Archive for the ‘James Lloyd Breck’ Tag

Feast of William White (July 17)   3 comments

Above:  Second Street North from Market Street, with Christ Church, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1800

Engraver = William Russell Birch (1755-1834)

Image Source = Library of Congress

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WILLIAM WHITE (MARCH 24, 1747-JULY 17, 1836)

Presiding Bishop of The Episcopal Church

On the Episcopal calendar of saints July 17 is the Feast of William White, one of the three original bishops (with Samuel Seabury and Samuel Provoost), and the father of the denominational constitution.

White was a man of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.  Eventually he developed a well-earned reputation as the “first citizen” of that city.  He, born there on March 24, 1747, was a son of Esther Hawlings and attorney and surveyor Thomas White.  Our saint graduated from the College of Philadelphia in 1765 then studied theology privately under the tutelage of the priests at Christ Church as well as Provost William Smith of the College of Philadelphia.  White, ordained to the diaconate in England on December 23, 1770, returned to that country for his ordination to the priesthood, April 25, 1772.  The following year our saint married Mary Harrison.  The couple had eight children.

White balanced overlapping ecclesiastical portfolios from the 1770s until his death in 1836.  He, for a time during  the Revolutionary War the only Anglican priest in Pennsylvania, due to the expulsion of Loyalist clergymen, was the following:

  1. Assistant Priest, Christ Church and St. Peter’s Church, Philadelphia (1772-1779);
  2. Chaplain of the Second Continental Congress (1777-1781);
  3. Rector, Christ Church and St. Peter’s Church, Philadelphia (1779-1836);
  4. Chaplain of the Confederation Congress (1781-1788);
  5. Bishop of Pennsylvania (1787-1836);
  6. Chaplain of the U.S. Senate (1789-1800); and
  7. Presiding Bishop of The Episcopal Church (1789, 1795-1836).

Meanwhile, White also served as a trustee of the College of Philadelphia and the University of the State of Pennsylvania (until 1791) as well as the merged University of Pennsylvania (1791f).

Above:  Christ Church, Philadelphia, 1814

Engraver = James Peller Malcolm (1767-1815)

Image Source = Library of Congress

From 1782 to 1789 White made an effective case for a national “Protestant Episcopal Church” separate from The Church of England.  He presided over the first three General Conventions (1785, 1786, and 1789), helped to write the Proposed Book of Common Prayer of 1786 (never adopted), and sought to reconcile factions and unite them into one denomination.  Samuel Seabury, from 1784 the Bishop of Connecticut, was an old Loyalist.  Samuel Provoost and White, from 1787 the Bishops of New York and Pennsylvania, respectively, had been rebels.  Provoost and Seabury were not on writing or speaking terms with each other for a while.  There were also regional and theological-liturgical differences; the churches from Virginia to New York disagreed with those of the South and New England with regard to the proper roles of bishops and lay members.  Delegates to the General Convention of 1789, with White presiding, forged a constitution and produced The Book of Common Prayer (1789), in use for 103 years.

Above:  William White

An image from July 19, 1838

Image Source = Library of Congress

White was influential in other ways too.  Our saint taught theology to John Henry Hobart (1775-1830) in 1797-1798 and ordained him a deacon (1798) and a priest (1800).  Hobart, from 1816 to 1830 the Bishop of New York, was also a towering figure in The Episcopal Church.  Over the decades White had various assistants.  One of these, from 1811 to 1831, was Jackson Kemper (1789-1870), a protégé of Hobart and the first missionary bishop (consecrated in 1835) in The Episcopal Church.  Another circle of influence radiated from Kemper.  One member of that circle was James Lloyd Breck (1818-1876)William Augustus Muhlenberg (1796-1877) assisted White from 1817 to 1822.  Muhlenberg became influential in The Episcopal Church by, among other legacies, encouraging the use of flowers, the singing of hymns, and the founding of ecclesiastical institutions to provide social services.  He and Anne Ayres (1816-1896) founded the Sisterhood of the Holy Communion (1845), the first Anglican religious community for women in North America.

White, unlike Muhlenberg, preferred traditional metrical Psalms to hymns, which were new in The Episcopal Church in the 1800s.  The bishop considered hymns too Evangelical and prone to enthusiasm, which he described as

animal sensibility.

White, aged 89 years, died in Philadelphia, on July 17, 1836.  His direct and indirect influences on The Episcopal Church have never ceased to exist, however.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

MAY 19, 2018 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF JACQUES ELLUL, FRENCH REFORMED THEOLOGIAN AND SOCIOLOGIST

THE FEAST OF SAINT CELESTINE V, BISHOP OF ROME

THE FEAST OF SAINT DUNSTAN OF CANTERBURY, ABBOT OF GLASTONBURY AND ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY

THE FEAST OF SAINT IVO OF KERMARTIN, ROMAN CATHOLIC ATTORNEY, PRIEST, AND ADVOCATE FOR THE POOR

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O Lord, in a time of turmoil and confusion you raised up your servant William White,

and endowed him with wisdom, patience, and a reconciling temper,

that he might lead your Church into ways of stability and peace:

Hear our prayer, and give us wise and faithful leaders,

that through their ministry your people may be blessed and your will be done;

through Jesus Christ our Lord, who lives and reigns with

you and the Holy Spirit, one God, for ever and ever.  Amen.

Jeremiah 3:15-19

Psalm 92:1-4, 11-14

1 Timothy 3:1-10

John 21:15-17

Holy Women, Holy Men:  Celebrating the Saints (2010), 467

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Feast of Enmegahbowh (June 12)   1 comment

Above:  Enmegahbowh

Image in the Public Domain

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ENMEGAHBOWH (1807/1813-JUNE 11/12, 1902)

Episcopal Priest and Missionary to the Ojibwa Nation

Also known as John Johnson

One route to a calendar of saints is to be the first person to do something.  Thus we come to case of Enmegahbowh, the first Native American to become an Episcopal priest, in 1867.  He was not, however, the first Native American to become a priest in the Anglican Communion; that man was Sakachuwescum, also known as Henry Budd, a Canadian Cree, in 1850.

Enmegahbowh, literally “the One who Stands Before his People,” was also from Canada.  He, born at Rice Lake, Ontario, in 1807 or 1813 (depending on the official Episcopal Church resource one consults), was Odawa (Ottawa)-Ojibwa/Chippewa.  He grew up a Christian, and a Methodist minister baptized him as John Johnson.  In 1832 our saint, then a Methodist missionary, arrived in the United States.  Eventually he attempted to return to Canada, but a storm on Lake Superior and a vision of Jonah stopped him.

Enmegahbowh became an Episcopalian in time, after receiving a copy of The Book of Common Prayer prior to 1850.  Eventually me met James Lloyd Breck, with whom he founded St. Columba’s Mission, Gull Lake, Minnesota.  Enmegahbown was a peacemaker.  The way he pursued that calling made him persona non grata among many Ojibwa/Chippewa for a time, but he did facilitate peace between the Dakota and the Ojibwa/Chippewa, in 1869.  Our saint, a missionary to the Ojibwa/Chippewa, became an Episcopal deacon (by the hands of Bishop Jackson Kemper) in 1859 then a priest (by the hands of Bishop Henry Benjamin Whipple of Minnesota) in 1867.  Enmegahbowh ministered at the White Earth Reservation in Minnesota until his death on June 11 or 12 (depending on the official Episcopal Church resource one consults), 1902.

Certainly part of Enmegahbowh’s legacy is the active presence of The Episcopal Church among indigenous peoples in Minnesota.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

JANUARY 23, 2018 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF SAINT JOHN THE ALMSGIVER, ROMAN CATHOLIC PATRIACH OF ALEXANDRIA

THE FEAST OF CASPAR NEUMANN, GERMAN LUTHERAN MINISTER AND HYMN WRITER

THE FEAST OF PHILLIPS BROOKS, EPISCOPAL BISHOP OF MASSACHUSETTS

THE FEAST OF THOMAS A. DOOLEY, PHYSICIAN AND HUMANITARIAN

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Almighty God, you led your pilgrim people of old with fire and cloud:

Grant that the ministers of your Church, following the example of blessed Enmegahbowh,

may stand before your holy people, leading them with fiery zeal and gentle humility.

This we ask through Jesus, the Christ, who lives and reigns with

you in the unity of the Holy Spirit, one God now and for ever.  Amen.

Isaiah 52:7-10

Psalm 129

1 Peter 5:1-4

Luke 6:17-23

Holy Women, Holy Men:  Celebrating the Saints (2010), page 423

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Feast of Jackson Kemper (May 24)   2 comments

Above:  Jackson Kemper, 1855

Image Source = Library of Congress

Reproduction Number = LC-DIG-cwpbh-01884

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JACKSON KEMPER (DECEMBER 24, 1789-MAY 24, 1870)

Episcopal Missionary Bishop

Jackson Kemper was the first missionary bishop in The Episcopal Church.  He held various titles during his ministerial career.  Perhaps the most appropriate one was “Bishop of All Outdoors,” which he applied to himself.  Also apt was “The Bishop of the Whole Northwest,” given his importance to The Episcopal Church in the Old Northwest of the United States.

Kemper, who spent most of his life in the Midwest and the Old Northwest, came from the East.  He, born on February 24, 1789, hailed from Pleasant Valley, New York.  He studied at Columbia College, where John Henry Hobart (1775-1830), who became the Bishop of New York in 1816, became his mentor.  Kemper, who graduated in 1809, joined the ranks of Episcopal deacons two years later and became a priest in 1814.  From 1811 to 1831 he was one of the assistants serving under William White (1747-1836).  White was a major figure in The Episcopal Church.  He was an assistant priest at Christ Church, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (1772-1779); the Rector of Christ Church, Philadelphia (1779-1836); the Chaplain of the Second Continental Congress (1777-1781); the Chaplain of the Confederation Congress (1781-1788); the Chaplain of the United States Senate (1789-1800); the Bishop of Pennsylvania (1787-1836); and the Presiding Bishop of The Episcopal Church (1789 and 1795-1836).  Kemper was White’s agent in western Pennsylvania, traveling in the wilds on behalf of the Diocese of Pennsylvania and the new Society for the Advancement of Christianity in Pennsylvania while keeping track of Episcopal Church work on the frontier of that state.  He also traveled into western Virginia (now West Virginia) and Ohio in that capacity.  Kemper convinced the 78-year-old White to embark on a 800-mile long journey into western Pennsylvania, to pay pastoral visits in 1826.

Kemper was also a pioneer in the Sunday School movement in the United States.  In 1814 he and another assistant, James Milnor, founded a Sunday school immediately north of Philadelphia.  This was the first Sunday school in The Episcopal Church and the United States.

Kemper left the Diocese of Pennsylvania in 1831.  For four years he was the Rector of St. Paul’s Church, Norwalk, Connecticut.

On September 25, 1835, Kemper acquired another title and a different set of responsibilities when he became the Bishop of Missouri and Indiana.  He, a high churchman, became the first missionary bishop in The Episcopal Church.  In 1836, at St. Louis, Missouri, our saint founded a college for training priests.  Kemper College, as friends called it contrary to his wishes, struggled financially due to the Panic of 1837 and closed in 1845.  Despite his title, Kemper’s work extended far beyond Missouri and Indian.  In 1837 and 1838 he and Bishop James Harvey Otey of Tennessee visited Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, and Florida.

The Diocese of Georgia, organized with three parishes (Christ Church, Savannah; Christ Church, Frederica, St. Simon’s Island; and St. Paul’s, Augusta) in 1823, did not have its own bishop until 1841.  By that time the diocese had grown to six congregations.  The newer churches were Christ Church, Macon; Trinity Church, Columbus; and Grace Church, Clarkesville.  On March 25, 1838, Kemper dedicated the new edifice of Christ Church, Macon, and conducted the first confirmation service in Middle Georgia.  On June 3 of that year our saint dedicated the new building of Trinity Church, Columbus.

The territorial range of Kemper’s episcopal jurisdiction expanded and contracted over time.  After 1838, for example, our saint was also responsible for Iowa and Wisconsin, but Bishop Leonidas Polk’s new territory covered parts of the South.  Over time Kemper became responsible for Kansas, Nebraska, and Minnesota, also.  Along the way new dioceses elected their bishops.  He visited the East to recruit missionary priests and raise funds.  Two of his recruits were John Henry Hopkins, Jr., and James Lloyd Breck (1818-1876), “The Apostle of the Wilderness.”  These men were some of the founders of St. John-in-the-Wilderness Church, Waukesha, Wisconsin, in 1841, and Nashotah House, Nashotah, Wisconsin, the following year.  Kemper also founded Racine College, Racine, Wisconsin, in 1852.

Kemper’s legacy was impressive.  It included seven dioceses–Missouri (1840), Indiana (1841), Wisconsin (1847), Iowa (1853), Minnesota (1857), Kansas (1859), and Nebraska (1868).  From 1859 until his death in 1870 Kemper was simply the Bishop of Wisconsin.  His legacy also included ministry to indigenous people.  Our saint, an advocate of such work, helped to found a mission to Native Americans in Minnesota, in 1859.

Kemper, aged 80 years, died at Nashotah, Wisconsin, on May 24, 1870.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

NOVEMBER 22, 2017 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF ROBERT SEAGRAVE, ANGLICAN PRIEST AND HYMN WRITER

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Lord God, in your providence Jackson Kemper was chosen first missionary bishop in this land,

and by his arduous labor and travel congregations were established in scattered settlements of the West:

Grant that the Church may always be faithful to its mission,

and have the vision, courage, and perseverance to make known to all people the Good News of Jesus Christ;

who with you and the Holy Spirit lives and reigns, one God, for ever and ever.  Amen.

Exodus 15:22-25

Psalm 67

1 Corinthians 3:8-11

Matthew 28:16-20

Holy Women, Holy Men:  Celebrating the Saints (2010), page 385

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Feast of James Lloyd Breck (April 2)   3 comments

James Lloyd Breck

Above:  James Lloyd Breck

Image in the Public Domain

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JAMES LLOYD BRECK (JUNE 27, 1818-APRIL 2, 1876)

“The Apostle of the Wilderness”

James Lloyd Breck did more to expand the Church in  34 years than did most church members do in more time than that.

Breck was a native of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.  The fourth of six children of George Breck (1785-1869) and Catherine Douce Israel Breck (1789-1864) attended the Flushing Institute, which William Augustus Muhlenberg (1796-1877) had founded.  At that school the sixteen-year-old Breck resolved to become a missionary.  Our saint continued his studies at the University of Pennsylvania (B.A., 1838), and the General Theological Seminary, New York (1838-1841).

Breck, a deacon when 1842 dawned, became a priest by the end of the year.  The newly-minted clergyman went west to Wisconsin, where he, with three former classmates from seminary, founded Nashotah House as a monastic community, missions headquarters, and seminary.

After a few years Breck left for a new mission field–Minnesota.  There he served as a military chaplain, founded congregations and schools, and started missionary work among the Ojibwa and the Chippewa, laying the foundations for the education of indigenous priests.  On August 11, 1855, Breck married Jane Maria Mills (1823-1862), a teacher among the Ojibwa.  They had two children–William Augustus Muhlenberg Breck (1856-1920), who became an Episcopal priest, and Charles Renwick Breck (born in 1858).  His congregation at Faribault, Minnesota, became the Cathedral of Our Merciful Saviour, the first cathedral in The Episcopal Church.  At Faribault our saint founded Seabury Divinity Hall, now part of the Bexley-Seabury Federation.  In 1864 Breck married his second wife, Sarah E. Styles (1819-1877).

Breck’s final mission field was California, where he and a group of missionaries arrived in 1867.  Our saint settled in Benicia, founded five parishes, and established two schools.  He died at Benicia on April 2, 1876, after an illness about a week in duration.

Archive.org offers two biographies of Breck:

  1. The Life of James Lloyd Breck, D.D., Chiefly from Letters Written by Himself (1883), compiled by his older brother, Charles Breck, D.D. (1816-1891); and
  2. An Apostle of the Wilderness:  James Lloyd Breck, D.D., His Missions and His Schools (1903), by Theodore I. Holcombe.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

DECEMBER 17, 2015 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF MARY CORNELIA BISHOP GATES, U.S. DUTCH REFORMED HYMN WRITER

THE FEAST OF FRANK MASON NORTH, U.S. METHODIST MINISTER

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Teach your Church, O Lord, we pray, to value and support

pioneering and courageous missionaries, whom you call,

as you called your servant James Lloyd Breck,

to preach, and teach, and plant your Church on new frontiers;

through Jesus Christ our Lord, who lives and reigns

with you and the Holy Spirit, one God, for ever and ever.  Amen.

Joshua 24:14-18

Psalm 145:1-7

1 Corinthians 3:4-11

Mark 4:26-32

Holy Women, Holy Men:  Celebrating the Saints (2010), page 303

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