Archive for the ‘Sewanee Canon’ Tag

Feast of Alexander Crummell (September 10)   2 comments

Above:  Alexander Crummell

Image in the Public Domain

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

ALEXANDER CRUMMELL (MARCH 3, 1819-SEPTEMBER 10, 1898)

U.S. African-American Episcopal Priest, Missionary, and Moral Philosopher

++++++++++++++++++++++++

The hand of God is on the black man, in all the lands of his distant sojourn, for the good of Africa.

–Alexander Crummell

++++++++++++++++++++++++

September 10 is the Feast of Alexander Crummell in The Episcopal Church.

Crummell, who lived during a time of slavery then de jure segregation, contended with racism throughout his life.  He, born in New York, New York, on March 3, 1819, was a child of abolitionists Charity Hicks (born free) and Boston Crummell (a former slave).  Our saint, a well-educated person and a recognized intellectual by 1840, when he was 21 years old, could not matriculate at The General Theological Seminary, Manhattan, because of the color of his skin.  Nevertheless, he successfully prepared for the priesthood and, in 1844, became a priest in the Diocese of Massachusetts.  Yet, due to official racism, Crummell could not participate in diocesan conventions.

Crummell spent 1848-1853 in England, studying moral philosophy at Queen’s College, Cambridge, and earning a B.A. degree.  Our saint, well grounded in Western philosophy, incorporated the concepts of natural rights and intergenerational responsibility into his moral philosophy.  Stephen Thompson has written a summary of that moral philosophy at The Standford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.

Except for visits to the United States of America, mainly to encourage African-American immigration to Africa, Crummell lived and worked in Liberia from 1853 to 1872.  There he was Professor of Moral Philosophy at Liberia College.  He hoped to build a Christian republic, with The Episcopal Church as the national church.  Liberian politics dashed Crummell’s hopes, though, and he returned to the United States.

Crummell, back in the United States, had much work to do.  He became the Rector of St. Mary’s Chapel for Colored People, Washington, D.C.  In 1875 he founded St. Luke’s Episcopal Church, Washington, D.C., the oldest African-American Episcopal parish in the national capital city.  Our saint retired in 1894.

Crummell founded the Convocation of Colored Clergy, a predecessor of the Union of Black Episcopalians, to oppose the proposed “Sewanee Canon” at the General Convention of 1883.  Some Southern bishops and other churchmen wanted to segregate the Church further by creating a non-geographical diocese for African Americans.  This was not a unique idea; other denominations took similar actions.  The Methodist Episcopal Church, South, spun off the Colored (now Christian) Methodist Episcopal Church in 1870.  The Methodist Church (1939-1968) had its non-geographical Central Jurisdiction, as well as five geographical jurisdictions.  The (Southern) Presbyterian Church in the United States (1861-1983) spun off the African-American Presbyterian Church in 1898 then reabsorbed it as the Snedecor Memorial Synod, separate from the other synods, usually defined by state boundaries, in 1917.  Although the General Convention defeated the “Sewanee Canon,” many Southern dioceses acted on their own, subsequently curtailing African-American involvement in diocesan conventions.  The usual practice was to create a racially defined convocation, which sent a handful of delegates to the diocesan convention.  In other dioceses, there were no African-American delegates at the diocesan convention.  The Diocese of Georgia, for example, was segregated at the convention level from 1907 to 1947.  The priest and hymn writer F. Bland Tucker (1895-1984), Rector of Christ Church, Savannah, proposed the canon that readmitted African-American delegates to the diocesan convention.

Crummell remained active in retirement.  He taught at Howard University, Washington, D.C., in 1895-1897.  In 1897 he founded and became the first president of the American Negro Academy, Washington, D.C., with W. E. B. DuBois (1868-1963) as one of the vice presidents.  The American Negro Academy disbanded in 1924.

Crummell married twice.  His first wife, whom he wed in 1841, was Sarah Mabitt Elston, who died in 1878.  Our saint married Jennie Simpson in 1880.

Crummell, aged 77 years, died in Red Bank, New Jersey, on September 10, 1898.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

AUGUST 13, 2018 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF JOHN HENRY HOPKINS, JR., EPISCOPAL PRIEST AND HYMNODIST; AND HIS NEPHEW, JOHN HENRY HOPKINS, III, EPISCOPAL PRIEST AND MUSICIAN

THE FEAST OF ELIZABETH PAYSON PRENTISS, U.S. PRESBYTERIAN HYMN WRITER

THE FEAST OF JEREMY TAYLOR, ANGLICAN BISHOP OF DOWN, CONNOR, AND DROMORE

THE FEAST OF JOHN BAJUS, U.S. LUTHERAN MINISTER AND HYMN TRANSLATOR

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

Almighty and everlasting God, we thank you for your servant Alexander Crummell,

whom you called to preach the Gospel to those who were far off and to those who were near.

Raise up in this and every land evangelists and heralds of your kingdom,

that your Church may proclaim the unsearchable riches of our Savior Jesus Christ,

who lives and reigns with you and the Holy Spirit, one God, now and for ever.  Amen.

Sirach (Ecclesiasticus) 2:7-11, 17-18

Psalm 19:7-11

James 1:2-5

Mark 4:1-10, 13-20

Holy Women, Holy Men:  Celebrating the Saints (2010), 573

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++