Archive for the ‘Kalmar Union’ Tag

Feast of Christian X of Denmark and Haakon VII of Norway (April 20)   1 comment

Above:  The Coat of Arms of the House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glucksburg

Image in the Public Domain

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CHRISTIAN X OF DENMARK (SEPTEMBER 26, 1870-APRIL 20, 1947)

King of Denmark and Iceland

Born Christian Carl Frederik Albert Alexander Vilhelm Glucksburg

brother of

HAAKON VII OF NORWAY (AUGUST 3, 1872-SEPTEMBER 21, 1957)

King of Norway

Born Christian Frederik Carl Georg Valdemar Axel Glucksburg

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RESISTERS OF NAZISM

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Christian X and Haakon VII led their populations in opposing Nazi occupation.

In 1863 the Danish throne passed to the House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glucksburg.  The new monarch, Christian IX (reigned 1863-1906), eventually became the “Father-in-Law of Europe,” rivaling Queen Victoria (reigned 1837-1901) for the number of royal relatives.  Christian IX’s adolescent son, Frederick, became the Crown Prince of Denmark and, as an elderly man, King Frederick VIII (reigned 1906-1912).

The future Frederick VIII and his wife, Louise of Sweden (1851-1926), daughter of King Carl XV (reigned 1859-1872) and Queen Louise of Sweden, raised eight children, including two kings.  Frederick was a loving father, but his wife was, according to her nieces and nephews, the “Despot.”  Louise was a humorless and Pietistic Lutheran (a “Sad Dane”) obsessed with sin.  Her definition of sin included sleeping on a soft mattress and eating food that was not plain.  On the other hand, Louise taught her children a Bible verse every day and instructed them in memorizing hymns.  The children suffered under the “Despot,” who transformed the future Christian X into a distant, tyrannical father.

Both future kings received military training and served as officers.  According to their father’s insistence, they did not receive any special treatment.  Christian joined the army and rose to the rank of Major General before succeeding his father in 1912.  Carl became a navy man, starting as a cadet at the age of 14 years.

The future kings entered into wedded life.  Carl married Maud, daughter of the future King Edward VII of Great Britain and Ireland (reigned 1901-1910) and Queen Alexandra (daughter of King Christian IX of Denmark and Queen Louise of Hesse-Cassel) at Buckingham Palace, London, on September 22, 1896.  Maud gave birth to a son, Alexander (1903-1991).  Christian married Princess Alexandrine of Mecklenburg-Schwein at Cannes, France, on April 26, 1898.  Their sons were Frederick (1899-1972) and Knud (1900-1976).

Norway regained its independence in 1905.  The Kingdoms of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden had become united via a series of royal unions, culminating in the formation of the Kalmar Union (1397-1523).  The last Norwegian-born King of Norway had been Olav IV (reigned 1380-1387), who had previously become the King of Denmark.  Sweden had broken away from the Scandinavian monarchical union in 1523, leaving Norway united with Denmark.  Then, after the Napoleonic Wars, Norway had become attached to Sweden.  In 1905, with the restoration of Norwegian independence, sought a monarch.  Prince Carl of Denmark accepted the invitation.  He became Haakon VII and his son, Alexander, became Crown Prince Olav.  Haakon VII was a conscientious monarch in perhaps the most democratic–even democratic socialist–society in Europe.  The King, interested in public and cultural life, never even tried to interfere with government ministers.  The royal family, true to the upbringing of the monarch, lived simply.

Crown Prince Christian became King Christian X in 1912.  He was also a constitutional monarch, although the constitution, as it existed in 1920, permitted him some powers.  In 1920, between parliamentary elections, Prime Minister Theodore Carl Zahle, in office since 1913, lost his majority in the Riksdag.  The monarch invoked his constitutional powers to ask Zahle to resign.  The Prime Minister refused, so Christian X dismissed him.  These actions, allegedly a royal coup, according to certain critics, were within constitutional bounds.  Many Radicals and Socialists threatened a general strike.  Some even spoke briefly of abolishing the monarchy and transforming Denmark into a republic.  The Easter Crisis of 1920 ended in compromise; a caretaker government took office and new elections ensued.  Never again did Christian X intervene in government.

Christian X’s attitude toward his family began to soften in the 1930s.  His daughter-in-law, Crown Prince Ingrid (originally of Sweden), did not shy away from standing up to him.  Many liked and respected her and improved his relationship with her and his sons.  Related to that mellowing was the changing nature of Christian X’s relationship to the people.  He started riding a horse without police escort through Copenhagen every morning.

Germany invaded Denmark in 1940.  Christian X continued to ride a horse through the capital city, with the public as his body guards, until a horse threw him on October 19, 1942.  He spent the rest of his life in a wheel chair and made few public appearances.

A frequently repeated story tells us that Christian X wore the Star of David, in solidarity with Danish Jews.  However, John Van der Kiste, author of Northern Crowns:  The Kings of Modern Scandinavia (1996) and other books about royalty, cites Queen Margrethe II, granddaughter of Christian X, in refuting the story.  Van der Kiste writes that the Nazi occupiers never required Danish Jews to wear the Star of David.  According to Queen Margrethe II, via Van der Kiste, the origin of that popular story was an errand boy in Copenhagen.  This errand boy seems to have remarked,

…if they try to enforce the yellow star here, the King will be first to wear it.

–Page 116

He would have, indeed.

Christian X, King of Denmark from 1912 to 1947 and King of Iceland from 1918 to 1944, died, aged 76 years, on April 20, 1947.  Crown Prince Frederick became King Frederick IX (reigned 1947-1972).

Haakon VII led the Norwegian government-in-exile from England from 1940 to 1944.  He and Crown Prince Olav fled to the homeland of the late Queen Maud (died in 1938) when Nazi forces invaded Norway in 1940.  Crown Princess Martha and her children, in Stockholm at the time, accepted President Franklin Delano Roosevelt‘s invitation to come to the United States.  In Norway the monogram “H7” became the symbol of the resistance.  In 1945, when the royal family returned to Norway, Haakon VII was a national hero.

The aged monarch soldiered on for about a decade before a fall in his bathroom broke his thighbone and made him an invalid.  He died of heart failure at 4:35 a.m., on September 21, 1957.  Haakon VII was 85 years old.  Crown Prince Olav became King Olav V (reigned 1957-1991).

Christian X and Haakon VII were decent and honorable men who opposed tyranny.  They, as constitutional monarchs, were symbols–symbols who grasped the full power of symbolism and used it for positive purposes.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

JULY 12, 2017 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF DESIDERIUS ERASMUS, ROMAN CATHOLIC THEOLOGIAN

THE FEAST OF JOHN GUALBERT, FOUNDER OF THE VALLOMBROSAN BENEDICTINES

THE FEAST OF JOHANNES RENATUS VERBEEK, MORAVIAN MINISTER AND COMPOSER

THE FEAST OF PETER RICKSECKER, U.S. MORAVIAN MINISTER, MISSIONARY, MUSICIAN, MUSIC EDUCATOR, AND COMPOSER; STUDENT OF JOHANN CHRISTIAN BECHLER, MORAVIAN MINISTER, MUSICIAN, MUSIC EDUCATOR, AND COMPOSER; FATHER OF JULIUS THEODORE BECHLER, U.S. MORAVIAN MINISTER, MUSICIAN, EDUCATOR, AND COMPOSER

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Holy and righteous God, you created us in your image.

Grant us grace to contend fearlessly against evil and to make no peace with oppression.

Help us, like your servants Christian X of Denmark and Haakon VII of Norway,

to work for justice among people and nations, to the glory of your name,

through Jesus Christ, our Savior and Lord, who lives and reigns

with you and the Holy Spirit, one God, now and forever.  Amen.

Hosea 2:18-23

Psalm 94:1-15

Romans 12:9-21

Luke 6:20-36

–Adapted from Evangelical Lutheran Worship (2006), page 60

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Feast of Olavus and Laurentius Petri (April 19)   2 comments

Sweden 1550

Above:  Map of Sweden and Its Environs, 1550

Image in the Public Domain

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OLAVUS PETRI (JANUARY 6, 1493-APRIL 19, 1552)

Swedish Lutheran Theologian, Historian, Liturgist, Minister, Hymn Writer, Hymn Translator, Dramatist, Bible Translator, and “Father of Swedish Literature”

Also known as Olaus Petri, Olof Persson, and Olof Pettersson

brother of

LAURENTIUS PETRI (1499-OCTOBER 27, 1573)

Swedish Lutheran Archbishop of Uppsala, Bible Translator, and “Father of Swedish Hymnody”

Also known as Lars Persson

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The Great Man (and Woman) Theory is my favorite approach to history.  This Ecumenical Calendar of Saints’ Days and Holy Days is, in fact, an exercise in the study of great men and women, famous, obscure, and between those two poles.  The Petri brothers, whose lives and labors overlapped, belong on such a catalogue of holy people.  Evangelical Lutheran Worship (2006), the service book-hymnal of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (ELCA) and the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Canada (ELCIC), lists the Petris as “renewers of the church.”  I agree with that assessment while concluding that the pithy label is inadequate.

Olof and Lars Persson were natives of Orebro, Sweden, and sons of a blacksmith.  Our saints learned to, among other things, read and write from Carmelite monks and became monks themselves.  The order sent young Olof, known in Latin as Olavus (or Olaus) Petri, to study at Wittenberg, Germany, in 1516.  There he lived in the home of Martin Luther, one of his professors.  Both Petri brothers studied in that city, where they learned from Luther as well as Philipp Melancthon.  The brothers returned to Sweden in 1518, with their heads full of Lutheran theology.

At the time Sweden was (A) officially Roman Catholic and (B) part of the Kalmar Union with Denmark and Norway.  (Interdynastic marriages had led to the union of the three crowns in 1389.)  The union of Denmark and Norway proved to be durable, ending only in 1814, due to the politics of the Napoleonic Wars.  The political situation in Sweden, which included Finland at the time, was different, however.  Separation from Denmark and Norway was final in 1523, with the coronation of Gustav I Vasa (reigned 1523-1560) as the King of Sweden after a war of liberation.

Also active in the war of liberation was Laurentius Andreae, also known as Lars Andersson (circa 1470-1552), who aided Gustav Vasa during the war of liberation then crowned him in 1523.  Andreae had studied in Skara and Uppsala before pursuing a Master’s degree at Rostock, Germany, and studying canon law in Rome.  By 1520 he had become the archdeacon of the Diocese of Strangnas.  On November 8 of that year King Christian II of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden (reigned 1513-1523) ordered the execution of about 100 people in Stockholm.  Among the victims of the Stockholm Bloodbath, as it went down in history, was Bishop Mattias, Andreae’s superior.  Andreae  administrator of the diocese after that event.  He, the political engineer of the Swedish Reformation, served as the Vasa’s secretary (chief advisor) and a member of the council of state.

Andreae and the Petri brothers were leaders of the Swedish Reformation.  The Petris preached that Reformation, converting most of the population.  Olavus, whom Bishop Mattias had ordained to the diaconate, served as the secretary of the Stockholm city council for a time.  From 1531 to 1539 he was the chancellor of the realm, until Vasa removed him from that post.  Olavus had a strong personality and a mind of his own.  These were hazardous characteristics in the presence of Vasa, who charged Olavus and Andreae with treason and sentenced them to death in 1540.  The monarch pardoned and fined them two years later, but their political careers were over.  These two men locked horns with Vasa, who had favored Lutheranism for years but got around to making it mandatory in 1540.  They also liked Lutheranism yet opposed the monarch’s methods of religious reform.

Olavus, a priest since 1539, was the foremost theologian in Sweden.  He spent his final years (1542-1552) as pastor of the Storkyrkan (Great Church) of Stockholm and the first Lutheran minister in the city.

Olavus was the main author of the Swedish Reformation, with some help from his brother Laurentius and from Laurentius Andreae.  The three men collaborated on the project to translate the Bible into Swedish (New Testament, 1526; Old Testament, 1541).  Olavus prepared and published the first Swedish hymnal, Swedish Hymns and Songs (1526), containing probably 8 to 12 hymns.  He revised and expanded the hymnal in 1530 and 1536, increasing its contents to 46 hymns and an appendix containing songs about the Antichrist, in 1536.  Olavus’s books of sermons (1528 and 1530) proved influential in the Lutheran evangelization of Sweden also.

Olavus was an influential liturgist.  He published the first Swedish service book in 1529.  His was a conservative revision, retaining many Roman Catholic customs yet dropping, for example, the blessing from salt at baptism and omitting the rites for blessing food and candles.  He revised the service book in 1533 and 1537.  His brother Laurentius revised it in 1541, 1548, and 1557.  In 1531 Olavus published the Swedish-language order of the Mass, creating a participatory service for the congregation (a break with tradition) and rewriting the Eucharistic canon to remove any reference to the Mass as a sacrifice (another break with tradition).  It was appropriate that Olavus worked on that project, for the day of his wedding (February 11, 1525) was probably the occasion of the first vernacular Mass in Sweden.

[Aside:  I found a detailed explanation of Olavus’s Eucharistic theology and the Petris’ liturgical revisions in Frank C. Senn, Christian Liturgy:  Catholic and Evangelical (Minneapolis, MN:  Fortress Press, 1997), pages 403-418 and 467-470.  I refer you, O reader, to that text.]

Olavus was the “Father of Swedish Literature.”  Prior to 1526 fewer than ten published titles in the Swedish language existed.  Aside from the books I have written of already, Olavus’s catalogue of Swedish-language publications included Tobiae comedia (the first drama in Swedish) and the influential Chronicle, a work of Swedish history.  He also composed and translated hymns.  I have found a few of his hymns in English translations and added most of those to my GATHERED PRAYERS weblog.  There was one hymn I found online but not in any of my old hymnals, so I have provided a link to “Thou, Jesus Christ, Didst Man Become.”

Laurentius Petri was able to maintain a better relationship with Vasa than his brother Olavus did, and for a longer period of time.  Laurentius, formerly professor of theology at the University of Uppsala, became the first Lutheran Archbishop of Uppsala in 1531.  He died in office on October 27, 1573.  Laurentius proved crucial in maintaining Apostolic Succession in Sweden, for Vasa preferred to govern The Church of Sweden via superintendents while leaving bishoprics vacant.  Laurentius was able, eventually, via the church order of 1571, to help separate the Church from royal control.

Although Olavus edited the first three Swedish hymnals (1526, 1530, 1536), Laurentius became the “Father of Swedish Hymnody.”  He composed hymns, none of which I have found in English translations.  Laurentius also edited four editions (1543, 1549, 1567, and 1572) of The Swedish Psalm Book.

The Petri brothers were giants in The Church of Sweden.  Their influence has never ceased to be evident in Swedish Lutheranism, from hymns to living legacies in theological thought and liturgical practice.  They were indeed great men.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

JANUARY 13, 2016 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF SAINT MARGUERITE BOURGEOYS, FOUNDER OF THE SISTERS OF NOTRE DAME

THE FEAST OF CHRISTIAN KEIMANN, GERMAN LUTHERAN HYMN WRITER

THE FEAST OF SAINT HILARY OF POITIERS, ROMAN CATHOLIC BISHOP

THE FEAST OF SAINT KENTIGERN (MUNGO), ROMAN CATHOLIC BISHOP OF GLASGOW

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Holy God, whose majesty surpasses all human definitions and capacity to grasp,

thank you for those (especially Olavus Petri and Laurentius Petri)

who have nurtured and encouraged the reverent worship of you.

May their work inspire us to worship you in knowledge, truth, and beauty.

In the Name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit.  Amen.

1 Chronicles 25:1-8

Psalm 145

Revelation 15:1-4

John 4:19-26

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

NOVEMBER 27, 2012 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF SAINT JAMES INTERCISUS, ROMAN CATHOLIC MARTYR

THE FEAST OF HENRY SLOANE COFFIN, U.S. PRESBYTERIAN THEOLOGIAN

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