Archive for the ‘September 30’ Category

Feast of Richard Challoner (September 30)   1 comment

Above:  Richard Challoner

Image in the Public Domain

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

RICHARD CHALLONER (SEPTEMBER 29, 1691-JANUARY 12, 1781)

English Roman Catholic Scholar, Religious Writer, Translator, Controversialist, Priest, and Titular Bishop of Doberus

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++

INTRODUCTION

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++

Bishop Richard Challoner comes to this, A Great Cloud of Witnesses:  An Ecumenical Calendar of Saints’ Days and Holy Days, via his many works, mainly his 1749-1952 revision of the Douai-Rheims Version of the Bible (1582/1609).

Challoner lived during a time of official persecution of Roman Catholicism in the United Kingdom.  Prior to the Catholic Emancipation Act (1829), Roman Catholics could not participate fully in public life.  For decades after the Catholic Emancipation Act, they still could not participate fully in public life, either.  However, the Catholic Emancipation Act did permit Roman Catholics (except clergy) to sit in the Parliament and serve as members of lay corporations.  Roman Catholics could also hold most crown offices, with a handful of exceptions.  Furthermore, no Roman Catholic cleric was to wear clerical attire outside of church, religious orders were officially under a ban (an unenforced one), and no Roman Catholic prelate was to use a title any Anglican prelate used.  Nevertheless, the Catholic Emancipation Act was a huge step forward for British and Irish Roman Catholics.  The Universities Tests Act (1871) opened universities to Roman Catholics.

Understanding the political-religious climate in which Challoner lived is crucial to grasping his works and their tone.  If one understands why he gave as good as he got, one comprehends our saint and his works in context.

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++

CONVERT, PRIEST, SCHOLAR, AND APOLOGIST

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++

Challoner, born in Lewes, England, on September 29, 1691, came from a Presbyterian family.  His father was a winecooper.  The father died when our father was a boy.  Then Challoner’s mother became the housekeeper to a Roman Catholic family at Gage, Firle, Sussex.  Our saint joined the Roman Catholic Church when he was about 13 years old, in the household of another Roman Catholic family–the Holmans, of Warkworth, Northamptonshire.  Father John Gother, the Holmans’ chaplain, was also a religious writer and a controversialist.  He taught Challoner Roman Catholic doctrine and helped him get into the English College, Douai, France.

Challoner spent 1705-1730 at the English College, Douai.  He matriculated in July 1705.  Our saint was such a good student that he completed the twelve-year-long course of study in eight years.  In 1708, the pupil committed to return to England on a mission, when required to do so.  Challoner, when twenty-five years old, began to teach the rhetoric and poetry courses.  The following year, he began an eight-year-long appointment as Professor of Philosophy.  Challoner, ordained to the priesthood on March 28, 1716, graduated with his Bachelor of Divinity degree in 1719.  The following year, our saint became the Vice President, as well as Professor of Theology and Prefect of Studies.  Challoner received his Doctor in Divinity degree in 1727.  Before our saint left the English College, he published his first book, Think Well On’t; or, Reflections on the Great Truths of the Christian Religion, for Every Day in the Month (1728).

Challoner returned to England, on a mission, in 1730.  He settled in London and began his ministry.  Our saint initially did so disguised as a layman because of the political-religious climate in England.  Challoner said Masses secretly, visited prisons, and performed his priestly duties faithfully.  In his spare time, our saint wrote and translated.  He wrote or translated the following through 1737:

  1. The Grounds of Catholic Doctrine, as Contained in the Profession of Faith (translation, 1732);
  2. Unerring Authority of the Catholic Church (1732);
  3. A Short History of the First Beginning and Progress of the Protestant Religion, Gathered Out of the Best Protestant Writers, By Way of Question and Answer(1733);
  4. A Roman Catholic’s Reasons Why He Cannot Conform (1734);
  5. The Touchstone of the New Religion (1734);
  6. The Young Gentleman Instructed in the Grounds of the Christian Religion (1735);
  7. A Specimen of the Spirit of the Dissenting Teachers (1736); and
  8. The Catholic Christian Instructed in the Sacraments, Sacrifice, Ceremonies, and Observances of the Church; By Way of Question and Answer (1737).

The latter book got Challoner into legal trouble.  Our saint had criticized Anglican divine Dr. Conyers Middleton (1683-1750), a man whose sarcastic polemics got him in trouble with various people.  Middleton had condemned the Roman Catholic Church.  Then Challoner spared no words regarding Middleton in the preface to The Catholic Christian Instructed.  Next, the querulous Middleton pressed charges against our saint, who returned to Douai.

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++

BISHOP AND VICAR APOSTOLIC CHALLONER

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++

What would Challoner’s next promotion be?  Some favored him becoming the President of the English College, Douai.  The previous President had died in 1738, and our saint was qualified for the position.

However, Benjamin Petre (1672-1758) had a different job in mind for Challoner.  Petre, the Titular Bishop of Prusa and the Vicar Apostolic of the London District (March 12, 1734-December 22, 1758), wanted Challoner to serve as the Coadjutor Vicar Apostolic of the London District instead.  (The Apostolic Vicarate of the London District existed from 1688 to 1850.)  Petre prevailed; Challoner received his appointment on September 12, 1739.  Challoner was insufficiently Roman Catholic for critics who pointed out that he was a convert from Presbyterianism.  Finally, after a long delay, our saint became the Titular Bishop of Doberus and the Coadjutor Vicar Apostolic of the London District on January 29, 1741,

Challoner kept writing in 1738-1740.  His works included:

  1. Rheims Testament (1738), edited with F. Blyth;
  2. a translation of the Confessions of Saint Augustine of Hippo (1740); and
  3. The Garden of the Soul:  A Manual of Spiritual Exercises and Instructions for Christians, Who, Living in the World; Aspire to Devotion; With an Explanation of the Mass (1740).

Challoner had a rigorous travel schedule to maintain in his new position.  He had oversight over ten English counties, the Channel Islands, British North America (mainly Maryland and Pennsylvania), and parts of the West Indies.  Going to the Western Hemisphere was impossible, for practical reasons.  Visiting the ten home counties took three years.

While traveling, Challoner had time to write.  He wrote or translated the following works, among others, from 1741 to 1758:

  1. The Ground of the Old Religion (1742);
  2. A Letter to a Friend Concerning the Infallibility of the Church (1743);
  3. Memoirs of Missionary Priests, as Well Secular as Regular and of Other Catholics of Both Sexes, That Have Suffered Death in England on Religious Accounts from the Year of Our Lord 1577 to 1684 (174_);
  4. Britannia Sancta (1745), with help from Alban Butler;
  5. the revised, modernized version of the Douai-Rheims translation (1582/1609) of the Bible (in stages, 1749-1752);
  6. A Papist Misrepresented and Represented (17__), abridged from Gother;
  7. Remarks on Two Letters Against Popery (1751);
  8. Instructions for the Jubilee (1751);
  9. Meditations for Every Day of the Year (1753);
  10. The Wonders of God in the Wilderness; or, the Lives of the Most Celebrated Saints of the Oriental Deserts (1755);
  11. The Life of St. Teresa of Jesus (1757), abridged from Abraham Woodhead; and
  12. Manual of Prayers (1758).

Challoner succeeded as the Vicar Apostolic of the London District on December 22, 1758, upon the death of Bishop Petre.  Our saint, being 67 years old, immediately applied for a Coadjutor Vicar Apostolic.  James Robert Talbot (1726-1790) received his appointment on March 10, 1759.  Talbot became the Titular Bishop of Birtha and the Coadjutor Vicar Apostolic on August 14, 1759.  Neither Challoner nor Talbot knew how long our saint had left–decades, actually.  Challoner remained in London, mostly and his health recovered.  Meanwhile, Talbot traveled.

Challoner tended to his administrative duties well.  These duties included opening two schools for boys, founding a school for poor girls, starting conferences among priests in London, and helping to found the Benevolent Society for the Relief of the Aged and Poor.  He did all of this in hiding, evading arrest for being a Roman Catholic cleric.  After the passage of the Catholic Relief Act (1778), being a priest ceased to lead to a sentence of life imprisonment.

Challoner’s final batch of writings and translations included:

  1. A Caveat Against the Methodists (1760);
  2. The City of God of the New Testament (1760);
  3. A Memorial of Ancient British Piety; or, a British Martyrology (1761);
  4. An Abstract of the Old and New Testaments (17__);
  5. The Following of  Christ, in Four Books (17__), a translation of The Imitation of Christ, by Thomas à Kempis;
  6. The Lord’s Prayer and the Angelic Salutation (17__);
  7. The Morality of the Bible (1762);
  8. Devotion of Catholics to the Blessed Virgin (1764); and
  9. Rules of Life for a Christian (1766).

The final blow to Challoner came from the infamous Gordon Riots (1780).  For three days, an anti-Roman Catholic mob attacked Roman Catholic chapels and the homes of Roman Catholic families in London.  Some members of the mob sought the aged Challoner, to drag him into the street and kill him.  Our saint heard the mob from his hiding place.  He escaped, with help, during the riots.

Challoner never recovered from the shock of this violence.  He, aged 89 years, died in London on January 12, 1781.

Talbot succeeded him as the Vicar Apostolic of the London District and served until 1790.

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++

CONCLUSION

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++

Challoner’s greatest literary legacies may be his meditations, hagiographies, and the revision of the Douai-Rheims Version of the Bible.  These have achieved the status of classics.  The Douai-Rheims-Challoner Version of the Bible was the standard Roman Catholic English-language translation of the Bible well into the twentieth century.  It was also the basis of the Confraternity Version (in its stages, 1941-1969), itself the basis of The New American Bible (1970, 1986, 1991), revised into The New American Bible–Revised Edition (2011).

I am an Episcopalian.  To be precise, I am an Anglican-Lutheran-Catholic, in that order.  When I hear Roman Catholics speak of an infallible Church, I roll my eyes, at least metaphorically.  I reject the concept of an infallible Church.  I also reject the concepts of an infallible Bible and an infallible Pope.

I respect and admire Challoner while disagreeing with him much of the time.  I recognize him as a member of the Christian family.  I also condemn all those who persecuted Challoner and other Roman Catholics or consented to that persecution.  Furthermore, I deplore the bigotry and violence of those who participated in the Gordon Riots (1780).

Challoner should have been able to operate openly while in England.

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

Lord God of love and justice,

thank you for the tireless efforts, faithful witness, and

devout writings of your servant, Richard Challoner.

May we, inspired by his love for you,

rededicate our lives to your service,

and remain faithful despite all obstacles.

In the Name of God:  Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.  Amen.

Jeremiah 38:1-13

Psalm 70

2 Timothy 4:1-8

Luke 9:21-27

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

APRIL 9, 2021 COMMON ERA

FRIDAY IN EASTER WEEK

THE FEAST OF DIETRICH BONHOEFFER, GERMAN LUTHERAN MARTYR, 1945

THE FEAST OF JOHANN CRUGER, GERMAN LUTHERAN ORGANIST, COMPOSER, AND HYMNAL EDITOR

THE FEAST OF JOHN SAMUEL BEWLEY MONSELL, ANGLICAN PRIEST AND POET; AND RICHARD MANT, ANGLICAN BISHOP OF DOWN, CONNOR, AND DROMORE

THE FEAST OF LYDIA EMILIE GRUCHY, FIRST FEMALE MINISTER IN THE UNITED CHURCH OF CANADA

THE FEAST OF MIKAEL AGRICOLA, FINNISH LUTHERAN LITURGIST, BISHOP OF TURKU, AND “FATHER OF FINNISH LITERARY LANGUAGE”

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

Feast of Joanna P. Moore (September 30)   6 comments

Above:  Joanna P. Moore, 1898

Image in the Public Domain

++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

JOANNA PATTERSON MOORE (SEPTEMBER 26, 1832-APRIL 15, 1916)

U.S. Baptist Missionary and Educator

Joanna P. Moore comes to this, A Great Cloud of Witnesses:  An Ecumenical Calendar of Saints’ Days and Holy Days, via G. Scott Cady and Christopher L. Webber, A Year with American Saints (2006).

Moore was an advocate for education and for racial justice.  She, born in Clarion County, Pennsylvania, on September 26, 1832, grew up on a farm.  Our saint started teaching when she was 15 years old, when she successfully operated a summer school for youth.  Young Joanna received a fine education; her parents insisted that she did.  Our saint, a daughter of an Episcopalian father and a Presbyterian mother, became a teacher as an adult.  She joined a Baptist church in 1852.  Like many (single, female) teachers of the time, Moore boarded with a family in the town where she taught.

Moore found a new calling during the Civil War.  Upon hearing news that a regiment of African-American soldiers in the U.S. Army was guarding African-American women and children on Island Number Ten (at the junction of Tennessee and Missouri, in the Mississippi River).  Our saint knew she had to minister to African Americans.  In November 1863, she moved to Island Number Ten and commenced her ministry.  Her educational curriculum there included Biblical literacy.

Our saint continued to minister to Southern African Americans for the rest of her life.  She did this in a series of places, including Helena, Arkansas; Lauderdale, Mississippi; and New Orleans, Louisiana.  She worked for most of that time as a missionary of the Women’s Baptist Home Mission Society.  Joanna was what many White, Southern racists dismissed as a “carpetbagger.”  And she engaged in God’s work.  Our saint supervised 3,000 small “Fireside Schools,” in which family members learned from each other.  She also founded a magazine, Hope, to promote Biblical literacy.  Furthermore, our saint helped to organize women’s societies.  She had found her people–the oppressed African Americans in the Jim Crow South.

Moore was initially reluctant to compose her autobiography.  She insisted that she was too busy to write about her life.  Besides, she insisted, people should read the Bible, not her autobiography.  Finally, though, Moore wrote the story of her life, on the grounds that the book may help “the dear colored people the United States.”  The Women’s Baptist Home Mission Society, Chicago, Illinois, published “In Christ’s Stead”:  Autobiographical Sketches in 1902.

Moore defended the aspirations and rights of African Americans to White people.  In so doing, she incurred strong criticism from many White people and churches, culturally bound by their racism.  She also understood, in her time, the importance of education and industrial training where she and those among whom she worked lived. And the Bible, she insisted, provided the answer to the alleged “negro problem.”  The answer was to enforce the Golden Rule, individually and institutionally, and socially.

Moore, aged 83 years, died in Selma, Alabama.  Her grave was, at her request, in an African-American cemetery.

She had concluded “In Christ’s Stead” (1902) with these words:

I have not written a history of my life, only given you a few scraps.  No one but God ever wrote a history of human life.  It is impossible.  Our greatest battles are fought and lost and greatest battles are won where no one but God sees and understands.  As we, ourselves, look back, we do not know which was victory and which was defeat, what was wise and what was a mistake.  But we do know that when we lived for God’s glory.  He with matchless kindness made the shade and the sunshine, the bitter and the sweet, all unite for our good as well as His glory; and now in restful faith I give this book and all there is of my poor life, past, present, and future, into the hands of Him who loved me and gave Himself for me.  Glory be to His name now and for ever.  Amen.

Joanna Patterson Moore lived for God’s glory and saw Jesus in the faces of those subjected to racial and economic discrimination.

In this age of the Black Lives Matter movement, Moore’s example takes on greater resonance.  I recall, years ago, talk of the “death of racism.”  I dare anyone who has been paying attention, especially during the last few years, to affirm the “death of racism” with a straight face.  Those who call attention to racism frequently make many other people uncomfortable.  Even many racists try to avoid the label “racist.”  “I’m not racist, but…” almost always precedes a racist comment.  Furthermore, avoiding dealing with racism and denying its role where such a role is objectively accurate is itself racist.  Pretending that racism is not a factor when it is a factor does not make it cease to be a factor.

The application of the Golden Rule on the individual, institutional, and social levels in the best way forward.  Doing so entails recognizing mutuality, that we are all responsible to and for each other, and that whatever we do affects others.  Keeping a segment of the population “in its place” reduces everybody’s opportunities.  When we act in the best interests of others, for the common good, we act also in our best interests.  Living this in society glorifies God and fulfills the Golden Rule.

May the example of Joanna Patterson Moore encourage us.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

MARCH 22, 2021 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF SAINT DEOGRATIAS, ROMAN CATHOLIC BISHOP OF CARTHAGE

THE FEAST OF EMMANUEL MOURNIER, PERSONALIST PHILOSOPHER

THE FEAST OF JAMES DE KOVEN, EPISCOPAL PRIEST

THE FEAST OF THOMAS HUGHES, BRITISH SOCIAL REFORMER AND MEMBER OF PARLIAMENT

THE FEAST OF WILLIAM EDWARD HICKSON, ENGLISH MUSIC EDUCATOR AND SOCIAL REFORMER

++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

Lord God, your Son came among us to serve and not to be served,

and to give his life for the world.

Lead us by his love to serve all those to whom

the world offers no comfort and little help.

Through us give hope to the hopeless,

love to the unloved,

peace to the troubled,

and rest to the weary;

through your Son, Jesus Christ our Lord.  Amen.

Hosea 2:18-23

Psalm 94:1-14

Romans 12:9-21

Luke 6:20-36

Lutheran Book of Worship (1978), 37

++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

Feast of St. Honorius of Canterbury (September 30)   Leave a comment

Above:   England Circa 600 C.E.

Image in the Public Domain

++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

SAINT HONORIUS OF CANTERBURY (DIED SEPTEMBER 30, 653)

Archbishop of Canterbury

Also known as Saint Honoratus of Canterbury

St. Honorius of Canterbury comes to this, A Great Cloud of Witnesses:  An Ecumenical Calendar of Saints’ Days and Holy Days, via the Roman Catholic Church.

St. Honorius, a Roman by birth, was one of the members of the Gregorian mission (dispatched by Pope St. Gregory I “the Great” and led by St. Augustine of Canterbury).  The first wave of that mission arrived in 597.  They found the Celtic Church, centuries old, present.  The Celtic Church had bishops, monasteries, and a different method for calculating the date of Easter.  At the Synod of Whitby (664), after the death of our saint, the Celtic Church folded into the Roman Catholic Church.

Sources disagree about whether St. Honorius arrived with the first wave (597) or the second wave (601) of missionaries in the Gregorian Mission.

After decades of laboring faithfully for God in England, St. Honorius became the Archbishop of Canterbury in 627.  St. Paulinus of York (d. 644), the Archbishop of York, consecrated him.  St. Honorius understood that English people were more amenable to preaching by other English people than by foreigners.  Therefore, he raised up English priests and bishops.  Our saint, for example, consecrated St. Ithamar, the first Anglo-Saxon Bishop of Rochester, in 644.  Yet St. Honorius harbored no antipathy for the Celtic Church.  In fact, he admired St. Aidan of Lindisfarne (circa 590-651), a great and prominent missionary bishop of the Celtic Church.

St. Honorius died on September 30, 653.  He was the last surviving member of the Gregorian Mission.  The next Archbishop of Canterbury was St. Deusdedit of Canterbury (d. 664), an Anglo-Saxon.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

MARCH 19, 2021 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF SAINT JOSEPH OF NAZARETH, HUSBAND OF MARY, MOTHER OF GOD

++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

Almighty and everlasting God, we thank you for your servant Saint Honorius of Canterbury,

whom you called to preach the Gospel to the people of England.

Raise up in this and every land evangelists and heralds of your kingdom,

that your Church may proclaim the unsearchable riches of our Savior Jesus Christ;

who lives and reigns with you and the Holy Spirit, one God, now and for ever.  Amen.

Isaiah 52:7-10

Psalm 96 or 96:1-7

Acts 1:1-9

Luke 10:1-9

–Adapted from Holy Women, Holy Men:  Celebrating the Saints (2010), 716

++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

Feast of Mary Ramabai (September 30)   Leave a comment

Mary Ramabai

Above:  The Pandita

Image in the Public Domain

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

MARY RAMABAI (APRIL 23, 1858-APRIL 5, 1922)

Prophetic Witness and Evangelist in India

With this post I return to The Book of Worship of the Church of North India (1995), which lists the Pandita‘s feast day as September 29, the date of her baptism in 1883.  An alternative feast day is April 5, the date of her death in 1922.  That is the date The Episcopal Church celebrates her life.  On this, my Ecumenical Calendar of Saints’ Days and Holy Days, however, I shift her feast day to September 30, for I have reserved September 29 for the Feast of Saint Michael and All Angels.

Pandita is a title meaning “the learned one.”  Ramabai received this title from many of her fellow Indians.  She earned that title, to which her family background predisposed her.  Our saint’s father was a Brahman Hindu scholar who defied tradition and taught her well.  He taught her the Vedas and the Sanskrit language, specifically.  A famine left her an orphan in 1876 and her husband died of cholera six years later.  She experienced not only grief, but ostracism because of her changed status.  Our saint, a feminist, founded the Arya Mahila Sabha, a women’s rights organization, in 1881.  In a culture with forced marriages and a tradition of discouraging the education of girls and women standing up for human equality was a radical act.

Ramabai, drawn to social work, lived in England from 1883 to 1889.  She spent time with an Anglican order, the Wantage Sisters, through whom she became a Christian.  She worked with nuns to reform former prostitutes in London.  And she attended the Cheltenham Ladies College, which favored the then-radical ideas of women’s suffrage and identical college curricula for men and women.

Our saint returned to India in 1889 and performed many good works.  She helped to establish churches which blended Indian culture and the Christian gospel.  She also founded the Mukti Mission in Bombay in 1889.  At first it served just women and orphans from Brahman families.  In 1896, during a famine, our saint expanded the Mission’s purpose to help abused girls and women, regardless of caste.  In time she added a clinic and vocational training courses.  Generous donors–many of them Western–financed her work.

The Pandita, who was fluent in several languages, used her linguistic skills to spread the Gospel.  She translated the Bible into the West Indian language of Marathi, for example.

All of this was demanding work.  Of it she wrote:

What a blessing this burden does not fall on me.  But Christ bears it on his shoulders, and no one but He could transform and uplift the downtrodden womanhood of India and of every land.

The good work goes on.  The Mukti Mission, which has expanded its scope, continues to work with the poor, the blind, women, and orphans.  Some Western-based Christian jurisdictions merged into the Church of South India in 1947.  A different group of such jurisdictions united in 1970 to create the Church of North India.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

APRIL 18, 2015 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF DONALD S. ARMENTROUT, U.S. LUTHERAN MINISTER AND SCHOLAR

THE FEAST OF CALVIN WEISS LAUFER, U.S. PRESBYTERIAN MINISTER AND HYMNODIST

THE FEAST OF ROGER WILLIAMS, FOUNDER OF RHODE ISLAND

THE FEAST OF WILLIAM PENNEFATHER, ANGLICAN PRIEST, HUMANITARIAN, AND HYMN WRITER; AND HIS WIFE, CATHERINE KING PENNEFATHER, HUMANITARIAN AND HYMN WRITER

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

Everliving God, you called the women at the tomb

to be witnesses to the resurrection of your Son:

We thank you for the courageous and independent spirit

of your servant Pandita Ramabai, the mother of modern India;

and we pray that we, like her, may embrace your gift of new life,

caring for the poor,

braving resentment to uphold the dignity of women,

and offering the riches of our culture to our Savior Jesus Christ;

who lives and reigns with you in the unity of the Holy Spirit,

one God, now and for ever.  Amen.

Isaiah 10:1-4

Psalm 9:1-5, 9-12

1 John 3:16-24

Luke 18:1-8

Holy Women, Holy Men:  Celebrating the Saints (2010), page 309

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

Post modified on March 7, 2021

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

Saints’ Days and Holy Days for September   Leave a comment

Forget-Me-Nots

Image Source = Wilder Kaiser

1 (Dionysius Exiguus, Roman Catholic Monk and Reformer of the Calendar)

  • David Pendleton Oakerhater, Cheyenne Warrior, Chief, and Holy Man, and Episcopal Deacon and Missionary in Oklahoma

  • Fiacre, Roman Catholic Hermit

  • François Mauriac, French Roman Catholic Novelist, Christian Humanist, and Social Critic

2 (Martyrs of New Guinea, 1942 and 1943)

  • David Charles, Welsh Calvinistic Methodist Minister and Hymn Writer

  • Dianna Ortiz, U.S. Roman Catholic Nun and Anti-Torture Activist

  • William of Roskilde, English-Danish Roman Catholic Bishop

3 (Jedediah Weiss, U.S. Moravian Craftsman, Merchant, and Musician)

  • Arthur Carl Lichtenberger, Presiding Bishop of The Episcopal Church and Witness for Civil Rights

  • F. Crawford Burkitt, Anglican Scholar, Theologian, Hymn Writer, and Hymn Translator

  • James Bolan Lawrence, Episcopal Priest and Missionary in Southwestern Georgia, U.S.A.

  • Sundar Singh, Indian Christian Evangelist

4 (Paul Jones, Episcopal Bishop of Utah, and Peace Activist; and his colleague, John Nevin Sayre, Episcopal Priest and Peace Activist)

  • Birinus of Dorchester, Roman Catholic Bishop of Dorchester, and the “Apostle of Wessex”

  • E. F. Schumacher, German-British Economist and Social Critic

  • Gorazd of Prague, Orthodox Bishop of Moravia and Silesia, Metropolitan of the Czech Lands and Slovakia, Hierarch of the Orthodox Church in Czechoslovakia, and Martyr, 1942

  • William McKane, Scottish Presbyterian Minister and Biblical Scholar

5 (Carl Johannes Sodergren, U.S. Lutheran Minister and Theologian; and his colleague, Claus August Wendell, Swedish-American Lutheran Minister and Theologian)

  • Athol Hill, Australian Baptist Biblical Scholar and Social Prophet

  • Teresa of Calcutta, Foundress of the Congregation of the Missionaries of Charity

  • William F. Albright and G. Ernest Wright, U.S. Biblical Scholars and Archaeologists

  • William Morton Reynolds, U.S. Lutheran Minister, Episcopal Priest, Educator, and Hymn Translator

6 (Charles Fox, Anglican Missionary in Melanesia)

  • Aaron Robarts Wolfe, U.S. Presbyterian Minister and Hymn Writer

  • Allen Crite, Artist

  • Hannah More, Anglican Poet, Playwright, Religious Writer, and Philanthropist

  • Joseph and Mary Gomer, U.S. United Brethren Missionaries in Sierra Leone

7 (Beyers Naudé, South African Dutch Reformed Minister and Anti-Apartheid Activist)

  • Elie Naud, Huguenot Witness to the Faith

  • Jane Laurie Borthwick and Sarah Borthwick Findlater, Scottish Presbyterian Translators of Hymns

  • John Duckett and Ralph Corby, Roman Catholic Priests and Martyrs in England, 1644

  • Kassiani the Hymnographer, Byzantine Abbess, Poet, Composer, Hymn Writer, and Defender of Icons

8 (Nikolai Grundtvig, Danish Lutheran Minister, Bishop, Historian, Philosopher, Poet, Educator, and Hymn Writer)

  • Gottfried Wilhelm Sacer, German Lutheran Attorney and Hymn Writer; and Frances Elizabeth Cox, English Hymn Writer and Translator

  • Shepherd Knapp, U.S. Congregationalist Minister and Hymn Writer

  • Søren Kierkegaard, Danish Philosopher and Theologian, and Father of Existentialism

  • Wladyslaw Bladzinski, Polish Roman Catholic Priest and Martyr, 1944

9 (Martyrs of Memphis, Tennessee, 1878)

  • Francis Borgia, “Second Founder of the Society of Jesus;” Peter Faber, Apostle of Germany, and Cofounder of the Society of Jesus; Alphonsus Rodriguez, Spanish Jesuit Lay Brother; and Peter Claver, “Apostle to the Negroes”

  • Lucy Jane Rider Meyer, Novelist, Hymn Writer, Medical Doctor, and Foundress of the Deaconess Movement in the Methodist Episcopal Church

  • Sarah Mapps Douglass, U.S. African-American Quaker Abolitionist, Writer, Painter, and Lecturer

  • William Chatterton Dix, English Hymn Writer and Hymn Translator

10 (Alexander Crummell, U.S. African-American Episcopal Priest, Missionary, and Moral Philosopher)

  • Lynn Harold Hough, U.S. Methodist Minister, Theologian, and Biblical Scholar

  • Mordecai Johnson, Educator

  • Nemesian of Sigum and His Companions, Roman Catholic Bishops and Martyrs, 257

  • Salvius of Albi, Roman Catholic Bishop

11 (Paphnutius the Great, Roman Catholic Bishop of Upper Thebaid)

  • Anne Houlditch Shepherd, Anglican Novelist and Hymn Writer

  • Jean-Gabriel Perboyre, French Roman Catholic Priest, Missionary, and Martyr in China, 1840

  • John Stainer and Walter Galpin Alcock, Anglican Church Organists and Composers

  • Patiens of Lyons, Roman Catholic Archbishop

12 (Kaspar Bienemann, German Lutheran Minister and Hymn Writer)

  • Ernest Edwin Ryder, U.S. Lutheran Minister, Hymn Writer, Hymn Translator, and Hymnal Editor

  • Franciscus Ch’oe Kyong-Hwan, Korean Roman Catholic Catechist and Martyr, 1839; Lawrence Mary Joseph Imbert, Pierre Philibert Maubant, and Jacques Honoré Chastán, French Roman Catholic Priests, Missionaries to Korea, and Martyrs, 1839; Paul Chong Hasang, Korean Roman Catholic Seminarian and Martyr, 1839; and Cecilia Yu Sosa and Jung Hye, Korean Roman Catholic Martyrs, 1839

  • Robert Guy McCutchan, U.S. Methodist Hymnal Editor and Hymn Tune Composer

  • William Josiah Irons, Anglican Priest, Hymn Writer, and Hymn Translator; and his daughter, Genevieve Mary Irons, Roman Catholic Hymn Writer

13 (Peter of Chelcic, Bohemian Hussite Reformer; and Gregory the Patriach, Founder of the Moravian Church)

  • Frederick J. Murphy, U.S. Roman Catholic Biblical Scholar

  • Godfrey Thring, Anglican Priest and Hymn Writer

  • Jane Crewdson, English Quaker Poet and Hymn Writer

  • Narayan Seshadri of Jalna, Indian Presbyterian Evangelist and “Apostle to the Mangs”

14 (HOLY CROSS)

15 (Martyrs of Birmingham, Alabama, September 15, 1963)

  • Charles Edward Oakley, Anglican Priest and Hymn Writer

  • George Henry Trabert, U.S. Lutheran Minister, Missionary, and Hymn Translator and Author

  • James Chisholm, Episcopal Priest

  • Philibert and Aicardus of Jumieges, Roman Catholic Abbots

16 (Cyprian of Carthage, Bishop and Martyr, 258; and Cornelius, Lucius I, and Stephen I, Bishops of Rome)

  • James Francis Carney, U.S.-Honduran Roman Catholic Priest, Missionary, Revolutionary, and Martyr, 1983

  • Martin Behm, German Lutheran Minister and Hymn Writer

17 (Jutta of Disibodenberg, Roman Catholic Abbess; and her student, Hildegard of Bingen, Roman Catholic Abbess and Composer)

  • Henry Wellington Greatorex, Anglican and Episcopal Organist, Choirmaster, and Hymnodist

  • Zygmunt Szcesny Felinski, Roman Catholic Archbishop of Warsaw, Titutlar Bishop of Tarsus, and Founder of Recovery for the Poor and the Congregation of the Franciscan Sisters of the Family of Mary

  • Zygmunt Sajna, Polish Roman Catholic Priest and Martyr, 1940

18 (Dag Hammarskjöld, Secretary-General of the United Nations)

  • Amos Niven Wilder, U.S. Congregationalist Minister, Poet, Literary Critic, and Biblical Scholar

  • Edward Bouverie Pusey, Anglican Priest

  • Henry Lascelles Jenner, Anglican Bishop of Dunedin, New Zealand

  • John Campbell Shairp, Scottish Poet and Educator

19 (Gerard Moultrie, Anglican Priest, Hymn Writer, and Translator of Hymns)

  • Clarence Alphonsus Walworth, U.S. Roman Catholic Priest, Poet, Hymn Translator, and Hymn Writer; Cofounder of the Missionary Society of Saint Paul the Apostle (the Paulist Fathers)

  • Emily de Rodat, Foundress of the Congregation of the Holy Family of Villefranche

  • Walter Chalmers Smith, Scottish Presbyterian Minister and Hymn Writer

  • William Dalrymple Maclagan, Archbishop of York and Hymn Writer

20 (Henri Nouwen, Dutch Roman Catholic Priest and Spiritual Writer)

  • Elizabeth Kenny, Australian Nurse and Medical Pioneer

  • John Coleridge Patteson, Anglican Bishop of Melanesia, and His Companions, Martyrs, 1871

  • Marie Therese of Saint Joseph, Foundress of the Congregation of the Carmelite Sisters of the Divine Heart of Jesus

  • Nelson Wesley Trout, First African-American U.S. Lutheran Bishop

21 (MATTHEW THE EVANGELIST, APOSTLE AND MARTYR)

22 (Philander Chase, Episcopal Bishop of Ohio, and of Illinois; and Presiding Bishop)

  • C. H. Dodd, Welsh Congregationalist Minister, Theologian, and Biblical Scholar

  • Charlotte Elliott, Julia Anne Elliott, and Emily Elliott, Anglican Hymn Writers

  • Justus Falckner, Lutheran Pastor and Hymn Writer

  • Stephen G. Cary, U.S. Quaker Humanitarian and Antiwar Activist

23 (Francisco de Paula Victor, Brazilian Roman Catholic Priest)

  • Churchill Julius, Anglican Bishop of Christchurch, and Primate and Archbishop of New Zealand (September 23)

  • Émelie Tavernier Gamelin, Foundress of the Sisters of Providence

  • Jozef Stanek, Polish Roman Catholic Priest and Martyr, 1944

  • Judith Lomax, Episcopal Mystic and Poet

24 (Anna Ellison Butler Alexander, African-American Episcopal Deaconess in Georgia, and Educator)

  • Henry Hart Milman, Anglican Dean, Translator, Historian, Theologian, and Hymn Writer

  • Juvenal of Alaska, Russian Orthodox Martyr in Alaska, and First Orthodox Martyr in the Americas, 1796

  • Peter the Aleut, Russian Orthodox Martyr in San Francisco, 1815

  • Silouan of Mount Athos, Eastern Orthodox Monk and Poet

25 (Sarah Louise “Sadie” Delany, African-American Educator; her sister, Annie Elizabeth “Bessie” Delany, African-American Dentist; and their brother, Hubert Thomas Delany, African-American Attorney, Judge, and Civil Rights Activist)

  • Bernhard W. Anderson, U.S. United Methodist Minister and Biblical Scholar

  • Euphrosyne and her father, Paphnutius of Alexandria, Monks

  • Herman of Reichenau, Roman Catholic Monk, Liturgist, Poet, and Scholar

  • Sergius of Radonezh, Abbot of the Monastery of the Holy Trinity, Sergiyev Posad, Russia

26 (Paul VI, Bishop of Rome)

  • Frederick William Faber, English Roman Catholic Hymn Writer

  • John Bright, U.S. Presbyterian Minister and Biblical Scholar

  • John Byrom, Anglican then Quaker Poet and Hymn Writer

  • Lancelot Andrewes, Anglican Bishop of Chichester then of Ely then of Winchester

27 (Francis de Sales, Roman Catholic Bishop of Geneva; Vincent de Paul, “The Apostle of Charity;’ Louise de Marillac, Cofounder of the Daughters of Charity of Saint Vincent de Paul; and Charles Fuge Lowder, Founder of the Society of the Holy Cross)

  • Eliza Scudder, U.S. Unitarian then Episcopalian Hymn Writer

  • Joseph A. Sittler, U.S. Lutheran Minister, Theologian, and Ecumenist

  • Martyrs of Melanesia, 1864-2003

  • Thomas Traherne, Anglican Priest, Poet, and Spiritual Writer

28 (Jehu Jones, Jr., African-American Lutheran Minister)

  • Edward McGlynn, U.S. Roman Catholic Priest, Social Reformer, and Alleged Heretic

  • Francis Turner Palgrave, Anglican Poet, Art Critic, and Hymn Writer

  • Joseph Hoskins, English Congregationalist Minister and Hymn Writer

  • Lorenzo Ruiz and His Companions, Roman Catholic Missionaries and Martyrs in Japan, 1637

29 (MICHAEL AND ALL ANGELS)

30 (Honorius, Archbishop of Canterbury)

  • Joanna P. Moore, U.S. Baptist Missionary and Educator

  • Mary Ramabai, Prophetic Witness and Evangelist in India

  • Richard Challoner, English Roman Catholic Scholar, Religious Writer, Translator, Controversialist, Priest, and Titular Bishop of Doberus

Floating

  • Labor Day

Lowercase boldface on a date with two or more commemorations indicates a primary feast.