Archive for the ‘Charles Harold Dodd’ Tag

Feast of George B. Caird (April 21)   Leave a comment

Above:  Three of the Volumes to Which Caird Contributed

Photographer = Kenneth Randolph Taylor

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GEORGE BRADFORD CAIRD (JULY 17, 1917-APRIL 21, 1984)

English Congregationalist then United Reformed Minister, Biblical Scholar, and Hymn Writer and Translator

Also known as G. B. Caird

INTRODUCTION

George Bradford Caird comes to this, A Great Cloud of Witnesses:  An Ecumenical Calendar of Saints’ Days and Holy Days, via The Interpreter’s Bible and two translations of the Bible.He wrote the introduction to and the exegesis of the Books of Samuel for Volume II (1953) of The Interpreter’s Bible.

Caird was one of the great Biblical scholars of the twentieth century.  He, a protégé of Charles Harold (C. H.) Dodd (1884-1973) and an influence on Nicholas Thomas (N. T.) Wright, was, depending on one’s perspective, too conservative, too liberal, or about right.  Fans of Burton Mack, John Dominic Crossan, Marcus Borg, and other members of that school that argues for discontinuity from Jesus to the early Church consider him too far to the right.  However, fundamentalists think he was too far to the left.  Caird accepted the Sources Hypothesis regarding much of the Hebrew Bible  and did not try to harmonize divergent voices in the New Testament, for example.

I argue that Caird was usually about right.

I using knowledge I have gained from belonging to a Historical Jesus-early Church reading group for a few years, place Caird on the spectrum.  I position him to the right of Borg, Crossan, and Mack, and slightly to the right of Luke Timothy Johnson, an effective critic of Borg, Crossan, and Mack.  Caird belongs in the same camp as his mentor, C. H. Dodd.  Most of Dodd’s endnotes in The Founder of Christianity (1970) are merely scriptural citations.  Caird’s influence is evident in N. T. Wright’s Jesus and the Victory of God (1996), my copy of which I insist on keeping, even as I reduce the size of my library.  Caird’s works are slightly more optimistic regarding the Gospels as sources of information about the historical figure of Jesus than James D. G. Dunn‘s Jesus Remembered (2003), my copy of which I also insist on retaining.

BIOGRAPHY

George Bradford Caird belonged to the Reformed tradition.  He, born in Wandsworth, England, to Scottish parents on July 17, 1917, grew up in Birmingham, England.  He graduated from King Edward’s School, Birmingham; Peterhouse, Cambridge (B.A., 1939); and Mansfield College, Oxford (M.A., 1943; doctorate, 1944).  Our saint, ordained a Congregationalist minister, served as pastor of a church in Highgate, London.  In 1946, he and his wife, Viola Mary “Mollie” Caird, moved to Canada.  Our saint spent the rest of his life in academia.

Caird spent 1946-1959 in Canada.  He was initially Professor of Old Testament at St. Stephen’s College, Edmonton, Alberta.  By 1951 he was Professor of New Testament at McGill University and Principal of the Theological College of Montreal, Quebec.

Caird spent 1959-1984 at Oxford.  He was a senior tutor (1959-1969) at then the Principal (1970-1977) of Mansfield College, Oxford.  One of his more noteworthy students was the Reverend Brian Wren (born in 1936), one of the greatest hymn writers of the twentieth century.  From 1977 to 1984, Caird was the Dean Ireland’s Professor of the Exegesis of Holy Scripture.  His successor was E. P. Sanders, author of Paul and Palestinian Judaism (1985), Jesus and Judaism (1985), and The Historical Figure of Jesus (1993).

Caird translated portions of the Bible.  He translated part of the Apocrypha/Deuterocanon of The New English Bible (1970), a project over which C. H. Dodd presided.  Our saint also worked on the The Revised English Bible (1989).  Caird preferred the dynamic equivalency approach to translating the Bible.  He criticized the Revised Standard Version (1952, 1971) for being overly literal, to the point of awkwardness in places.  Our saint’s preference for dynamic equivalency was consistent with his literary style, which was graceful and succinct.

Caird also translated and wrote hymns.  He translated “Shepherds Come, Their Praises Bringing” (1951) and wrote “Not Far Beyond the Sea, Nor High” and “Almighty Father, Who For Us,” for example.  Hymnal committees that possess good taste include at least some of his hymns in the volumes they produce.

Caird wrote books plus many articles and book reviews.  His books included:

  1. The Truth of the Gospel (1950);
  2. The Apostolic Age (1955);
  3. Principalities and Powers (1956);
  4. The Gospel of St. Luke (1963);
  5. Jesus and God (1965), with D. E. Jenkins;
  6. Jesus and the Jewish Nation (1965);
  7. The Revelation of St. John the Divine (1966);
  8. Our Dialogue with Rome:  The Second Vatican Council and After (1967); and
  9. Paul’s Letters from Prison (1976).

Death prevented Caird from completing New Testament TheologyLincoln Hurst completed this work, published in 1994.

Caird held some scholarly and theological opinions that would have made him anathema in some of the communities in which I grew up in rural southern Georgia. U.S.A.  He admired St. Paul the Apostle without crossing the line into hero worship.  Caird thought of St. Paul as a social revolutionary, including vis-à-vis equality for women.  Caird also disagreed with the great apostle sometimes.  Our saint, like his mentor, C. H. Dodd, argued for Realized Eschatology.  Caird wrote in his commentary on Revelation that the author (“John”) did not expect an imminent end of the age.  Caird would not have pleased anyone at a fundamentalist prophecy conference.

Caird was a social progressive.  He openly supported equality for women and opposed racism.  He, as the Moderator of the United Reformed Church  in 1975-1976, visited South Africa on denominational business.  While there, he confronted his pro-Apartheid counterparts in the Dutch Reformed Church in South Africa (DRCSA).  (The Congregational Church in England and Wales and the Presbyterian Church of England had merged into the United Reformed Church in 1972.)  The DRCSA eventually recanted and apologized for its theological defense of Apartheid.  Caird did not live to see that day, however.

Caird, a scholar and a preacher extraordinaire who used either few or no notes, died in Wantage, England, on April 21, 1984.  He was 66 years old.

CONCLUSION

The Bible shaped George Bradford Caird.  He combined intellectual rigor, cautious scholarship, and Christian faith into a synthesis that challenged institutionalized social injustice and individual obliviousness to the (not unanimous) chorus of voices in the Bible.  Our saint, a scholar’s scholar, loved God with his heart, soul, and mind.  His articulate, graceful prose and poetry survives him, fortunately.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

MARCH 4, 2020 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF CHARLES SIMEON, ANGLICAN PRIEST AND PROMOTER OF MISSIONS; HENRY MARTYN, ANGLICAN PRIEST, LINGUIST, TRANSLATOR, AND MISSIONARY; AND ABDUL MASIH, INDIAN CONVERT AND MISSIONARY

THE FEAST OF HENRY SUSO, GERMAN ROMAN CATHOLIC MYSTIC, PREACHER, AND SPIRITUAL WRITER

THE FEAST OF JOHN EDGAR PARK, U.S. PRESBYTERIAN THEN CONGREGATIONALIST MINISTER AND HYMN WRITER

THE FEAST OF PAUL CUFFEE, U.S. PRESBYTERIAN MISSIONARY TO THE SHINNECOCK NATION

THE FEAST OF THOMAS HORNBLOWER GILL, ENGLISH UNITARIAN THEN ANGLICAN HYMN WRITER

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O God, you have endowed us with memory, reason, and skill.

We thank you for the faithful legacy of [George B. Caird and all others]

who have dedicated their lives to you and to the intellectual pursuits.

May we, like them, respect your gift of intelligence fully and to your glory.

In the Name of God:  Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.  Amen.

Deuteronomy 6:4-9

Psalm 103

Philippians 4:8-9

Mark 12:28-34

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

MARCH 6, 2013 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF SAINT CHRODEGANG OF METZ, ROMAN CATHOLIC BISHOP

THE FEAST OF EDMUND KING, ANGLICAN BISHOP OF LINCOLN

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Feast of C. H. Dodd (September 22)   1 comment

Above:  C. H. Dodd

Image Scanned from The Parables of the Kingdom, 2d. ed. (1961)

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CHARLES HAROLD DODD (APRIL 7, 1884-SEPTEMBER 21, 1973)

Welsh Congregationalist Minister, Theologian, and Biblical Scholar

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But the Gospels do not offer us in the first place tales to point a moral.  They interpret life to us, by initiating s into a situation in which, as Christians believe, the eternal was uniquely manifested in time, a situation which is both historical and contemporary in the deepest possible sense.

–C. H. Dodd, The Parables of the Kingdom, 2d. ed. (1961), x

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The Epistle to the Romans is the first great work of Christian theology.  From the time of Augustine it had immense influence on the thought of the West, not only in theology, but also in philosophy and even in politics, all through the Middle Ages.  At the Reformation its teaching provided the chief intellectual expression for the new spirit in religion.  For us men of Western Christendom there is probably no other single writing so deeply embedded in our heritage and thought.

–C. H. Dodd, in the beginning to the Introduction to The Epistle of Paul to the Romans (1932)

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C. H. Dodd, a proponent of Realized Eschatology, comes to this, my Ecumenical Calendar of Saints’ Days and Holy Days, via the Biblical Studies section of my library.

Charles Harold Dodd, born in Wrexham, Denbighshire, North Wales, on April 7, 1884, was a great and influential scholar.  He studied at University College, Oxford, from 1902 to 1906, graduating with his B. A. degree and first class honors.  In 1907-1911 our saint engaged in research about the Roman Empire and the Early Church at the University of Berlin then at Magdalen College, Oxford.  While at Magdalen College Dodd also engaged in theological studies at Mansfield College, Oxford.  Our saint, ordained a minister in the former Congregational Union in England and Wales (which merged into The United Reformed Church in 1972) in 1912, served as pastor of just one church, at Warwick, from 1912 to 1915.

Dodd had an impressive academic career.  He was the Yates Lecturer (later Professor) of New Testament Greek and Exegesis, Mansfield College, Oxford, from 1915 to 1930.  Next Dodd was the Rylands Professor of Biblical Criticism and Exegesis, the University of Manchester, for five years.  Then, from 1935 to 1949, when he retired, our saint was the Norris-Hulse Professor of Divinity, Cambridge.  He was the first non-Anglican to hold the theological chair at Cambridge University.  In addition, he was a lecturer at various elite seminaries and universities in the United States and the United Kingdom from 1927 until late in his life, with some gaps.  Dodd also became a Fellow of the British Academy in 1946.  In 1949-1950 he was the Visiting Professor in Biblical Theology, Union Theological Seminary, New York, New York.

Dodd remained active in retirement.  In 1950 he returned to the British Isles and became the Vice-Chairman and Director of The New English Bible (New Testament, 1961; complete Bible, 1970).  In the Preface to the finished translation, Donald Ebor, Chairman of the Joint Committee, wrote:

As Vice-Chairman and Director, Dr. C. H. Dodd has from start to finish given outstanding leadership and guidance to the project, bringing to the work scholarship, sensitivity, and an ever watchful eye.

–vii

Dodd, author of about 70 reviews, lectures, essays, and articles, as well as more than more than 20 books, was, depending on more than one’s perspective, too liberal, too conservative, or about right.  He was undoubtedly influential.

Perhaps Realized Eschatology was the major theme in Dodd’s ouevre.  As he wrote in The Founder of Christianity (1970):

God the eternal, the omnipotent, can hardly be said to be nearer or farther off at this time than at that.  If he is king at all, he is king always and everywhere.  In what sense his kingdom does not come; it is.  But human experience takes place within a framework of time and space.  It has varying degrees of intensity.  There are particular moments in the lives of men and in the history of mankind when what is permanently true (if largely unrecognized) becomes manifestly and effectively true.  Such a moment is reflected in the gospels.  The presence of God with man, a truth for all times and places, became an effective truth.

–56-57

Dodd, while recognizing the achievements of German Liberal theology and its students in filling in the details of the Hellenistic background of early Christianity, criticized them for their flight from dogma.  They were mistaken, he argued, in their assumption that they could discover the Historical Jesus via secular historical methods.  Furthermore, Rudolf Bultmann was mistaken when he rejected the possibility of any reliable historical understanding of Jesus, Dodd wrote.  Furthermore, according to Dodd, Karl Barth was mistaken when he wrote in his commentary (1918) on the Epistle to the Romans that the Historical Jesus was irrelevant to the Christ of faith.  Dodd, writing in The Meaning of Paul for Today (1920), argued that the Historical Jesus was germane to and essential for the Christ of faith.  Our saint’s attitude toward the Bible was evident in The Founder of Christianity (1970), in which most of the source citations were simply scriptural citations.

…Whom God hath set forth to be a propitiation through faith in his blood, to declare his righteousness for the remission of sins that are past, though the forbearance of God,….

–Romans 3:25, Authorized Version

…whom God put forward as an expiation by his blood, to be received by faith.  This was to show God’s righteousness, because in his divine forbearance he had passed over former sins;….

–Romans 3:25, Revised Standard Version

For God designed him to be the means of expiating sin by his sacrificial death, effective through faith.  God meant by this to demonstrate his justice, because in his forbearance he had overlooked the sins of the past….

–Romans 3:25, The New English Bible and The Revised English Bible

…whom God put forward as a sacrifice of atonement by his blood, effective through faith.  He did this to show his righteousness, because in his divine forbearance he had passed over the sins previously committed;….

–Romans 3:25, The New Revised Standard Version 

Dodd rejected Penal Substitutionary Atonement, one of three theories of the atonement dating to the Patristic Era.  In The Epistle of Paul to the Romans (1932) Dodd, referring to the Greek word hilasterion in Romans 3:25, rejected the traditional “propitiation” in favor of “expiation.”

“Expiation” indicates the cancellation of a debt.  So does “propitiation,” but the suffix “pro-” indicates Penal Substitutionary Atonement.  In Dodd’s words:

In accordance with biblical usage, therefore, the substantive (hilasterion) would mean, not propitiation, but ‘a means by which guilt is annulled’; if a man is the agent, the meaning would be ‘a means of expiation’; if God, ‘a means by which sin is forgiven.’  Biblical usage is determinative for Paul.  The rendering propitiation is therefore misleading, for it suggests the placating of an angry God, and although this would be in accord with pagan usage, it is foreign to biblical usage.  In the present passage it is God who puts forward the means whereby the guilt of sin is removed, by sending Christ.  The sending of Christ, therefore, is the divine method of forgiveness.

The Epistle of Paul to the Romans (1932); reprint, 1959; 78-79

I could not have said it better.  I have been making a similar, albeit less scholarly, case based on what I have called the “gangster God” of Penal Substitutionary Atonement, since a time before I read Dodd’s case.  I grew up learning Penal Substitutionary Atonement yet have come to prefer the Classic Theory of the Atonement, or Christus Victor, among the three theories of the atonement dating to the Patristic Era.

Dodd’s description of the God of Penal Substitutionary Atonement is that such a deity is, in Dodd’s words, one who requires placation.  That is not the God of my faith.  That is not a God worthy of love, adoration, and loyalty.  No, that is a God in the presence of whom one should stand in stark terror.  That is a God with much in common with the frequently dangerous ancient Mesopotamian deities.  One of the main ideas in the rewritten creation mythology in Genesis 1:1-2:4a is that YHWH is different from those gods.

Many still hold Dodd’s rejection of Penal Substitutionary Atonement against him, of course.

Dodd died in Goring-on-Thames, England, on September 21, 1973.  He was 89 years old.

I am a Biblical and theological nerd.  I belong to a reading group that gathers monthly to discuss works in the fields of the Historical Jesus and the early Church.  As I ponder Dodd’s theology, I recognize his influences in the works of subsequent, major scholars, whom I have read.  I can also name certain contemporary scholars with whom Dodd would argue respectfully.

Dodd was correct more often than he was incorrect.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

AUGUST 26, 2018 COMMON ERA

PROPER 16:  THE FOURTEENTH SUNDAY AFTER PENTECOST, YEAR B

THE FEAST OF FREDERICK WILLIAM HERZBERGER, U.S. LUTHERAN MINISTER, HUMANITARIAN, AND HYMN TRANSLATOR

THE FEAST OF SAINT LEVKADIA HARASYMIV, UKRAINIAN GREEK CATHOLIC NUN, AND MARTYR, 1952

THE FEAST OF SAINTS LUIGI BELTRAME QUATTROCCHI AND MARIA CORSINI BELTRAME QUATTROCCHI, ITALIAN ROMAN CATHOLIC HUMANITARIANS

THE FEAST OF SAINT TERESA OF JESUS, JORNEY Y IBARS, CATALAN ROMAN CATHOLIC NUN AND CONFOUNDRESS OF THE LITTLE SISTERS OF THE ABANDONED ELDERLY

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O God, you have endowed us with memory, reason, and skill.

We thank you for the faithful legacy of [C. H. Dodd and all others]

who have dedicated their lives to you and to the intellectual pursuits.

May we, like them, respect your gift of intelligence fully and to your glory.

In the Name of God:  Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.  Amen.

Deuteronomy 6:4-9

Psalm 103

Philippians 4:8-9

Mark 12:28-34

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

MARCH 6, 2013 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF SAINT CHRODEGANG OF METZ, ROMAN CATHOLIC BISHOP

THE FEAST OF EDMUND KING, ANGLICAN BISHOP OF LINCOLN

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Feast of Sts. Junia and Andronicus (May 15)   Leave a comment

Above:  Sts. Junia and Andronicus with St. Athanasius of Christianoupolis

Image in the Public Domain

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SAINTS JUNIA AND ANDRONICUS (FIRST CENTURY C.E.)

Missionaries and Martyrs

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Greet Andronicus and Junia, my relatives who were in prison with me; they are prominent among the apostles, and they were in Christ before I was.

–Romans 16:7, The New Revised Standard Version (1989)

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Chrysostom, preaching on this passage, saw no difficulty in a woman-apostle; nor need we.

–C. H. Dodd, The Epistle of Paul to the Romans (1932; paperback, 1959), page 241

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Romans 16:7 is the only Biblical reference to these saints.

“Junia” is a female Latin name present in more than 250 inscriptions found in Rome.  Some ancient manuscripts give the name as “Julia” instead.  The main alternative to “Junia,” however, is “Junias,” which is masculine.

I consulted my library of Biblical translations.  The following versions had “Junias”:

  1. American Standard Version,
  2. An American Translation,
  3. Confraternity Version,
  4. Douay-Rheims Version,
  5. The Jerusalem Bible,
  6. The Living Bible,
  7. The New American Bible (1970),
  8. New American Standard Bible,
  9. New American Standard Bible–Updated Edition,
  10. The New English Bible,
  11. The New Jerusalem Bible,
  12. The New Testament in Modern English (J. B. Phillips),
  13. The New Testament in Modern English–Revised Edition (J. B. Phillips),
  14. Nouvelle Version Segond Révisée,
  15. Revised Standard Version,
  16. Revised Standard Version–Catholic Edition,
  17. Revised Standard Version–Second Catholic Edition, and
  18. Revised Standard Version–Second Edition.

The following translations had “Junia”:

  1. Authorised Version/King James Version,
  2. The New American Bible (1986),
  3. The New American Bible–Revised Edition (2011),
  4. New King James Version,
  5. The New Revised Standard Version,
  6. The New Revised Standard Version–Catholic Edition, and
  7. The Revised English Bible.

Recognition of St. Junia as female has been part of Christian tradition for a long time.  Origen, St. Jerome, and St. John Chrysostom described the apostle (traveling evangelist) as female.  Since the 600s the Orthodox Church has recognized Sts. Junia and Andronicus (likely married) as missionaries and martyrs who traveled widely.  Some sources have speculated that the two might have been siblings, not spouses.  Nevertheless, St. Paul the Apostle worked with the married couple Sts. Priscilla and Aquila (Acts 28:18, 26 and Romans 16:3).

The probability that Sts. Junia and Andronicus were a married couple is high.  One might conclude that the origin of “Junias” is sexism to a degree that even certain patriarchal ecclesiastical institutions do not stoop.

As of A Great Cloud of Witnesses:  A Calendar of Commemorations (2016) this feast is new to The Episcopal Church.  The feast is a fine addition to the official calendar and to this, my Ecumenical Calendar of Saints’ Days and Holy Days.

Tony Hendra, in Father Joe:  The Man Who Saved My Soul (2004), wrote that Father Joe said that Holy Mother Church had not canonized enough married couples.  That was a valid criticism.

May we then agree with St. Joseph the Hymnographer (d. 886), who wrote in praise of Sts. Junia and Andronicus:

With piety we will honor the Bright stars and holy

Apostles Junia and the God-inspired Andronicus.

The Blessed Paul proclaims you both as truly distinguished

Among the Apostles, and blessed in the Church.

–Quoted in A Great Cloud of Witnesses (2016)

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

SEPTEMBER 17, 2017 COMMON ERA

PROPER 19:  THE FIFTEENTH SUNDAY AFTER PENTECOST, YEAR A

THE FEAST OF HENRY LASCALLES JENNER, ANGLICAN BISHOP OF DUNEDIN, NEW ZEALAND

THE FEAST OF HILDEGARD OF BINGEN, ROMAN CATHOLIC ABBESS AND COMPOSER

THE FEAST OF WILLIAM DALRYMPLE MACLAGAN, ARCHBISHOP OF YORK AND HYMN WRITER

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Almighty God, whose Son, the risen Christ, sent forth your apostles

Andronicus and Junia to proclaim the gospel and extend your reign:

send us forth in your Holy Spirit, that women and men may

minister as one faithful witness to the Gospel of Jesus Christ;

who lives and reigns with you and the Holy Spirit,

in perfect unity, one God, now and for ever.  Amen.

1 Samuel 3:1-10

Psalm 63:1-8

Ephesians 4:11-16

Matthew 9:35-38

A Great Cloud of Witnesses:  A Calendar of Commemorations (2016)

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