Archive for the ‘Edward White Benson’ Tag

Feast of Joseph Barber Lightfoot (April 13)   3 comments

Above:  Joseph Barber Lightfoot

Image in the Public Domain

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JOSEPH BARBER LIGHTFOOT (APRIL 13, 1828-DECEMBER 21, 1889)

Anglican Bishop of Durham

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Joseph Barber Lightfoot, lifelong bachelor, was a great scholar.  Our saint, born at Liverpool, England, on April 13, 1828, manifested academic inquisitiveness at an early age.  He, one of the children of accountant John Jackson Lightfoot and Ann Lightfoot, studied at King Edward’s School, Birmingham, where the great James Prince Lee was the headmaster.  At King Edward’s School Lightfoot forged lifelong friendships with Brooke Foss Westcott, Edward White Benson (later the Archbishop of Canterbury), and Fenton John Anthony Hort. Lightfoot also revered the headmaster.  Our saint continued his studies at Trinity College, Cambridge, starting in 1847.  There he continued to excel academically, studied privately under the tutelage of Westcott, and, in 1852, became a fellow.  James Prince Lee, in his new capacity as the Bishop of Manchester, ordained Lightfoot to the diaconate in 1864 and to the priesthood four years later.  In 1862 our saint became the Hulsean Professor of Divinity at Cambridge.  Nine years later he became the Canon of St. Paul’s Cathedral, London, having withdrawn from consideration for appointment to the Regius Professorship of Divinity (in favor of Westcott) in 1870.  Lightfoot, Westcott, and Benson worked on the translation of the New Testament of the Revised Version (1881), starting in 1870.  In the midst of that project our saint became the Lady Margaret Professor of Theology at Cambridge in 1875.

Over decades Lightfoot engaged in Biblical and Patristic scholarship that has stood the test of time.  He wrote commentaries on several New Testament books, mainly Galatians, Philippians, Colossians, and Philemon (all published during his lifetime) and Acts, John, 2 Corinthians, and 1 Peter (published only in recent years).  Lightfoot also delved into Patristics, in particular the epistles of Sts. Clement of Rome, Ignatius, and Polycarp.  Our saint also helped to found the Journal of Classical and Sacred Philology, published from March 1854 to December 1859.

From 1879 to 1889 Lightfoot served as the Bishop of Durham.  He proved to be a capable administrator, building up the diocese (literally) and helping to create the new Diocese of Newcastle (in 1882).  As Bishop of Durham Lightfoot became involved in social reform.  He started the White Cross Movement in 1883.  The purpose of the movement, which spread quickly around the world, was to encourage strong morality without any double standards, namely those grounded in gender.  The movement called for treating all women with respect, reducing the frequency of coarse language, and maintaining personal purity.

Lightfoot died at Bournemouth on December 21, 1889.  Westcott succeeded him as Bishop of Durham.

The University of Durham has a Lightfoot Professorship of Divinity.  That is a fitting tribute to such a scholar.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

JUNE 24, 2017 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF THE NATIVITY OF SAINT JOHN THE BAPTIST

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O God, you have endowed us with memory, reason, and skill.

We thank you for the faithful legacy of [Joseph Barber Lightfoot and all others]

who have dedicated their lives to you and to the intellectual pursuits.

May we, like them, respect your gift of intelligence fully and to your glory.

In the Name of God:  Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.  Amen.

Deuteronomy 6:4-9

Psalm 103

Philippians 4:8-9

Mark 12:28-34

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

MARCH 6, 2013 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF SAINT CHRODEGANG OF METZ, ROMAN CATHOLIC BISHOP

THE FEAST OF EDMUND KING, ANGLICAN BISHOP OF LINCOLN

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Feast of Randall Davidson (April 8)   Leave a comment

Above:  Archbishop Randall Davidson

Image in the Public Domain

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RANDALL THOMAS DAVIDSON (APRIL 7, 1848-MAY 25, 1930)

Archbishop of Canterbury

Randall Davidson was the Archbishop of Canterbury for about a quarter of a century.  The native of Edinburgh, Scotland, born on April 7, 1848, grew up a Presbyterian.  The son of Henrietta Swinton and Henry Davidson, a grain merchant, grew up in The Church of Scotland.  Our saint, educated at the Harrow School and at Trinity College, Oxford, converted to Anglicanism.  He, ordained in 1875, became the chaplain to Archbishop of Canterbury Archibald Campbell Tait in 1877 then to Edward White Benson, Tait’s immediate successor.  Davidson married Tait’s daughter, Edith (died in 1936), in 1878.  Our saint gained the confidence of Queen Victoria and advised her regarding ecclesiastical appointments.  Through her favor he succeeded to the posts of Dean of Windsor (1883), Bishop of Rochester (1891), and Bishop of Winchester (1895).  In February 1903 he succeeded Frederick Temple as Archbishop of Canterbury.

Davidson had a passion for reconciliation, ecclesiastical and political.  He sought to find common ground in theological arguments (such as the one regarding ritualism), favored the League of Nations, and became an ecumenical leader.  Our saint supported Anglican-Roman Catholic dialogue, favored closer Anglican-Eastern Orthodox ties, and argued for retaining the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople.  He also opposed religious persecution in Russia and spoke out on behalf of the rights of indigenous peoples, thereby making the work of Anglican missionaries easier.

Davidson retired, aged 80 years, in November 1928, shortly after the Parliament refused to approve the proposed Book of Common Prayer, meant to replace the Prayer Book of 1662.  He had hoped that Parliament would approve the proposed Prayer Book.  He died on May 25, 1930, aged 82 years, in London.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

MARCH 16, 2017 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF SAINT ADALBALD OF OSTEVANT, SAINT RICTRUDIS OF MARCHIENNES, AND THEIR RELATIONS

THE FEAST OF SAINT ABRAHAM KIDUNAIA, ROMAN CATHOLIC HERMIT, AND SAINT MARY OF EDESSA, ROMAN CATHOLIC ANCHORESS

THE FEAST OF SAINT JOHN CACCIAFRONTE, ROMAN CATHOLIC MONK, ABBOT, BISHOP, AND MARTYR

THE FEAST OF SAINT MEGINGAUD OF WURZGURG, ROMAN CATHOLIC MONK AND ABBOT

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Heavenly Father, you have raised up faithful bishops of your church,

including your servant Randall Davidson.

May the memory of his life be a source of joy for us and a bulwark of our faith,

so that we may serve and confess your name before the world,

through Jesus Christ, our Savior and Lord, who lives and reigns

with you and the Holy Spirit, one God, now and forever.  Amen.

Ezekiel 34:11-16 or Acts 20:17-35

Psalm 84

1 Peter 5:1-4 or Ephesians 3:14-21

John 21:15-17 or Matthew 24:42-47

–Adapted from Evangelical Lutheran Worship (2006), page 60

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Feast of Edward King (March 8)   Leave a comment

NPG Ax38337; Edward King

Above:  Edward King

Image in the Public Domain

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EDWARD KING (DECEMBER 29, 1829-MARCH 8, 1910)

Bishop of Lincoln

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We must not give up on any soul as hopeless.

–Edward King

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We should acknowledge God in trade by truthfulness of work, by fair dealing, and by fair wages.

–Edward King

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The housing of the people is in reality immediately connected with the social and moral condition of the nation.

–Edward King

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The Feast of Edward King comes from the calendar of saints of The Church of England.

Edward King came from an ecclesiastical family and served God via the Church.  His grandfather was Walker King (Sr.) (1751-1827), the Bishop of Rochester from 1809 to 1827.  Our saint’s parents were Anne Heberden and Walker King (Jr.), Rector of Stone, Kent.  Edward, born at London on December 29, 1829, was the third of ten children.  He had a reputation for kindliness from an early age.  Anne, one of his sisters, was an invalid for twelve years.  Our saint sat by her bedside many nights and learned Italian so he could share her love of the writing of Dante Alighieri.  Edward’s constitution was also weak; he remained at home while John Day, his father’s curate (and later the Vicar or Ellesmere, Shropshire) tutored him.  Our saint helped Day with the choir and a Bible class for men. In February 1848 King matriculated at Oriel College, Oxford.  There he became a Tractarian.  Our saint had to leave Oxford for health reasons in 1851, but he accepted an honorary degree.  Next he toured the Holy Land and environs (in 1852) and worked as a private tutor (in 1853).  King, ordained deacon in 1854 and priest the following year, served as the Curate of Wheatley from 1854 to 1858.  It was his only pastorate.  Cuddesdon Theological College (now Ripon College), Cuddesdon, beckoned next.  He was chaplain from 1858 to 1863 and principal from 1863 to 1873.  From Cuddesdon our saint returned to Oxford; he became the Chair of Pastoral Theology and the Canon of Christ Church in 1873.  Six years later King helped to found St. Stephen’s House, Oxford, an Anglo-Catholic theological college.  In 1885 King succeeded Christopher Wordsworth (1807-1885) as the Bishop of Lincoln.  Our saint remained in that post for the rest of his life.  King remained kindly and concerned about the plight of a wide range of people, from farmers to industrial workers to prisoners condemned to die.  The Gospel commanded him to minister to them, he understood.

King’s liturgical “innovations,” actually returns to older practices, proved controversial and got him into trouble.  At the time members of the Evangelical and Anglo-Catholic wings of The Church of England clashed, with some Evangelical Anglicans went so far as to accuse Anglo-Catholics of being in league with Satan and certain Anglo-Catholics accused Evangelical Anglicans of practicing false religion.  Also, Parliament passed the Public Worship Regulation Act of 1874, forbidding certain ritualistic practices.  In 1888 King had to contend with eight allegations of supposed liturgical malfeasance:

  1. Mixing water and wine in the chalice;
  2. Administering the mixed elements to communicants;
  3. Washing the communion vessels ceremonially then drinking the water;
  4. Facing eastward before communion;
  5. Standing during the prayer of consecration so that nobody in the congregation could see him perform the Manual Acts of Consecration;
  6. Having two lit candles not necessary for illumination on the altar during the service;
  7. Permitting the singing of the Agnus Dei after the consecration of the elements; and
  8. Making the sign of the cross in the air with his hand at the benediction.

Archbishop of Canterbury Edward White Benson (1829-1896) spared King a civil prosecution by convening an ecclesiastical court.  In 1890 the court exonerated the Bishop of Lincoln on all but two counts:  (5) and (6).  Benson ordered King not to commit them any longer.  King obeyed that judgment.  The ordeal, however, stressed him spiritually and physically. The matter should never have come to the attention of any court.

King, who never married, died on March 8, 1910.  He was 80 years old.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

JANUARY 9, 2017 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF SAINTS PEPIN OF LANDEN, ITTA OF METZ, THEIR RELATIONS, AMAND, AUSTREGISILUS, AND SULPICIUS II OF BOURGES, FAITHFUL CHRISTIANS ACROSS GENERATIONAL LINES

THE FEAST OF SAINT ANTHONY MARY PUCCI, ROMAN CATHOLIC PRIEST

THE FEAST OF JULIA CHESTER EMERY, UPHOLDER OF MISSIONS

THE FEAST OF SAINT PHILIP II OF MOSCOW, METROPOLITAN OF MOSCOW AND ALL RUSSIA AND MARTYR

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O God, our heavenly Father, who raised up your faithful servant Edward King

to be a bishop in your Church and to feed your flock:

Give abundantly to all pastors the gifts of your Holy Spirit,

that they may minister in your household as true servants of Christ

and stewards of your divine mysteries;

through Jesus Christ our Lord, who lives and reigns with you

and the Holy Spirit, one God, for ever and ever.  Amen.

Acts 20:17-35

Psalm 84 or 84:7-11

Ephesians 3:14-21

Matthew 24:42-47

–Adapted from Holy Women, Holy Men:  Celebrating the Saints (2010), page 719

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Feast of Frederick and William Temple (December 22)   1 comment

canterbury-cathedral

Above:  Canterbury Cathedral, 1910

Publisher and Copyright Claimant = Detroit Publishing Company

Image Source = Library of Congress

Reproduction Number = LC-DIG-det-4a24699

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FREDERICK TEMPLE (NOVEMBER 30, 1821-DECEMBER 22, 1902)

Archbishop of Canterbury

father of

WILLIAM TEMPLE (OCTOBER 15, 1881-OCTOBER 26, 1944)

Archbishop of Canterbury

His feast transferred from November 6

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So let us set ourselves to gain a deepening loyalty to our Anglican tradition of Catholic order, Evangelical immediacy in our approach to God, and liberal acceptance of new truth made known to us; and let us at the same time join with all our fellow Christians who will join with us in bearing witness to the claim of Christ to rule in every department of human life, and to the principles of His Kingdom.

–William Temple, April 17, 1942; quoted in Lee W. Gibbs, The Middle Way:  Voices of Anglicanism (Cincinnati, OH:  Forward Movement Publications, 1991), page 130

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The standard feast day of William Temple is November 6.  To the best of my knowledge, no ecclesiastical body lists his father, Frederick Temple, on its calendar of saints.  On this, my Ecumenical Calendar of Saints’ Days and Holy Days, however, the two Archbishop Temples share a feast day–December 22.

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frederick-temple

Above:  Frederick Temple

Image in the Public Domain

Frederick Temple was an educator, an educational reformer, a theologian, and a minister.  He, born on November 30, 1821, debuted at Leukas (a.k.a. Santa Maura), the Ionian Islands, off the coast of Greece.  His father, Major Octavius Temple (1784-1834) was there on imperial assignment.  Our saint’s mother was Dorcas Carveth (born in 1805).  He was one of five children.  The family relocated to Corfu in 1828.  Then, in 1833, Octavius became the Lieutenant Governor of Sierra Leone, serving until he died the following year.

The death of Octavius left the family impoverished.  Frederick studied at Blundell’s School, Devonshire, from 1834 to 1839.  Then, from 1839 to 1842, he attended Baillol College, Oxford, on scholarship, studying mechanics and the classics.  He encountered Tractarians there and found himself more liberal than they were.  From 1842 to 1848 our saint worked as a lecturer then a fellow at Baillol College.  Along the way he became an Anglican deacon (1846) then priest (1847).

Frederick left Oxford in 1848.  Until 1850 he worked at the Education Office.  Then, from 1850 to 1855, he was the Principal of Kneller Hall, a training college for teachers at workhouses.  Next (until 1857) our saint inspected training colleges.  From 1857 to 1869, as the Headmaster of Rugby School, expanded the curriculum, presided over new construction, and functioned as a good example to everyone.  On the side, from 1864 to 1867, Frederick served on the Schools Enquiry Commission.

Frederick contributed an essay, The Education of the World,” to Essays and Reviews (1860), a liberal Anglican manifesto.  The volume proved to be controversial, partially because all seven authors favored freedom of inquiry in religion.  In our saint’s case, his argument irked many people and led to allegations to heresy.  He wrote of the parallels of human life (obedience during childhood, example during adolescence, and responsible freedom during adulthood) to three religious stages (the Law, the Gospels, and Pentecost).  In the last phase, Frederick wrote, humankind must be free to make decisions while drawing from all worthy sources, mainly the Bible.  Some critics accused our saint of being unduly optimistic regarding human nature and of ignoring sin and redemption.  In response to the controversy he authorized the omission of his essay from subsequent editions of Essays and Reviews.

Our saint became the Bishop of Exeter in 1869 and served until 1885.  Frederick encouraged secondary education.  he also worked hard to implement the Elementary Education Act of 1870, which expanded the reach of elementary school access and improved attendance.  Also during his tenure Frederick oversaw the creation of the Diocese of Truro from his diocese.  And, on October 15, 1881, our saint and his wife, Beatrice Blanche Lascelles, welcomed their second son, William, into the world.

During his time as Bishop of Exeter our saint published The Relations Between Religion and Science (1884).  He accepted both science and religion, acknowledging the reality of Evolution.  He had already covered much of that material in a sermon, The Present Relation of Science to Religion (1860).

From 1885 to 1896 Frederick was the Bishop of London.  During that time he advised the Archbishop of Canterbury, his friend, Edward White Benson, whom he succeeded in 1897.  When our saint became the Primate he was already going blind.  Yet he labored faithfully, attempting to settle ritualistic controversies and refuting the Papal bull (literally) regarding the invalidity of Anglican Holy Orders.  Frederick died at London on December 22, 1902.  He was 81 years old.

Another published work of our saint was “The Church’s Message to Mankind,” included in The Church’s Message to Men (1899).

Volumes about Frederick, at least in part, included the following:

  1. Archbishop Temple, Being the People’s Life of the Right Hon. and Most Rev. Frederick Temple, P.C., D.D., LL.D., Primate of All England, and Metropolitan (1903), by Charles Henry Dant;
  2. Six Great Schoolmasters (1904), by F. D. How;
  3. Memoirs of Archbishop Temple by Seven Friends (1906), edited by E. G. Sandford–Volumes I and II;
  4. Frederick Temple:  An Appreciation (1907), by E. G. Sandford, with a biographical introduction by William Temple; and
  5. The Exeter Episcopate of Archbishop Temple, 1869-1885 (1907), by E. G. Sandford.

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william-temple

Above:  William Temple

Image in the Public Domain

William Temple entered the world on October 15, 1881, when his father, then the Bishop of Exeter, was 60 years old.  Young William grew up in a financially comfortable and artistically rich family.  When his father was the Bishop of London our saint learned to play the piano and the organ.  He also attempted to learn to play the oboe and the French horn and came to consider Johann Sebastian Bach to be

the supreme master  who more than any other enables us for a few moments snatched from the passage of time to enter upon the experience of eternity.

–Quoted in Lee W. Gibbs, The Middle Way:  Voices of Anglicanism (1991), page 114

The bookworm suffered from various illnesses, such as gout, throughout his life.  He, like his father, had eye-related problems; William became blind in one eye, due to a cataract, in 1921.

William was also a natural intellectual.  He, educated at Rugby School (1894-1900) and Baillol College, Oxford (1900-1904), was a fellow and lecturer in philosophy at Queen’s College, Oxford, from 1904 to 1910.  Ordained to the diaconate in December 1909 and the priesthood in December 1910, our saint served as the Headmaster of Repton School, Derbyshire, from 1910 to 1914.

The priesthood had once been far from William’s mind, but it was his vocation.  Allegations of heresy had delayed his Holy Orders, but our saint became a simultaneously relatively orthodox and heterodox figure after his ordination.  The Incarnation occupied the center of his theology.  The Incarnation, William argued, had made the universe sacramental.  This understanding informed our saint’s opinion that one cannot properly divorce Christian doctrine from social justice.  Thus he served as the President of the Workers’ Educational Association from 1908 to 1924 and joined the Labour Party.  Christian disunity weakened the witness of the Church in the world, William knew.  Therefore he supported ecumenism in general and the Life and Work Movement (1925f) and the Faith and Order Movement (1927f), predecessors of the World Council of Churches (1948), in particular.  Our saint also favored the process that led to the formation of the Church of South India (1947).  William also supported the ordination of women to the diaconate and the priesthood as early as 1916, but struggled with the fact that the ordination of women at that time would become an obstacle to ecumenism.

William entered full-time ministry in 1914.  That year he became the Rector of St. James’ Church, Picadilly, London.  On the side he also served as honorary chaplain to King George V and to Randall Davidson, the Archbishop of Canterbury.  In 1916 our saint married Frances Anson; the couple had no children.  From 1919 to 1921 William was Canon of Westminster.  Next he served as the Bishop of Manchester (thereby becoming a successor of James Prince Lee) for eight years.  As the Bishop of Manchester our saint offended cotton magnates by seeking to resolve a general strike peacefully in 1926.  From 1929 to 1942 he was the Archbishop of York.  Then he succeeded Cosmo Lang as the Archbishop of Canterbury.

William was perhaps the most renowned Archbishop of Canterbury since the English Reformation.  He exercised the duties of the office during difficult times–World War II.  Our saint advocated for aid to Jews fleeing the Nazis, visited soldiers and sailors, broadcast sermons to soldiers and sailors, led prayer services at factories, preached on Sundays when Germans were bombing, and supported a negotiated settlement to the war.  He had to travel to and from his final public appearances in an ambulance and had to stand on one foot while speaking.

Wiliam died at Westgate-on-Sea, Kent, on October 26, 1944.  He was 63 years old.  Reinhold Niebuhr reflected:

Dr. Temple was able to relate “religious insights and social order” more vitally and creatively than any other modern Christian leader.

–Quoted in Lee W. Gibbs, The Middle Way:  Voices of Anglicanism (1991), page 113

Major published works by our saint included the following:

  1. The Nature of Personality:  A Course of Lectures (1911);
  2. “The Divinity of Christ” and “The Church” in Foundations:  A Statement of Christian Belief in Terms of Modern Thought (1913);
  3. The Faith and Modern Thought:  Six Lectures (1913);
  4. Christianity and War (1914);
  5. Theology:  The Science of Religion (1914);
  6. Studies in the Spirit and Truth of Christianity (1914);
  7. Our Need of a Catholic Church (1915);
  8. Church and Nation (1915);
  9. Plato and Christianity (1916);
  10. Mens Creatrix:  An Essay (1917);
  11. The Universality of Christ:  A Course of Lectures (1921);
  12. Life of Bishop Percival (1921);
  13. Christus Veritas (1924);
  14. Personal Religion and the Life of Fellowship (1926);
  15. Christianity and the State (1928);
  16. Nature, Man, and God (1934);
  17. Readings in St. John’s Gospel (1939 and 1940); and
  18. Christianity and the Social Order (1942).

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Understanding Frederick Temple increases one’s comprehension for his famous son.  The apple, I contend, did not fall far from the tree.  Although William Temple overshadows his father, nobody should minimize the importance of the elder.

As both Temples understood well, an excessively personalized Christianity divorced from social justice is heretical.  They were good Anglicans and therefore men rooted in the Incarnation of the Second Person of the Trinity as Jesus of Nazareth.  As I have learned, the Anglican emphasis on the Incarnation (as opposed to the Lutheran emphasis on the crucifixion) lends itself to reading John 1:1-18, especially the part about God dwelling among us, and seeking to serve God in those around us.  This point of view has led to ecclesiastical involvement in social justice movements.  This has always been orthodox; turning away from the mandate to love one’s neighbor as one loves oneself has always been heretical.

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KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

NOVEMBER 8, 2016 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF JOHN CASPAR MATTES, U.S. LUTHERAN MINISTER AND LITURGIST

THE FEAST OF JOHANN VON STAUPITZ, MARTIN LUTHER’S SPIRITUAL MENTOR

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Almighty God, we praise you for your servants Frederick Temple and William Temple,

through whom you have called the church to its tasks and renewed its life..

Raise up in our own day teachers and prophets inspired by your Spirit,

whose voices will give strength to your church and proclaim the reality of your reign,

through Jesus Christ, our Savior and Lord, who lives and reigns

with you and the Holy Spirit, one God, now and forever.  Amen.

Jeremiah 1:4-10

Psalm 46

1 Corinthians 3:11-23

Mark 10:35-45

–Adapted from Evangelical Lutheran Worship (2006), page 60

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Feast of James Prince Lee (December 22)   4 comments

james-prince-lee

Above:  James Prince Lee

Image in the Public Domain

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JAMES PRINCE LEE (JULY 28, 1804-DECEMBER 24, 1869)

Bishop of Manchester

I learned of the existence of James Prince Lee while reading old Encyclopedia Britannica articles about some of his pupils, who became prominent priests and scholars of The Church of England.  To the best of my knowledge, no ecclesiastical body has added Bishop Lee to its calendar of saints.  That, I have concluded, constitutes an unfortunate omission.

James Prince Lee, born at London, England, on July 28, 1804, was a priest, a bishop, an educator, and a classical scholar.  He attended and studied at St. Paul’s School and at Trinity College, Cambridge (B.A., 1828; M.A., 1831).  At Trinity College Lee became a renowned classical scholar.  He took Holy Orders in 1830, the same year he began to serve as assistant headmaster of the Rugby School, under headmaster Thomas Arnold.  Lee left the Rugby School in 1837 to become the Rector of Ayot St. Peter.  The following year our saint became the headmaster of King Edward’s School, Birmingham.  There his star pupils included Edward White Benson (1829-1896), a future Archbishop of Canterbury; Joseph Barber Lightfoot (1828-1889), a future Bishop of Durham; and Brooke Foss Westcott (1825-1901), also a future Bishop of Durham.

From 1848 to 1869 (his death) Lee served as the first Bishop of Manchester.  Although some of the clergy of the diocese thought he was too much like a schoolmaster in his manner, he was a capable bishop.  Our saint built up the diocese, consecrating 130 church buildings in 21 years.  He also cared deeply about Manchester itself; the bookworm helped to found the public library in the city.

Lee died at home on Christmas Eve, 1869.  He was 65 years old.

Our saint influenced many people directly and indirectly.  Like any educator, his influence was evident in many of his students, who, in turn, influenced others, and so on.  Certainly Lee had an effect on everyone who benefited from the existence of the Manchester public library.  Furthermore, all whose spiritual formation or any part thereof occurred in any of the 130 church buildings he consecrated owed some debt of gratitude to our saint.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

NOVEMBER 6, 2016 COMMON ERA

ALL SAINTS’ SUNDAY

THE FEAST OF CHRISTIAN GREGOR, FATHER OF MORAVIAN CHURCH MUSIC

THE FEAST OF GIOVANNI GABRIELI AND HANS LEO HASSLER, COMPOSERS AND ORGANISTS; AND CLAUDIO MONTEVERDI AND HEINRICH SCHUTZ, COMPOSERS AND MUSICIANS

THE FEAST OF SAINT THEOPHANE VENARD, ROMAN CATHOLIC PRIEST, MISSIONARY, AND MARTYR IN VIETNAM

THE FEAST OF WILLIAM TEMPLE, ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY

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O God, our heavenly Father, who raised up your faithful servant

James Prince Lee to be a bishop in your Church and to feed your flock:

Give abundantly to all pastors the gifts of your Holy Spirit,

that they may minister in your household as true servants of Christ

and stewards of your divine mysteries;

through Jesus Christ our Lord, who lives and reigns

with you and the Holy Spirit, one God, for ever and ever.  Amen.

Acts 20:17-35

Psalm 84 or 84:7-11

Ephesians 3:14-21

Matthew 24:42-47

–Adapted from Holy Women, Holy Men:  Celebrating the Saints (2010), page 719

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Feast of Edward White Benson (October 13)   6 comments

Edward White Benson

Above:  Edward White Benson

Image in the Public Domain

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EDWARD WHITE BENSON, JR. (JULY 14, 1829-OCTOBER 11, 1896)

Archbishop of Canterbury

Edward White Benson was a leading figure in The Church of England in the late 1800s.

Benson was a native of Birmingham, England, where he entered the world on July 14, 1829.  His mother was Harriet Baker Benson (1805-1850).  Our saint’s father, Edward White Benson, Sr. (1802-1843), was a manufacturing chemist.  His death impoverished the family.  Benson studied at King Edward’s School, Birmingham.  James Prince Lee (1804-1869), the headmaster, influenced the young saint greatly.  Benson revered Lee, who went on to become the Bishop of Manchester in 1847  Our saint even preached at Lee’s funeral.  At King Edward’s School Benson forged lifelong friendships with other future leading lights of The Church of England and continued to be their classmate at Trinity College, Cambridge.  These friends were:

  1. Joseph Barber Lightfoot (1828-1889), later the Bishop of Durham (1879-1889);
  2. Brooke Foss Westcott (1825-1901), who succeeded Lightfoot immediately as the Bishop of Durham; and
  3. Fenton John Anthony Hort (1828-1892), who, like Lightfoot and Westcott, was a Biblical scholar and translator.

Benson, who graduated from Trinity College in 1852, won the Chancellor’s medal there that year and became a fellow of that institution in 1853.

Benson became a priest and an educator.  From 1852 to 1858 he served as the Assistant Headmaster of Rugby School, succeeding George Edward Lynch Cotton (1813-1866), later the Bishop of Calcutta and Metropolitan of India.  Frederick Temple (1821-1902) became the Headmaster of Rugby School in 1858.  On June 23, 1859 he conducted the marriage ceremony of our saint and Mary Sidgwick (1841-1918).  Also in 1859 Benson, on the recommendation of Temple, became the first headmaster of Wellington College, an institution for the orphans of army officers.

The Bensons had six children:

  1. Martin White Benson (1860-1878), who died of tubercular meningitis at the age of 17 years;
  2. Arthur Christopher Benson (1862-1925), who became a school master, a prolific writer, the biographer of his brother Robert Hugh Benson as well as his father, and who wrote the lyrics of “Land of Hope and Glory;”
  3. Mary Eleanor Benson (1863-1890), who became an activist for poor people and died of diphtheria, contracted while engaging in that work;
  4. Margaret Benson (1865-1916), an Egyptologist and author;
  5. Edward Frederic Benson (1867-1940), a prolific novelist; and
  6. Robert Hugh Benson (1871-1914), an Anglican priest (1895-1903), convert to Roman Catholicism (1903), Roman Catholic priest (1904-1914), and papal chamberlain (1911f).

None of the Bensons’ children married and all seem to have suffered from congenital mental illness.   Our saint was subject to fits of depression, and not just because he buried two of his children.  (Aside:  One might wonder how much better their lives would have been if certain medications would have been available to them.)

Benson built up Wellington College.  It began as a poorly endowed institution, but he transformed it into a great school by the time he left for Lincoln.  Our saint, while leader of Wellington College, began his study of the life of St. Cyprian of Carthage (died in 258).  Benson’s interest in patristics and ecclesiastical symbolism was obvious in the architecture, mosaics, carvings, and windows of the college chapel, the construction of which he oversaw.

Benson served in other capacities prior to becoming the Archbishop of Canterbury.  As the Chancellor of Lincoln (Cathedral) from 1873 to 1877 he founded a theological college and established night schools and university extension lectures.  As the first Bishop of Truro our saint revitalized Anglicanism in Cornwall, an area in which religious nonconformity was strong  He also founded the cathedral, the construction of which continued after he died.

Archibald Campbell Tait (1811-1882), former Headmaster of Rugby School (1842-1848) and Archbishop of Canterbury (1868-1882), died, creating the vacancy Benson filled in 1883. As the leader of The Church of England our saint opposed attempts to disestablish the Welsh Church, supported high church ritualism at a time when that was controversial, opened talks with the Russian Orthodox Church, and re-established the Anglican bishopric in Jerusalem.  Benson also resolved the schism in the Natal resulting from the heterodoxy of John William Colenso (1814-1883), the deposed and excommunicated Bishop of Natal (1853-1883), who, due to legal maneuverings, retained his title despite his deposition and excommunication.  The official bishop in the area from 1869 to 1892 was William Macrorie (1831-1905), the Bishop of Maritzburg.  Arthur Hamilton Baynes (1854-1942) succeeded Macrorie in 1892 and Colenso the following year, serving until 1901.  (Aside:  “The Church’s One Foundation” contains references to the Colenso Affair.  Consider, O reader, “By schisms rent asunder,/By heresies distressed.”)  Benson was also properly suspicious of the Roman Catholic investigation into the validity of Anglican holy orders relative to Apostolic Succession, for Holy Mother Church ruled Anglican holy orders invalid in 1896.

Benson’s published works included the following:

  1. Work, Friendship, Worship:  Three Sermons Preached Before The University of Cambridge, October, 1871 (1872);
  2. Phoebe the Servant of the Church:  A Sermon, Preached at St. Peter’s Church, South Kensington, on May 11, 1873, in the Aid of the Parochial Mission-Women Fund (1873);
  3. Scholae Cancellarii:  Training of Candidates for Holy Orders at Lincoln:  A Letter to the Right Reverend the Lord Bishop of the Diocese (1875);
  4. Singleheart (1877);
  5. The Cathedral:  Its Necessary Place in the Life and Work of the Church (1878);
  6. The Voice and Its Homes:  A Sermon Preached in Behalf of the Incorporated Church Building Society, in S. Paul’s Cathedral, London, on May 20, 1881:  Being the First Anniversary of the Foundation of Truro Cathedral (1881);
  7. The Primate and Church Defense (1883);
  8. Boy-Life, Its Trial, Its Strength, Its Fulness:  Sundays in Wellington College, 1859-1873:  Three Books–New Edition (1883);
  9. Report of a Speech Delivered at the 183rd Annual Public Meeting of the Society:  Held in St. James’s Hall, on Tuesday, June 17, 1884 (1884);
  10. The Seven Gifts (1885);
  11. The Liquor Traffic with Native Races:  A Letter from the Archbishops (1887);
  12. An Address Given at Croyden:  At a Meeting of the Canterbury Diocesan Church Reading Society, on Monday, Nov. 28th, 1887 (1887);
  13. Christ and His Times:  Addressed to the Diocese of Canterbury on His Second Visitation (1890);
  14. Technical Education and Its Influence on Society:  An Address (1892);
  15. The Church in Wales:  Shall We Forsake Her?  A Speech by His Grace the Lord Archbishop of Canterbury at the Church Congress, Rhyl, on Tuesday, October 6, 1891 (1892);
  16. Fishers of Men:  Addressed to the Diocese of Canterbury in His Third Visitation (1893); and
  17. Living Theology (1893).

Benson died at Hawarden, Wales, on Sunday, October 11, 1896.  He, a house guest of former Prime Minister William Ewart Gladstone (1809-1898) at Hawarden Castle, had returned from an exhausting tour of Ireland.  Our saint suffered a stroke while attending a morning service at the local parish church.  He was 67 years old.  Frederick Temple succeeded him as the Archbishop of Canterbury.

Benson left some unpublished writings, which others made available to the public via printing presses.  These works included the following;

  1. Archbishop Benson in Ireland:  A Record of the Irish Sermons and Addresses (1896);
  2. Cyprian:  His Life, His Times, His Work (1897);
  3. The Apocalypse:  An Introductory Study of the Revelation of St. John the Divine, Being a Presentment of the Structure of the Book and of the Fundamental Principles of Its Interpretation (1900); and
  4. On Convocation:  A Letter to the Archbishop of Canterbury; and a Speech in the Upper House of the Convocation of the Southern Province (1917).

Arthur Christopher Benson wrote his father’s biography, The Life of Edward White Benson, Sometime Archbishop of Canterbury (1899)–Volumes I and II.

Edward White Benson worked to glorify God and benefit his fellow human beings.  He pursued these goals in particular ways, at a particular era, and in a particular setting.  The details of his spiritual vocation were specific to him.  Nevertheless, the general calling to glorify God and to benefit others remains unbounded by identity, geography, and time.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

JULY 19, 2016 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF SAINTS POEMEN, ROMAN CATHOLIC ABBOT; AND JOHN THE DWARF AND ARSENIUS THE GREAT, ROMAN CATHOLIC MONKS

THE FEAST OF SAINT AMBROSE AUTPERT, ROMAN CATHOLIC ABBOT

THE FEAST OF SAINT JOHN PLESSINGTON, ROMAN CATHOLIC PRIEST AND MARTYR

THE FEAST OF SAINT MACRINA THE YOUNGER, ROMAN CATHOLIC NUN

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O God, our heavenly Father, who raised up your faithful servant Edward White Benson

to be a faithful bishop and pastor in your Church and to feed your flock:

Give abundantly to all pastors the gifts of your Holy Spirit,  that they may minister

in your household as true servants of Christ and stewards of your divine mysteries;

through Jesus Christ our Lord, who lives and reigns with you

and the Holy Spirit, one God, for ever and ever.  Amen.

Acts 20:17-35

Psalm 84 or 84:7-11

Ephesians 3:14-21

Matthew 24:42-47

–Adapted from Holy Women, Holy Men:  Celebrating the Saints (2010), page 719

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Feast of Brooke Foss Westcott and Fenton John Anthony Hort (July 27)   4 comments

Trinity College, Cambridge

Above:  Trinity College, Cambridge

Image Source = Library of Congress

Reproduction Number = LC-DIG-ppmsc-08091

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BROOKE FOSS WESTCOTT (JANUARY 12, 1825-JULY 27, 1901)

Anglican Scholar, Bible Translator, and Bishop of Durham

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FENTON JOHN ANTHONY HORT (APRIL 23, 1828-NOVEMBER 30, 1892)

Anglican Priest and Scholar

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What we can do for another is the test of powers; what we can suffer is the test of love.

–Brooke Foss Westcott

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With this post I add two men–a teacher and his pupil, later a partner in New Testament scholarship–to the Ecumenical Calendar of Saints’ Days and Holy Days.  The name of Brooke Foss Westcott and date of July 27 come from the calendar of saints of The Church of England.  Fenton John Anthony Hort is here also because, as I read and took notes from the 1968 edition of the Encyclopedia Britannica, I found his name associated closely with that of Westcott, especially with regard to an influential edition of the Greek New Testament.  This pairing also makes sense because of the association of these men on many fundamentalist websites, where authors accuse them of a host of heresies and question their Christian faith.  That seems like a recommendation to me!

WESTCOTT

Brooke Foss Westcott, who entered the world at Birmingham, England, on January 12, 1825, came from a studious family.  His father, Frederick Brooke Westcott, was a lecturer in botany at Sydenham College Medical School.  Our saint, an excellent student, attended the King Edward VI School, Birmingham.  Next the studied at Trinity College, Cambridge.  After graduation he served as a fellow there from 1849 to 1852.  Three of his students became lifelong friends and partners in projects:

  1. Joseph Barber Lightfoot (1828-1889) became a patristic scholar, a New Testament scholar, a translator of the Revised Version of the New Testament (1881), and the Bishop of Durham (1879-1889).
  2. Edward White Benson (1829-1896) became a New Testament scholar, a translator of the Revised Version of the New Testament (1881), and the Archbishop of Canterbury (1883-1896).
  3. Fenton John Anthony Hort (1828-1892) became a priest, a patristic scholar, a Biblical scholar, and, with Westcott, editor of the influential New Testament in the Original Greek (1881), 28 years in the making.  This work, while in development, had served as the basis of the Revised Version of the New Testament (1881).  The New Testament in Greek (1881) also functioned as the foundation of The Twentieth Century New Testament (1904).

HORT

Hort, born on April 23, 1828, was a native of Dublin, Ireland.  He descended from Dissenters, but he grew up as an Evangelical Anglican.  Hort attended Rugby School then Trinity College, Cambridge.  At the latter institution he became a liberal Anglican.  In 1854 Hort, Lightfoot, and John Eyton Bickersteth Mayor (1825-1910) founded The Journal of Classical and Sacred Philology (Volumes I, II, III, and IV).  Hort, ordained in 1856, married Fanny Dyson Holland the following year and began a 15-year-long pastorate (1857-1872) at St. Ippolyts, near Hitchin, Hertforshire, and as well as Cambridge.  The technical description was that he had a “college living” there.  In 1870 he joined to project (led by Westcott) to prepare the Revised Version of the New Testament (1881).

WESTCOTT

Westcott became a priest and scholar.  In 1851 James Prince Lee (1804-1869), Bishop of Manchester, ordained him.  (Lee had been Westcott’s headmaster at Birmingham.)  From 1852 to 1869 our saint served as the Assistant Master of Harrow School.  He became the Resident Canon of Peterborough in 1869.  Westcott retained that title until 1884, serving also as the Regius Professor of Divinity at Cambridge from 1871 to 1890.  Lightfoot had been a candidate for that position, but he withdrew in favor of his old friend.  In 1890 our saint succeeded Lightfoot as Bishop of Durham, serving until 1901.  Westcott also acted on his social conscience, serving as the first President of the Christian Social Union from 1889 to 1901 and mediating the settlement of the Durham coal strike of 1892.

Westcott, who promoted foreign missions, married Sarah Louise Mary Whithard (1830-1901) in 1852.  They had ten children.  Four sons became missionaries to India.  Frederick Brooke Westcott (1857-1918), named after his grandfather, became a priest, educator, and Pauline scholar.  His published works included the following:

  1. The Epistle to the Hebrews:  An Experiment in Conservative Revision (1912),
  2. St. Paul and Justification:  Being an Exposition of the Teaching in the Epistles to Rome and Galatia (1913), and
  3. A Letter to Asia:  Being a Paraphrase and Brief Exposition of the Epistle of Paul the Apostle to the Believers at Colossae (1914).

Another son, Arthur Westcott, wrote Life and Letters of Brooke Foss Westcott, D.D. D.C.L., Sometime Bishop of Durham (1903)–Volumes I and II.

Bishop Westcott died at Durham on July 27, 1901.  He was 76 years old.

Westcott’s published works included the following:

  1. An Introduction to the Study of the Gospels (first edition, 1851; second edition, 1860; American edition, 1866; third edition, 1866; fourth edition, 1872; fifth edition, 1875, sixth edition, 1881; revised edition, 1900);
  2. A General Survey of the History of the Canon of the New Testament (first edition, 1855; second edition, 1866, third edition, 1870; fourth edition, 1875, fifth edition, 1881);
  3. Characteristics of the Gospel Miracles:  Sermons Preached Before the University of Cambridge, with Notes (1859);
  4. Introduction to the Study of the Gospels; with Historical and Explanatory Notes (1862);
  5. The Bible and the Church:  A Popular Account of the Collection and Reception of the Holy Scriptures in the Christian Churches (1864); second edition, 1866; third edition, 1870; revised edition, 1879;
  6. The Gospel of the Resurrection:  Thoughts on Its Relation to Reason and History (first edition, 1865; second edition, 1867; third edition, 1874; fourth edition, 1879; fifth edition, 1884);
  7. A General View of the History of the English Bible (first edition, 1868; second edition, 1872; third edition, 1905);
  8. The Christian Life, Manifold and One:  Six Sermons Preached in Peterborough Cathedral (1869);
  9. On Some Points in the Religious Office of the Universities (1873);
  10. Steps in the Christian Life (1880);
  11. The Revelation of the Risen Lord (1881);
  12. The Gospel According to St. John (1881);
  13. The Revelation of the Risen Lord (1881);
  14. The Historic Faith:  Short Lectures on the Apostles’ Creed (first edition, 1882; second edition, 1883; third edition, 1885; fourth edition, 1890)
  15. The Revelation of the Father:  Short Lectures on the Titles of the Lord in the Gospel of St. John (1884);
  16. Some Thoughts from the Ordinal (1884);
  17. The Epistles of St. John:  The Greek Text (first edition, 1883; second edition, 1885; third edition, 1892);
  18. Christus Consummator:  Some Aspects of the Work and Person of Christ in Relation to Modern Thought (first edition, 1886; second edition, 1887; third edition, 1890);
  19. Social Aspects of Christianity (first edition, 1887; second edition, 1888; third edition, 1900);
  20. Victory of the Cross:  Sermons Preached During Holy Week, 1888, in Hereford Cathedral (1888);
  21. From Strength to Strength:  Three Sermons on Stages in a Consecrated Life (1890);
  22. Thoughts of Revelation and Life:  Being Selections from the Writings of Brooke Foss Westcott (1891);
  23. Essays in the History of Religious Thought in the West (1891);
  24. The Gospel of Life:  Thoughts Introductory to the Study of Christian Doctrine (first edition, 1892; second edition, 1895);
  25. Theou Synergoi:  Harrow School Chapel, January 16, 17, 1892 (1892);
  26. The Incarnation and the Common Life (1893);
  27. Some Lessons of the Revised Version of the New Testament (1897);
  28. Christian Aspects of Life (1897);
  29. An Appreciation of the Late Christina Georgina Rossetti (1899); and
  30. Lessons from Work (1901).

Posthumously published works included the following:

  1. Words of Faith and Hope (1902),
  2. Common Prayers for Family Use (1903),
  3. Village Sermons (1906),
  4. Socialism (1907), and
  5. The Two Empires:  The Church and the World (1909).

HORT

Hort was a scholar to the end.  He was lecturer in divinity at Cambridge from 1872 to 1878, the Hulsean Professor of Divinity there until 1887, then the Lady Margaret Reader in Divinity there until 1892.  And, as I have written, he and Westcott collaborated on the influential New Testament in the Original Greek (1881) for 28 years.  Hort died at Cambridge on November 30, 1892.  He was 64 years old.  A son, botanist Sir Arthur Fenton Hort (1864-1902), wrote Life and Letters of Fenton John Anthony Hort (1896)–Volumes I and II.

Hort’s published works included the following:

  1. Two Dissertations (1876), and
  2. Hebrews (1876).

Posthumously published works included the following:

  1. Judaistic Christianity:  A Course of Lectures (1894);
  2. Six Lectures on the Ante-Nicene Fathers (1895);
  3. Proloegomena to St. Paul’s Epistles to the Romans and the Ephesians (1895);
  4. The Christian Ecclesia:  A Course of Lectures on the Early History and Conceptions of the Ecclesia, and Four Sermons (1907);
  5. Village Sermons (First Series, 1897; Second Series, 1904);
  6. The Way, the Truth, the Life (1897);
  7. The First Epistle of St. Peter I:1-II:17; the Greek Text, with Introductory Lecture; the Greek Text with Introductory Lecture, Commentary, and Additional Notes (1898);
  8. Cambridge and Other Sermons (1898);
  9. Notes Introductory to the Study of the Clementine Recognitions:  A Course of Lectures (1901);
  10. Miscellanies, Book VII:  The Greek Text (1902);
  11. The Apocalypse of St. John I-III:  The Greek Text with Introduction, Commentary, and Additional Notes (1908); and
  12. The Epistle of St. James:  The Greek Text, with Introduction, Commentary as Far as Chapter IV, Verse 7, and Additional Notes (1909).

CONCLUSION

Perhaps the greatest literary legacy of Westcott and Hort is the Revised Version of the Bible (New Testament, 1881; Old Testament, 1885; Apocrypha, 1894).  The American counterpart was the American Standard Version (1901), predecessor of the Revised Standard Version (New Testament, 1946; Old Testament, 1952; Apocrypha, 1957) and its successors as well as of the New American Standard Bible (New Testament, 1963; Old Testament, 1971; Updated Edition, 1995).  When I hear scripture in church, I hear the New Revised Standard Version (1989).  When I lead a discussion of the lectionary readings during Sunday School, I usually have a copy of the Revised Standard Version–Second Catholic Edition (2002) on hand.

Merci beaucoup, Westcott and Hort!

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

APRIL 12, 2016 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF ALFRED LEE, PRESIDING BISHOP OF THE EPISCOPAL CHURCH

THE FEAST OF SAINT JULIUS I, BISHOP OF ROME

THE FEAST OF WILLIAM SLOANE COFFIN, SOCIAL ACTIVIST

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O God, you have endowed us with memory, reason, and skill.

We thank you for the faithful legacy of [Brooke Foss Westcott, Fenton John Anthony Hort, and all others]

who have dedicated their lives to you and to the intellectual pursuits.

May we, like them, respect your gift of intelligence fully and to your glory.

In the Name of God:  Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.  Amen.

Deuteronomy 6:4-9

Psalm 103

Philippians 4:8-9

Mark 12:28-34

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

MARCH 6, 2013 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF SAINT CHRODEGANG OF METZ, ROMAN CATHOLIC BISHOP

THE FEAST OF EDMUND KING, ANGLICAN BISHOP OF LINCOLN

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