Archive for the ‘Saints of the 700s’ Category

Feast of Sts. Magnus and Agricola of Avignon (August 19)   Leave a comment

Above:  Map of Gaul in 628

Image in the Public Domain

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SAINT MAGNUS OF AVIGNON (DIED IN 660)

father of

SAINT AGRICOLA OF AVIGNON (CIRCA 625-CIRCA 700)

His feast transferred from September 2

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Roman Catholic Bishops of Avignon

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Writing about some saints from antiquity can prove challenging, given the dearth of information available much of the time.  Nevertheless, gathering the proverbial crumbs and analyzing them can be useful.

St. Magnus of Avignon (d. 660) was a husband, a father, and a public official.  During the post-Roman times in Gaul, when members of the Merovingian Dynasty kept drawing lines on maps and fighting each other, chaos was routine.  St. Magnus was the governor of the region of Avignon.  After his wife died, he became a Benedictine monk at Lérins Abbey.  In 646 he began to serve as the Bishop of Avignon.

St. Magnus’s son was St. Agricola of Avignon (circa 625-circa 700).  The 16-year-old St. Agricola entered monastic life at Lérins Abbey.  St. Magnus, toward the end of his episcopate and life, appointed his son, then in his early thirties, the Bishop Coadjutor of Avignon.  When St. Magnus died in 660, St. Agricola became the Bishop of Avignon.  St. Agricola, a holy man, was a famous preacher and a defender of the poor against civil authority figures.  He also oversaw the construction of a church (staffed by monks) and a Benedictine monastery at Avignon.

St. Agricola is the patron saint of the city of Avignon and the Archdiocese of Avignon.

We have more information about St. Agricola than we do about his father–and certainly about his mother.  Yet we might learn about the parents by pondering their son.  If we accept the axiom that the apple does not fall far from the tree as being useful in considering this family, we must also arrive at positive conclusions regarding St. Magnus of Avignon and his wife.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

JUNE 21, 2018 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF SAINT ALOYSIUS GONZAGA, JESUIT

THE FEAST OF BERNARD ADAM GRUBE, GERMAN-AMERICAN MINISTER, MISSIONARY, COMPOSER, AND MUSICIAN

THE FEAST OF CARL BERNHARD GARVE, GERMAN MORAVIAN MINISTER, LITURGIST, AND HYMN WRITER

THE FEAST OF SAINTS JOHN JONES AND JOHN RIGBY, ROMAN CATHOLIC MARTYRS

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O God, our heavenly Father, who raised up your faithful servants

Saint Magnus of Avignon and Saint Agricola of Avignon

to be bishops and pastors in your Church and to feed your flock:

Give abundantly to all pastors the gifts of your Holy Spirit,

that they may minister in your household as true servants of Christ

and stewards of your divine mysteries;

through Jesus Christ our Lord, who lives and reigns with

you and the Holy Spirit, one God, for ever and ever.  Amen.

Acts 20:17-35

Psalm 84 or 84:7-11

Ephesians 3:14-21

Matthew 24:42-47

–Adapted from Holy Women, Holy Men:  Celebrating the Saints (2010), 719

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Feast of St. Wastrada and Her Family (July 21)   Leave a comment

Above:  Gaul in 714 C.E.

Image in the Public Domain

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SAINT WASTRADA (DIED CIRCA 760)

mother of

SAINT GREGORY OF UTRECHT (703-776)

Roman Catholic Bishop of Utrecht

His feast transferred from August 25

uncle of 

SAINT ALBERIC OF UTRECHT (DIED AUGUST 21, 784)

Roman Catholic Bishop of Utrecht

His feast transferred from November 14 and August 21

One of my goals is renovating my Ecumenical Calendar of Saints’ Days and Holy Days is to emphasize relationships and influences.  That emphasis is consistent with telling family stories, such as this one.

This family was nobility related to the Carolingian Dynasty.  Alberic and St. Wastrada (d. 760) were a married couple.  After Alberic died St. Wastrada became a nun.  Their son was St. Gregory of Utrecht, born in Trier in 703.  He, educated at the monastery at Pfalzel, met his mentor, the visiting St. Boniface of Mainz (675-754), there in 722.  St. Gregory became the Abbot of St. Martin’s Abbey, Utrecht, a center of missionary activities.  In 754 St. Eoban (feast day = July 7), Bishop of Utrecht for about a year, died, having become a martyr with St. Boniface.  St. Gregory, without formal consecration, served as the Bishop of Utrecht from 754 to 775, until failing health forced him to step down.  He died in 776.  St. Gregory, habitually quick to forgive, served as a mentor to many saints, including St. Ludger (742-809).

The next Bishop of Utrecht was St. Alberic of Utrecht, St. Gregory’s nephew.  St. Alberic, renowned for his great intellect, deep piety, and evangelistic zeal, had been a Benedictine monk in Utrecht and the Prior of the cathedral in that city.  He reorganized the school, evangelized pagan Teutons, and directed the missionary work of St. Ludger in Ostergau.  (St. Ludger had been a student of St. Alcuin of York, a friend of St. Alberic.)  St. Alberic died on August 2, 784.

We know little about St. Wastrada, but we can learn something about her faith by pondering her son and his nephew.  We can know that the direct and indirect influences of St. Wastrada were profound, surviving her for many generations.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

JUNE 10, 2018 COMMON ERA

PROPER 5:  THE THIRD SUNDAY AFTER PENTECOST, YEAR B

THE FEAST OF SAINT JAMES OF NISIBIS, BISHOP; AND SAINT EPHREM OF EDESSA, “THE HARP OF THE HOLY SPIRIT”

THE FEAST OF SAINTS GETULIUS, AMANTIUS, CAERAELIS, AND PRIMITIVUS, MARTYRS AT TIVOLI, 12O; AND SAINT SYMPHOROSA OF TIVOLI, MARTYR

THE FEAST OF SAINT LANDERICUS OF PARIS, ROMAN CATHOLIC BISHOP

THE FEAST OF THOR MARTIN JOHNSON, U.S. MORAVIAN CONDUCTOR AND MUSIC DIRECTOR

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Almighty God, you have surrounded us with a great cloud of witnesses:

Grant that we, encouraged by the good example of your servants

Saint Wastrada,

Saint Gregory of Utrecht, and

Saint Alberic of Utrecht,

may persevere in running the race that is set before us,

until at last we may attain with them to your eternal joy;

through Jesus Christ, the pioneer and perfecter of our faith,

who lives and reigns with you and the Holy Spirit, one God, for ever and ever.  Amen.

Micah 6:6-8

Psalm 15

Hebrews 12:1-2

Matthew 25:31-40

–Adapted from Holy Women, Holy Men:  Celebrating the Saints (2010), 724

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Feast of St. Methodius I of Constantinople and St. Joseph the Hymnographer (June 14)   1 comment

Above:  The Expansion of Islam, 700-900

Scanned from Hammond’s World Atlas–Classics Edition (Philadelphia, PA:  The Publishers Agency, Inc., 1957), H-11

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SAINT METHODIUS I OF CONSTANTINOPLE (LATE 700S-847)

Defender of Icons and Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople

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SAINT JOSEPH THE HYMNOGRAPHER (LATE 700S-886)

Defender of Icons and the “Sweet-Voiced Nightingale of the Church”

Alternative feast day = April 3

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Men never do evil so completely and cheerfully as when they do it from religious conviction.

–Blaise Pascal (1623-1662), Pensées

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A DUAL BIOGRAPHY OF ALMOST CERTAINLY THREE MEN

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On the Roman Catholic calendar Sts. Methodius I of Constantinople and Joseph the Hymnographer, contemporaries, share a feast day yet not a feast.  My process of preparing this post reveals that the fact they their stories contain many of the same background characters, however, so merging the feasts is efficient and feasible.

FROM SICILY TO ROME

Above:  St. Methodius I of Constantinople

Image in the Public Domain

St. Methodius I, born in Syracuse, Sicily, in the late 700s, came from a wealthy family.  He, educated in Syracuse, traveled to Constantinople for the purpose of seeking a position in the Byzantine imperial court.  He founded a monastery on the island of Chinos and supervised construction of that monastery instead.  St. Methodius I left Chinos soon after the the completion of the construction of that monastery, for St. Nicephorus I, from 806 to 815 the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople, summoned him to the imperial capital and appointed him the apokrisiares, or church advocate, during the reign (813-820) of the Iconoclastic Emperor Leo V the Armenian.

Above:  St. Joseph the Hymnographer

Image in the Public Domain

St. Joseph the Hymnographer, frequently and perhaps hopelessly confused by many hagiographers with St. Joseph of Thessalonica, brother of St. Theodore Studites, also made his way to Constantinople.  St. Joseph the Hymnographer, born on the island of Sicily in the late 700s, came from a Christian family.  His parents were Plotinos and Agatha.  He moved to Thessalonica, where he became a monk.  There St. Gregory the Dekapolite, also a defender of icons, met our saint, whom he took to the imperial capital during the reign (813-820) of Leo V the Armenian.

IN ROME

St. Nicephorus I sent St. Methodius I on a mission to Rome.  During that time Leo the Armenian dismissed the Ecumenical Patriarch and exiled the absent St. Methodius I.

St. Gregory also sent St. Joseph to Rome, to deliver a message to Pope Leo III (in office 795-816).  St. Joseph remained in Rome for years.

BACK TO CONSTANTINOPLE

Both of our featured saints returned to Constantinople after Leo the Armenian died in 820 and during the reign (820-829) of Emperor Michael II the Stammerer.  Although Michael II initially halted the Iconclastic persecution and freed the political prisoners, he eventually resumed the persecution and imprisoned St. Methodius I, who had continued to resist Iconoclasm.  St. Joseph, a priest by this time, was back in the imperial capital also.  There he founded a church and an associated monastery.  In his absence St. Gregory had died.  St. Joseph transferred relics of his mentor to the new church.

THE REIGN OF THE EMPEROR THEOPHILUS (829-842)

The next ruler was Theophilus (reigned 829-842), an Iconclast.  The Emperor freed St. Methodius I, who persisted in resisting Iconoclasm.  Theophilus tolerated this until he became convinced that leniency toward St. Methodius I angered God, who supposedly punished the empire with defeats to Arab armies.  So, in 835, the Emperor ordered the arrest and torture of St. Methodius I, who had retorted that God was angry not over the veneration of icons but the destruction of them.  Byzantine guards broke St. Methodius I’s jaw and permanently scarred his face.  They also kept him incarcerated with two robbers in a cave on the island of Antigonus for seven years.

St. Joseph also resisted the Iconclastic policy of Theophilus.  Our saint therefore spent eleven years in exile in the Cheronese, in Crimea.

EXIT SAINT METHODIUS I

The reign of Emperor Michael III the Drunkard spanned from 842 to 867.  Until 856, however, the regent was his mother, the Empress Theodora.  She ordered defenders of icons freed.  The Empress also elevated St. Methodius I to the office of Ecumenical Patriarch.  In that capacity he presided over the church council that restored the veneration of icons.  He lived peacefully during his final years, dying in 847.

St. Methodius I also wrote some hymns.

EXIT SAINT JOSEPH THE HYMNOGRAPHER

St. Joseph’s fortunes under Theodora were mixed.  In 842 she made him the keeper of the sacred vessels at the Church of Hagia Sophia, Constantinople.  He had to go into exiles again, however, due to the political consequences of his condemnation of the cohabitation of Bardas, brother of Theodora.  St. Joseph returned from exile in 867, after the death of Bardas.

St. Joseph, back in Constantinople, ended his days as the Father-confessor for all priests in the city.  He died in 886.

St. Joseph wrote about 1000 hymns and liturgical poems of the Orthodox Church.  Some of them have come to exist in English-language translations, in hymnals of various denominations, usually Roman Catholic, Anglican, Lutheran, Moravian, and Presbyterian.

THE MATTER OF CHRONOLOGY; OR, PEOPLE LEAD THEIR LIVES FORWARD, NOT BACKWARD

I have endeavored to write as accurately as possible.  As I have mentioned, hagiographers have long confused St. Joseph the Hymnographer with St. Joseph of Thessalonica.  This fact has complicated my task.  Even Orthodox Church resources I have consulted have offered untrustworthy information.  I have discerned some of this via simple mathematics.  According to some sources, the birth of St. Joseph the Hymnographer occurred in 816 and his family fled Sicily when he was 15 years old (in 831), due to the Arab invasion.  Also according to these sources, some years later St. Joseph arrived in Constantinople and carried a message to the Pope during the reign of Emperor Leo V the Armenian.  The reign of Leo the Armenian was 813-820, however.  ST. JOSEPH THE HYMNOGRAPHER DID NOT MOVE BACKWARD IN TIME.  I have also read of mutually exclusive exiles of St. Joseph during the reign of the Emperor Theophilus.  I have utilized Ockham’s Razor when making decisions about what to write.

I acknowledge readily, O reader, that my biography of St. Joseph the Hymnographer almost certainly contains elements of the life of St. Joseph of Thessalonica instead, due to the sources available to me.

CONCLUSION

Sts. Methodius I of Constantinople and Joseph the Hymnographer were faithful servants of God who suffered for their faith, due to imperial politics.  Their legacies have survived, fortunately.  The Orthodox Church has continued to venerate icons.  Also, many Christians, in their successive generations, to the present day, have sung hymns by St. Joseph.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

JANUARY 23, 2018 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF SAINT JOHN THE ALMSGIVER, ROMAN CATHOLIC PATRIACH OF ALEXANDRIA

THE FEAST OF CASPAR NEUMANN, GERMAN LUTHERAN MINISTER AND HYMN WRITER

THE FEAST OF PHILLIPS BROOKS, EPISCOPAL BISHOP OF MASSACHUSETTS

THE FEAST OF THOMAS A. DOOLEY, PHYSICIAN AND HUMANITARIAN

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Almighty God, we praise you for your servants

Saints Methodius I of Constantinople and Joseph the Hymnographer,

through whom you have called the church to its tasks and renewed its life.

Raise up in our won day teachers and prophets inspired by your Spirit,

whose voices will give strength to your church and proclaim the reality of your reign,

through Jesus Christ, our Savior and Lord, who lives and reigns

with you and the Holy Spirit, one God, now and forever.  Amen.

Jeremiah 1:4-10

Psalm 46

1 Corinthians 3:11-23

Mark 10:35-45

–Adapted from Evangelical Lutheran Worship (2006), page 60

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Feast of St. Bede of Jarrow (May 25)   1 comment

Above:  St. Bede of Jarrow

Image in the Public Domain

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SAINT BEDE OF JARROW (672/673-MAY 25, 735)

Roman Catholic Abbot of Jarrow and Father of English History

Also known as Beada, Beda, St. Bede the Venerable, and the Venerable Bede

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My chief delight has always been in study, teaching, and writing.

–St. Bede of Jarrow

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St. Bede of Jarrow, who built on the work of others, laid the foundations upon which successors based their great works.  He, known as “the venerable” since the 800s, left a brief biography of himself.  His surviving writings have revealed much about him, fortunately.

Our saint was, from the age of seven years, a monastic.  He, born in Wearmouth, England, in 672 or 673, became a resident of the Monastery of St. Peter, Wearmouth, when his parents left him there.  The abbot was St. Benedict Biscop (628-689), who became one of St. Bede’s spiritual and educational mentors and guides.  In 682, when Biscop established a second monastery, that of St. Paul, Jarrow, with Coelfrid serving as the abbot, our saint transferred to that abbey and acquired another mentor and guide.  St. Bede remained at Jarrow for the rest of his life and eventually rose to the rank of abbot.  Along the way St. John of Beverley (died in 721) ordained him to the diaconate (at the age of 19 years) then to the priesthood (at the age of 30 years).  Since St. Bede became a deacon six years before the minimum age for the diaconate, according to canons, Coelfrid and St. John of Beverly must have recognized at least one remarkable quality about him.

St. Bede was a life-long scholar.  Invaluable to his work was the great library (almost 300 volumes) of the monastery at Jarrow, gathered by St. Benedict Biscop over time.  St. Bede wrote poetry (lost, unfortunately); treatises (on subjects including mathematics, rhetoric, grammar, astronomy, philosophy, and music); an English-translation (lost, unfortunately) of the Gospel of John; Lives of the Abbots; and the Ecclesiastical History of the English People (731), his historical masterpiece.  His final work, completed immediately prior to his death, was the translation of the Gospel of John.

Just as Coelfrid and St. John of Beverley influenced St. Bede, he mentored others, who made their marks directly and indirectly.  For example, our saint taught one Egbert (died in 766), from 735 the Archbishop of York.  Egbert taught St. Alcuin of York (circa 735-804), the influential liturgist, educator in the Frankish Kingdom, and Abbot of Tours.

Pope Leo XIII canonized St. Bede and declared him a Doctor of the Church in 1899.

St. Bede is the patron saint of lectors.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

DECEMBER 2, 2017 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF CHANNING MOORE WILLIAMS, EPISCOPAL MISSIONARY BISHOP IN CHINA AND JAPAN

THE FEAST OF ALICE FREEMAN PALMER, U.S. EDUCATOR AND HYMN WRITER

THE FEAST OF SAINT BRIOC, ROMAN CATHOLIC ABBOT; AND SAINT TUDWAL, ROMAN CATHOLIC ABBOT AND BISHOP

THE FEAST OF SAINT OSMUND OF SALISBURY, ROMAN CATHOLIC BISHOP

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Almighty God, who has enriched your Church

with the learning and holiness of your servant Bede:

Grant us to find in Scripture and disciplined prayer

the image of your Son our Savior Jesus Christ,

and to fashion our lives according to his likeness,

to the glory of your great Name and benefit of your holy Church;

through the same Christ our Lord.  Amen.

A Great Cloud of Witnesses:  A Calendar of Commemorations (2016)

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Heavenly Father, you called your servant Bede, while still a child,

to devote his life to your service in the disciplines of religion and scholarship:

Grant that as he labored in the Spirit to bring the riches of your truth to his generation,

so we, in our various vocations, may strive to make you known in all the world;

through Jesus Christ our Lord, who lives and reigns with

you and the Holy Spirit, one God, for ever and ever.  Amen.

Wisdom of Solomon 7:15-22

Psalm 78:1-4

1 Corinthians 15:1-8

Matthew 13:47-52

Holy Women, Holy Men:  Celebrating the Saints (2010), page 387

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Feast of St. Germanus I of Constantinople (May 12)   Leave a comment

Above:  St. Germanus I of Constantinople

Image in the Public Domain

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SAINT GERMANUS I OF CONSTANTINOPLE (CIRCA 640-MAY 12, 733/740)

Patriarch of Constantinople

Byzantine Imperial politics affected the life of St. Germanus I, mostly negatively.  He, born at Constantinople circa 640, was a son of Senator Justinian, whom Emperor Constantine IV Pogonatus (reigned 668-685) ordered executed.  The cruel emperor also ordered the emasculation of St. Germanus.  Our saint went on to become a priest then the Bishop of Cyzicus.  As the Bishop of Cyzicus he attended the Synod of Constantinople (712), which decreed Monothelitism, the heresy that Christ, despite having two natures (human and divine) yet just one will.  St. Germanus criticized that heresy.  Our saint, the Patriarch of Constantinople from 715 to 730, also opposed iconoclasm.  This caused him to lose favor with Emperor Leo III the Isaurian (reigned 717-741), who forced him out of office in 730 and into exile at a monastery at Platonium then appointed an obedient patriarch.  St. Germanus died in the monastery between 733 and 740.

St. Germanus wrote histories, homilies, and hymns.  Some hymns have survived.

So have varieties of iconoclasm, unfortunately.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

OCTOBER 14, 2017 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF SAINTS CALLIXTUS I, ANTERUS, AND PONTIAN, BISHOPS OF ROME; AND SAINT HIPPOLYTUS, ANTIPOPE

THE FEAST OF SAMUEL ISAAC JOSEPH SCHERESCHEWSKY, EPISCOPAL BISHOP OF SHANGHAI

THE FEAST OF THOMAS HANSEN KINGO, DANISH LUTHERAN BISHOP, HYMN WRITER, AND “POET OF EASTERTIDE”

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Almighty God, your Holy Spirit gives to one the word of knowledge,

and to another the insight of wisdom,

and to another the steadfastness of faith.

We praise you for the gifts of grace imparted to your servant Saint Germanus I of Constantinople,

and we pray that, by his teaching we may be led to a fuller knowledge of the truth

we have seen in your Son Jesus, our Savior and Lord, who lives and reigns

with you and the Holy Spirit, one God, now and forever.  Amen.

Isaiah 28:5-6 or Hosea 14:5-8 or 2 Chronicles 20:20-21

Psalm 96

Philippians 4:8-9 or Ephesians 5:18b-20

Matthew 13:44-52

–Adapted from Evangelical Lutheran Worship (2006), page 61

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Feast of St. Pamphilus of Sulmona (April 28)   Leave a comment

Above:  Statue of St. Pamphilus of Sulmona

Image in the Public Domain

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SAINT PAMPHILUS OF SULMONA DIED CIRCA 700)

Roman Catholic Bishop and Almsgiver

St. Pamphilus of Sulmona earned his reputation for piety and good works.  He, a convert from paganism, came to Christ and alienated his family as a result; his father disowned him.  Our saint, Bishop of Sulmona, with his see city being Abruzzi, in Italy, from 682, had a routine.  He sang the midnight office, said Mass, gave alms to the poor, then ate breakfast with those poor.  Certain priests, who did not follow that routine, became self-conscious in their bishop’s context.  They, out of jealousy, falsely accused him of being an Arian.  However, Pope St. Sergius I (reigned 687-701) cleared St. Pamphilus of the allegation and sent him home with a generous donation to distribute to the poor.

St. Pamphilus died circa 700.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

JULY 22, 2017 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF SAINT MARY MAGDALENE, EQUAL TO THE APOSTLES

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Heavenly Father, Shepherd of your people, we thank you for your servant Saint Pamphilus of Sulmona,

who was faithful in the care and nurture of your flock;

and we pray that, following his example and the teaching of his holy life,

we may by your grace grow into the stature of the fullness of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ,

who lives and reigns with you and the Holy Spirit, one God, for ever and ever.  Amen.

Ezekiel 34:11-16

Psalm 23

1 Peter 5:1-4

John 21:15-17

–Adapted from Holy Women, Holy Men:  Celebrating the Saints (2010), page 718

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Feast of St. Megingaud of Wurzburg (March 16)   Leave a comment

megingaudus

Above:  St. Megingaud of Wurzburg

Image in the Public Domain

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SAINT MEGINGAUD OF WURZBURG (710-783)

Roman Catholic Monk and Bishop

St. Megingaud, born in Franconia in 710, was a student of St. Boniface of Mainz (675-754), the Apostle to the Germans and the founder of Fritzlar Abbey.  St. Megingaud became a monk there in 738.  He also taught at the abbey school.  In 754 St. Megingaud became the second Bishop of Wurzburg, in Germany.  In that capacity he was active in the affairs of state of the Frankish Empire.  Fifteen years later he founded Neustadt Abbey and retired there.  He spent the rest of his life as a monk devoted to prayer.  St. Megingaud died, aged 72 or 73 years, in 783.

I have heard certain Protestants, regardless of where they fall on the liberal-conservative spectrum, speak of monastics as being useless people.  This has not made sense to me, for, I have reasoned, if one truly affirms the power of prayer, one should not speak of men and women who devote their lives to it as being useless.  St. Megingaud of Wurzburg, whether in or out of a monastery, was a useful man.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

JANUARY 20, 2017 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF SAINT FABIAN, BISHOP OF ROME AND MARTYR

THE FEAST OF SAINTS DEICOLA AND GALL, ROMAN CATHOLIC MONKS; AND OTHMAR, ROMAN CATHOLIC ABBOT AT SAINT GALLEN

THE FEAST OF SAINTS EUTHYMIUS THE GREAT AND THEOCRISTUS, ROMAN CATHOLIC ABBOTS

THE FEAST OF HARRIET AUBER, ANGLICAN HYMN WRITER

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O God, by whose grace your servant St. Megingaud of Wurzburg,

kindled with the flame of your love, became a bright and a shining light in your Church:

Grant that we also may be aflame with the spirit of love and discipline,

and walk before you as children of light;

through Jesus Christ our Lord, who lives and reigns with you,

in the unity of the Holy Spirit, one God, now and for ever.  Amen.

Acts 2:42-47a

Psalm 133 or 34:1-8 or 119:161-168

2 Corinthians 6:1-10

Matthew 6:24-33

–Adapted from Holy Women, Holy Men:  Celebrating the Saints (2010), page 723

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