Archive for the ‘Henry IV of the Holy Roman Empire’ Tag

Feast of St. Arialdus of Milan (June 27)   Leave a comment

Above:  Italy Circa 1050

Image in the Public Domain

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SAINT ARIALDUS OF MILAN (DIED IN 1066)

Italian Roman Catholic Deacon and Martyr, 1066

St. Arialdus became a martyr during a controversy over simony and lay investiture.  Our saint, a well-educated deacon in Milan, taught in the cathedral school.  He was a leader of Pataria, the ecclesiastical reform movement that started in 1057 and that continued after this death.  St. Arialdus sided with Pope Alexander II (reigned 1061-1073) against Guido da Valate, the Archbishop of Milan from 1045 to 1071.  Alexander II’s reform agenda included opposing simony, married priests, and lay ordination of priests without the permission of the local bishop ordinary.  Da Valate not only opposed the papal agenda but stirred up violence, too.  St. Arialdus left Milan and went into hiding.  After Alexander II excommunicated the archbishop, da Valate ordered the arrest, incarceration, and execution of St. Arialdus.

Pope Alexander II canonized St. Arialdus in 1067.

After da Valate died in 1071, the dispute over succession resulted in a schism.  Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV (reigned 1056-1106) favored Godfrey.  The Pataria and the pope favored Atto.  Functionally, Godfrey had the job through 1075.  His immediate successor in the archbishopric and in Henry IV’s favor was Tedald (1075-1085).

Pope St. Gregory VII (reigned 1073-1085) continued the struggle with Henry IV.  The Supreme Pontiff excommunicated the emperor in 1076 then absolved him a year later.  Then, in 1080, Henry IV defied St. Gregory VII and facilitated the election of antipope Clement III (1080, 1084-1100).  The emperor seized Rome and forced the Supreme Pontiff into exile.  St. Gregory VII died in Salerno the following year.

Frosty relations between the Holy Roman Emperors and the Bishops of Rome continued, off-and-on, for years.  The Concordat of Worms (September 23, 1122) resolved the dispute.  Emperors retained a role in the selection and consecration of bishops.  Both sides won something, but the pope-emperor struggle continued.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

MAY 19, 2020 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF JACQUES ELLUL, FRENCH REFORMED THEOLOGIAN AND SOCIOLOGIST

THE FEAST OF SAINT CELESTINE V, BISHOP OF ROME

THE FEAST OF SAINT IVO OF KERMARTIN, ROMAN CATHOLIC ATTORNEY, PRIEST, AND ADVOCATE FOR THE POOR

THE FEAST OF GEORG GOTTFRIED MULLER, GERMAN-AMERICAN MORAVIAN MINISTER AND COMPOSER

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Gracious Father, we pray for your holy Catholic Church.

Fill it with all truth, in all truth with all peace.

Where it is corrupt, purify it;

where it is in error, direct it;

where in anything it is amiss, reform it.

Where it is right, strengthen it;

where it is in want, provide for it;

where it is divided, reunite it;

for the sake of Jesus Christ your Son our Savior,

who with you and the Holy Spirit lives and reigns,

one God, now and for ever.  Amen.

Ezekiel 34:1-6, 20-22

Psalm 12:1-7

Acts 22:30-23:10

Matthew 21:12-16

Holy Women, Holy Men:  Celebrating the Saints (2010), 735

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Feast of St. Altman of Passau (August 8)   Leave a comment

Above:  Bavaria, 919-1125

Image in the Public Domain

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SAINT ALTMAN OF PASSAU (CIRCA 1020-1091)

Roman Catholic Bishop of Passau

Also known as Saint Altmann of Passau and Saint Altmanno of Passau

St. Altman, born circa 1020 in Paderborn, Wesphalia, faced strong opposition for advocating for honesty in ecclesiastical matters.  He studied in Paris, became a priest, led the Paderborn cathedral school, and was chaplain to the Holy Roman Emperor Henry III (reigned 1039-1056), as well as a friend of Empress Agnes.  In 1064 our saint was part of a group of pilgrims to the Holy Land.  Sarencens captured the pilgrims, only about half of whom returned to their homes.

In 1065 St. Altman became the Bishop of Passau.  He advocated for aid to and education of the poor, and mentored St. Leopold the Good (1073-1136; feast day = November 15), grandson of Henry III.  St. Altman got into trouble in 1074 by trying to enforce the policies of Pope Gregory VII regarding celibacy and simony; many priests refused to obey.  Three years later our saint’s opposition to lay investiture led to his expulsion by supporters of Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV (reigned 1056-1106).  Subsequently the Pope appointed our saint the apostolic delegate to Germany.  St. Altman was briefly back in Passau in 1081 before a second exile started.  Henry IV deposed our saint as Bishop of Passau in 1085, although St. Altman remained the bishop of that diocese, according to the Church.

St. Altman, who founded monasteries, spent his final years in one of the abbeys he had started.  He died at Gottweig Abbey in 1091.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

JUNE 14, 2018 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF CHARLES AUGUSTUS BRIGGS, U.S. PRESBYTERIAN MINISTER, EPISCOPAL PRIEST, AND ALLEGED HERETIC; AND HIS DAUGHTER, EMILIE GRACE BRIGGS, BIBLICAL SCHOLAR AND “HERETIC’S DAUGHTER”

THE FEAST OF SAINT METHODIUS I OF CONSTANTINOPLE, DEFENDER OF ICONS AND ECUMENICAL PATRIARCH OF CONSTANTINOPLE; AND SAINT JOSEPH THE HYMNOGRAPHER, DEFENDER OF ICONS AND THE “SWEET-VOICED NIGHTINGALE OF THE CHURCH”

THE FEAST OF WILLIAM HIRAM FOULKES, U.S. PRESBYTERIAN MINISTER AND HYMN WRITER

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O God, our heavenly Father, who raised up your faithful servant Saint Altman of Passau

to be a bishop and pastor in your Church and to feed your flock:

Give abundantly to all pastors the gifts of your Holy Spirit,

that they may minister in your household as true servants of Christ

and stewards of your divine mysteries;

through Jesus Christ our Lord, who lives and reigns with

you and the Holy Spirit, one God, for ever and ever.  Amen.

Acts 20:17-35

Psalm 84 or 84:7-11

Ephesians 3:14-21

Matthew 24:42-47

–Adapted from Holy Women, Holy Men:  Celebrating the Saints (2010), 719

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