheistic, and that they become monotheistic over time.  (I have repeated that conclusion, much to the consternation of some people.)  Albright also argued against German literary criticism, asserting that, for example, the historical parts of the Hebrew Bible are mostly accurate.

Albright, a great scholar, helped to authenticate the Dead Sea Scrolls in 1948.  He also wrote an article, “The Old Testament World,” for The Interpreter’s Bible.  Albright also edited the volumes on Jeremiah on Jeremiah, Matthew, and Revelation in The Anchor Bible series and co-wrote the volume on Matthew.  For his scholarship Albright received many honors, including the title Yakir Yerushalayim, or “Worthy Citizen of Jerusalem.”

Albright, aged 80 years, died in Baltimore, Maryland, on September 19, 1971.  A posthumous honor was the renaming of the American School of Oriental Research, Jerusalem, as the Albright Institute of Archaeological Research.

Albright was an influential professor who mentored men who went on to become great scholars.  One was Father Raymond E. Brown (1928-1998), about whom I have planned to write a post.  Another student and worthy successor was G. Ernest Wright.

George Ernest Wright, born in Ohio on September 5, 1909, was a Biblical scholar and archaeologist, as well as an expert in dating ancient pottery.  The son of a Presbyterian minister and graduate of McCormick Theological Seminary became a Presbyterian minister in 1934, the year of his graduation.  He continued his studies at The Johns Hopkins University (M.A., 1936; Ph.D., 1937) under the guidance of William F. Albright.  Wright was Professor of Old Testament History and Theology at McCormick Theological Seminary (1939-1958).  Then he moved to Harvard University (the Divinity School, to be precise), serving as the Parkman Professor of Divinity (1958-1974) and the Curator of the Semitic Museum (1961-1974).  He died of a heart attack on August 29, 1974, aged 64 years.

Wright, like his mentor, was a prominent and influential Biblical scholar.  One of Wright’s primary assertions was that study of the Hebrew Bible was germane to the Christian faith.  (That might seem obvious, but obvious statements need scholarly support sometimes.)  He also wrote two commentaries on Isaiah (one of them for The Layman’s Bible Commentary in 1972), and founded The Biblical Archaeologist magazine.  Furthermore, Wright was a General Editor of The Westminster Press’s Old Testament Library series, for which William McKane (1921-2004) wrote Proverbs:  A New Approach (1970).

Albright and Wright were great Christian scholars and Biblical archaeologists.  Their conclusions have continued to come under scrutiny, some of it baseless.  These saints were mere mortals, so, of course, they did not get everything right.  Nevertheless, they got more right than they got wrong.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

AUGUST 3, 2018 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF SAINTS JOANNA, MARY, AND SALOME, WITNESSES TO THE RESURRECTION

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O God, you have endowed us with memory, reason, and skill.

We thank you for the faithful legacy of [William F. Albright, G. Ernest Wright, and all others]

who have dedicated their lives to you and to the intellectual pursuits.

May we, like them, respect your gift of intelligence fully and to your glory.

In the Name of God:  Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.  Amen.

Deuteronomy 6:4-9

Psalm 103

Philippians 4:8-9

Mark 12:28-34

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

MARCH 6, 2013 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF SAINT CHRODEGANG OF METZ, ROMAN CATHOLIC BISHOP

THE FEAST OF EDMUND KING, ANGLICAN BISHOP OF LINCOLN

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Feast of William McKane (September 4)   1 comment

Above:  My Copy of McKane’s Proverbs:  A New Approach (1970)

Photographer = Kenneth Randolph Taylor

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WILLIAM MCKANE (FEBRUARY 11, 1921-SEPTEMBER 4, 2004)

Scottish Presbyterian Minister and Biblical Scholar

William McKane comes to this, my Ecumenical Calendar of Saints’ Days and Holy Days, via the Biblical Studies section of my library, which includes his seminal commentary (all 670 pages of it), Proverbs:  A New Approach (1970).

McKane had a passion for excellence in his academic work, on which he labored until one day before his death.  He did not seem destined for that career, though.  Our saint, born in Dundee, Scotland, on February 11, 1921, dropped out of school at the age of 15 years to become a clerk in the firm of H and A Scott, Dundee.  Soon McKane discerned a vocation for ordained ministry, so he attended night school while keeping his day job.  From 1941 to 1945 he served in the Royal Air Force.  Then, in 1946, our saint matriculated at St. Andrews University, St. Andrews.  He, graduating in 1949, became a minister in the Original Secession Church (extant 1822-1956), which merged into The Church of Scotland.  He was, therefore, from 1956, a minister in The Church of Scotland.  McKane, from 1949 to 1953 the pastor at Kilwinning, married Agnes Howie, his wife for the rest of his life, in 1952.  The couple had three sons and two daughters.  He earned his doctorate from Glasgow University in 1956.  The title of the dissertation was “The Old Israelite Community and the Rise of the Monarchy.”

McKane, who had a distinguished academic career, received many honors, none of which I list here, for the sake of brevity.  His career started at Glasgow University, where he was Assistant in Hebrew (1953-1956), Lecturer in Hebrew (1956-1965), and Senior Lecturer in Hebrew (1965-1968).  During those years McKane translated Book 33 of the Revival of the Religious Sciences, by the Medieval Islamic mystic al-Ghazali; Al-Ghazali’s Book of Fear and Hope debuted in 1962.  In the realm of Hebrew Biblical studies our saint published his commentary on I & II Samuel:  Introduction and Commentary (1963), followed by Tracts for the Times:  Ruth, Esther, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs (1965).  Also in 1965, McKane published his first major work, Prophets and Wise Men (1965), in which he distinguished between the empiricism of the sages and the intuition of the prophets.

From 1968 to 1990 McKane was Professor of Hebrew and Oriental Languages at St. Andrews University.  He also doubled as the Dean of the Faculty of Divinity (1973-1977) and the Principal of St. Mary’s College (1982-1986).  With Proverbs:  A New Approach (1970) our saint cemented his international academic reputation by helping to restore the study of Biblical wisdom, previously overshadowed by the “salvation history” approach to the theology of the Hebrew Bible.  Other important works were Studies in the Patriarchal Narratives (1979), A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on Jeremiah (two tomes, 1986 and 1996), and Selected Christian Hebraists (1988).  McKane also served as a translator of The Revised English Bible (1989), one of my favorite versions.

McKane retired in 1990; he was 69 years old.  Our saint remained active during his final years.  He published A Late Harvest:  Reflections on the Old Testament (1995), a collection of essays.  Micah:  Introduction and Commentary followed three years later.  McKane’s final project was a commentary on the Book of Job; he had written though Chapter 33 on the day before he died. McKane died in St. Andrews on September 4, 2004.  He was 83 years old.

McKane is a worthy addition to my Ecumenical Calendar.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

AUGUST 3, 2018 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF SAINTS JOANNA, MARY, AND SALOME, WITNESSES TO THE RESURRECTION

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O God, you have endowed us with memory, reason, and skill.

We thank you for the faithful legacy of [William McKane and all others]

who have dedicated their lives to you and to the intellectual pursuits.

May we, like them, respect your gift of intelligence fully and to your glory.

In the Name of God:  Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.  Amen.

Deuteronomy 6:4-9

Psalm 103

Philippians 4:8-9

Mark 12:28-34

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

MARCH 6, 2013 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF SAINT CHRODEGANG OF METZ, ROMAN CATHOLIC BISHOP

THE FEAST OF EDMUND KING, ANGLICAN BISHOP OF LINCOLN

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Feast of St. Teresa of Calcutta (September 5)   Leave a comment

Above:  Gold Medal of Mother Teresa of Calcutta

Image in the Public Domain

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SAINT TERESA OF CALCUTTA (AUGUST 26, 1910-SEPTEMBER 5, 1997)

Foundress of the Congregation of the Missionaries of Charity

Also known as Agnes Gonxha Bojaxhiu and Mother Teresa of Calcutta

Alternative feast day = October 19

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We can do no great things, only small things with great love.

–St. Teresa of Calcutta, quoted in Robert Ellsberg, All Saints:  Daily Reflections on Saints, Prophets, and Witnesses for Our Time (1997), 393

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Reactions and responses to St. Teresa of Calcutta prove that, regardless of how good one is and how much one helps others, especially the poor and other marginalized persons, one will have vocal critics.  This is not surprising, especially if one considers Jesus of Nazareth, sinless, and the subject of intense criticism for nearly 2000 years.  One, such as St. Teresa, who makes no pretense of perfection while following Christ can expect criticism also.  The servant is not greater than the master.

Our saint was a native of Skopje, now the capital of the Republic of Macedonia, perhaps soon to become the Republic of North Macedonia.  On August 26, 1910, however, Skopje was a city in the Ottoman Empire.  St. Teresa, an ethnic Albanian, grew up in a series of countries for a few years without leaving the city; borders shifted around her.  In 1918, however, Skopje became part of the new country of Yugoslavia.   Agnes Gonxha Bojaxhiu, the youngest child of Nikollé Bojaxhiu and Dranafile Bernai, grew up in a devout family.  Her parents had her baptized when she was one day old.  Her father died when she was eight years old.  Our saint, having read accounts of missionaries in the Bengal region of India, decided at a young age to become a missionary and a nun.

St. Teresa became a religious when she was 18 years old.  Agnes joined the Sisters of Loreto and resided at the abbey in Rathfarnham, Ireland.  She studied English there.  The following year she arrived in India, as a missionary.  At first Agnes, still a novice, learned the Bengali language and taught at St. Teresa’s School, Darjeeling, in the southern Himalaya region.  Agnes made her first religious vows on May 24, 1931, becoming Teresa, after St. Thérèse of Lisieux.  When Sister Teresa made her final vows on May 14, 1937, she was a teacher in Calcutta.  Our saint taught in that school until she became the headmistress in 1944.

St. Teresa began her work living among and helping the poor in Calcutta in 1948.  She did this in obedience to a divine vocation she received during a train ride on September 10, 1946.  Over the years our saint founded institutions and spin-off orders of her original order, the Missionaries of Charity, founded with thirteen members in 1950.  She also became an Indian citizen.  St. Teresa and those who worked with her ministered to the poor, the homeless, the dying, lepers, the addicted, and victims of epidemics of natural disasters.  They started work in Calcutta then expanded around the world.

Eventually St. Teresa became famous internationally.  She received many honors, perhaps most notably the Nobel Peace Prize in 1979.  She had a reputation as a living saint.  She lived up to it, venturing into war zones to rescue children and assisting victims of devastating earthquakes.  The staunch Roman Catholic, who opposed divorce, abortion, and artificial contraception, also attracted strong criticism from across the political spectrum.  Some critics were right-wing Hindu nationalist politicians.  Others were those sensitive to the global reputation of Calcutta, now renamed Kolkata.  There were also antitheists (to use Reza Aslan‘s term), such as Christopher Hitchens.  Criticism also came from other quarters.  St. Teresa’s death has not abated criticism of her and her orders.

The 87-year-old saint died in Calcutta on September 5, 1997.  The Indian Government gave her a state funeral, but not without controversy.  The Roman Catholic Church fast-tracked her path to full sainthood, declaring her a Venerable in 2002, a Blessed the following year, and a full saint in 2016.

St. Teresa is the patron of the Missionaries of Charity and, with St. Francis Xavier, a patron of the Diocese of Calcutta.

As for criticisms of St. Teresa, she was, like each of us, a flawed human being.  But would it be too much to ask that we, who have done far less good than she did, follow the advice of the novelist Alex Haley and “find the good and praise it”?

The orders St. Teresa founded continue to minister to vulnerable and marginalized people around the world.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

AUGUST 2, 2018 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF GEORG WEISSEL, GERMAN LUTHERAN PASTOR AND HYMN WRITER

THE FEAST OF ANNA BERNARDINE DOROTHY HOPPE, U.S. LUTHERAN HYMN WRITER AND TRANSLATOR

THE FEAST OF CHRISTIAN GOTTFRIED GEBHARD, GERMAN MORAVIAN COMPOSER AND MUSIC EDUCATOR

THE FEAST OF SAINT PETER JULIAN EYMARD, FOUNDER OF THE PRIESTS OF THE BLESSED SACRAMENT, THE SERVANTS OF THE BLESSED SACRAMENT, AND THE PRIESTS’ EUCHARISTIC LEAGUE; AND THE ORGANIZER OF THE CONFRATERNITY OF THE BLESSED SACRAMENT

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O God, your Son came among us to serve and not to be served, and to give his life for the life of the world.

Lead us by his love to serve all those to whom the world offers no comfort and little help.

Through us give hope to the hopeless,

love to the unloved,

peace to the troubled,

and rest to the weary,

through Jesus Christ, our Savior and Lord, who lives and reigns

with you and the Holy Spirit, one God, now and forever.  Amen.

Hosea 2:18-23

Psalm 94:1-15

Romans 12:9-21

Luke 6:20-36

Evangelical Lutheran Worship (2006), 60

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Feast of Arthur Carl Lichtenberger (September 3)   2 comments

Above:  The Flag of The Episcopal Church

Photographer = Kenneth Randolph Taylor

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ARTHUR CARL LICHTENBERGER (JANUARY 8, 1900-SEPTEMBER 3, 1968)

Presiding Bishop of The Episcopal Church and Witness for Civil Rights

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Fast from criticism, and feast on praise.

Fast from self-pity, and feast on joy.

Fast from ill-temper and feast on peace.

Fast from resentment, and feast on contentment.

Fast from jealousy, and feast on love.

Fast from pride, and feast on humility.

Fast from selfishness, and feast on service.

Fast from fear, and feast on faith.

–Arthur Carl Lichtenberger on Lenten practice

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Arthur Carl Lichtenberger was a leader of The Episcopal Church during a transitional period of its life.  His influence has been evident since his term as Presiding Bishop.

Lichtenberger was a theologian and a scholar.  He, born in Oshkosh, Wisconsin, on January 8, 1900, was a child of Adam Lichtenberger and Thereza Heitz.  He graduated from Kenyon College with a Bachelor of Philosophy degree in 1923.  Two years later he graduated from the Episcopal Theological School, Cambridge, Massachusetts.  Our saint, ordained a deacon in 1925 and a priest the following year, was Professor of New Testament at St. Paul’s Divinity School, Wuchang, China, from 1925 to 1927.  Graduate work at Harvard University followed in 1927-1928.  Next our saint was the Rector of Grace Church, Cincinnati, Ohio (1928-1933).  While the Rector of St. Paul’s Church, Brookline, Massachusetts (1933-1941), Lichtenberger was also a lecturer at the Episcopal Theological School, Cambridge (1935-1941).  Our saint went on to serve as the Dean of Trinity Cathedral, Newark, New Jersey (1941-1948), then as Professor Pastoral Theology at the General Theological Seminary, New York City (1948-1951).  Throughout his career Lichtenberger received numerous Doctor of Divinity, Doctor of Sacred Theology, Doctor of Laws, Doctor of Civil Law, and Doctor of Humane Letters degrees.

Lichtenberger joined the ranks of bishops in 1951.  That year he became the Bishop Coadjutor of Missouri.  The following year he succeeded to become the Bishop of Missouri.  While in the Diocese of Missouri Lichtenberger wrote the exposition on the Book of Esther for Volume III (1954) of The Interpreter’s Bible.  He also initiated congregational-level study of church mission, resulting in an increase in the amount of outreach and the number of churches.

Above:  A Portion of The Interpreter’s Bible, Volume III (1954), x

Scanned by Kenneth Randolph Taylor

At the General Convention of 1958 Lichtenberger won the election for Presiding Bishop, to succeed Henry Knox Sherrill (1890-1980), who had served in that post since 1947.  On that occasion Lichtenberger affirmed those unalienable rights no government, person, or group has a moral right to deny anyone.  He said that the human rights

to vote, to eat a hamburger where you want, to have a decent job, to live in a house fit for habitation are not rights to be litigated or negotiated.

(Those are still disputed points in the United States of America in 2018, unfortunately.)  Our saint led The Episcopal Church in affirming civil rights.  On his watch the House of Bishops supported the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom (August 1963) and what became the Civil Rights Act of 1964.  In June 1964, after Congress passed that landmark law, Lichtenberger issued a public statement in which he acknowledged that

legislation cannot change attitudes,

but

…law does influence the way in which men and women treat one another, and more than just relationships do provide a social climate in which attitudes change….We must commit ourselves without reservation to the full support of civil rights.

Baptism, Lichtenberger argued, creates a new social order.  This understanding, which influenced his views on the imperative of civil rights protections, has become part of the Baptismal Covenant in The Book of Common Prayer (1979).

Speaking of liturgical revision, Lichtenberger supported it.  At the General Conventions of 1961 and 1964 he favored the authorization of “trial use” liturgies.  The process of revising The Book of Common Prayer (1928) was underway when he died in 1968.

Lichtenberger became the Presiding Bishop when the denominational headquarters were inadequate.  The Church had occupied 281 Fourth Avenue, Manhattan, New York City, since 1894.  By 1958 branch offices in Connecticut, Chicago, and elsewhere in New York City were necessary.  Since 1960 the headquarters of The Episcopal Church have been at 815 Second Avenue, Manhattan.

On the ecumenical front Lichtenberger made history.  In 1961, en route to the Third Assembly of the World Council of Churches, our saint visited Pope St. John XXIII, thereby becoming the first Episcopal Presiding Bishop to visit a pope.

Lichtenberger was unable to complete a full term as Presiding Bishop.  As Parkinson’s Disease took its toll, our saint realized that he had to resign.  So, at the General Convention of 1964, the House of Bishops elected John Hines (1910-1997) to lead the denomination.  On his way out of office Lichtenberger published The Day is at Hand (1964), a collection of some of his writings.  From 1965 to 1968 our saint was Professor of Pastoral Theology at the Episcopal Theological School, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Lichtenberger, aged 68 years, died in Bethel, Vermont, on September 3, 1968.

Virginia Theological Seminary, Alexandria, Virginia, has as one of its endowed chairs the Arthur Carl Lichtenberger Chair in Pastoral Theology and Continuing Education.

I revere John Hines, who deserves many accolades was still stands as a controversial and prophetic figure in 2018.  History should give him his due.  Yet I notice that his legacy overshadows that of Lichtenberger, a man no less supportive of civil rights and liturgical revision.  It is past time that Lichtenberger receive his due, which need not come at the expense of Hines.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

JULY 19, 2018 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF JOHN HINES, PRESIDING BISHOP OF THE EPISCOPAL CHURCH AND WITNESS FOR CIVIL RIGHTS

THE FEAST OF SAINT JOHN PLESSINGTON, ROMAN CATHOLIC PRIEST AND MARTYR

THE FEAST OF SAINT JÓZEF PUCHALA, POLISH ROMAN CATHOLIC FRANCISCAN FRIAR, PRIEST, AND MARTYR

THE FEAST OF SAINT POEMEN, ROMAN CATHOLIC ABBOT; AND SAINTS JOHN THE DWARF AND ARSENIUS THE GREAT, ROMAN CATHOLIC MONKS

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Almighty God, we praise you for your servant Arthur Carl Lichtenberger,

through whom you have called the church to its tasks and renewed its life.

Raise up in our own day teachers and prophets inspired by your Spirit,

whose voices will give strength to your church and power in the reality of your reign,

through Jesus Christ, our Savior and Lord, who lives and reigns

with you and the Holy Spirit, one God, now and forever.  Amen.

Jeremiah 1:4-10

Psalm 46

1 Corinthians 3:11-23

Mark 10:35-45

–Adapted from Evangelical Lutheran Worship (2006), 60

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