Archive for the ‘St. Alcuin of York’ Tag

Feast of St. Paulinus II of Aquileia (January 11)   Leave a comment

Above:  St. Paulinus II of Aquileia

Image in the Public Domain

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SAINT PAULINUS II OF AQUILEIA (CIRCA 726-JANUARY 11, 802/804)

Roman Catholic Patriarch of Aquileia

Also known as Saint Paulinus of Aquileia

Alternative feast days = January 28, February 9, and March 2

I include “II” in this saint’s name for the sake of accuracy.  The historical record tells of Paulinus I of Aquileia, who served as the first Patriarch of Aquileia from 557 to 571.

St. Paulinus II of Aquileia was a bishop, a scholar, a poet, a missionary, and a defender of theological orthodoxy.  He, born circa 726 in Cividale, when the Lombards ruled that part of the Italian peninsula, received a fine education in pagan and Christian classics.  During the lifetime of St. Paulinus II, the Roman Empire, with its capital at Constantinople, survived in the East.  The dominant power in the West was the Frankish Kingdom/Carolingian Empire, the most famous ruler of which was Charles the Great (Charlemagne, in Latin), who reigned from 768 to 814.  His realm was an antecedent to modern-day nation-states such as France and Germany; his territory ranged from northern Spain into central Europe and into northern Italy.

The patronage of Charlemagne made the career of St. Paulinus II possible.  St. Paulinus II, a priest, was also a scholar of the Bible, theology, and patristics.  He was the kind of man Charlemagne wanted to hire to participate in the Carolingian Renaissance.  From 776 to 786 St. Paulinus II was the Master of Grammar in the court at Aix-en-Chapelle.  Our saint mentored other key figures of the Carolingian Renaissance.  One of these, St. Alcuin of York (c. 735-804), a friend of our saint, guided the rebirth of education in much of the Carolingian Empire.

The final job title of St. Paulinus II was Patriarch of Aquileia.  Charlemagne secured that position for him in 787, after the previous Patriarch had died.  Aquileia was a village on the Adriatic coast of Italy, but the basilica was there and the patriarchate was prestigious.  St. Paulinus II established his headquarters in Cividale instead.  Our saint was active in arguing against Adoptionism, which originated in Spain in the 700s.  The Adoptionist heresy stated that Jesus was the Son of God only because God had adopted him. (Adoptionism has persisted, unfortunately.  I have heard someone affirm it.)  St. Paulinus II also helped Charlemagne’s son, Pepin, King of the Lombards (reigned 781-810).  The Patriarch supported Pepin’s military campaign against the Avars, nomads of Eurasian ancestry who fought both the Carolingian and Roman (Byzantine) Empires.  After Pepin’s forces won, St. Paulinus II oversaw the peaceful conversion of the Avars and many Slavs in what has become Slovenia.  St, Paulinus II also represented Charlemagne to Pope Leo III (in office 795-816).

St. Paulinus II died on January 11, 802 or 804.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

AUGUST 2, 2019 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF GEORG WEISSEL, GERMAN LUTHERAN PASTOR AND HYMN WRITER

THE FEAST OF ANNA BERNADINE DOROTHY HOPPE, U.S. LUTHERAN HYMN WRITER AND TRANSLATOR

THE FEAST OF CHRISTIAN GOTTFRIED GEBHARD, GERMAN MORAVIAN COMPOSER AND MUSIC EDUCATOR

THE FEAST OF JULIAN EYMARD, FOUNDER OF THE PRIESTS OF THE BLESSED SACRAMENT, THE SERVANTS OF THE BLESSED SACRAMENT, AND THE PRIESTS’ EUCHARISTIC LEAGUE; AND ORGANIZER OF THE CONFRATERNITY OF THE BLESSED SACRAMENT

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O God, you have endowed us with memory, reason, and skill.

We thank you for the faithful legacy of [St. Paulinus II and all others]

who have dedicated their lives to you and to the intellectual pursuits.

May we, like them, respect your gift of intelligence fully and to your glory.

In the Name of God:  Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.  Amen.

Deuteronomy 6:4-9

Psalm 103

Philippians 4:8-9

Mark 12:28-34

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

MARCH 6, 2013 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF SAINT CHRODEGANG OF METZ, ROMAN CATHOLIC BISHOP

THE FEAST OF EDMUND KING, ANGLICAN BISHOP OF LINCOLN

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Feast of St. Wastrada and Her Family (July 21)   Leave a comment

Above:  Gaul in 714 C.E.

Image in the Public Domain

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SAINT WASTRADA (DIED CIRCA 760)

mother of

SAINT GREGORY OF UTRECHT (703-776)

Roman Catholic Bishop of Utrecht

His feast transferred from August 25

uncle of 

SAINT ALBERIC OF UTRECHT (DIED AUGUST 21, 784)

Roman Catholic Bishop of Utrecht

His feast transferred from November 14 and August 21

One of my goals is renovating my Ecumenical Calendar of Saints’ Days and Holy Days is to emphasize relationships and influences.  That emphasis is consistent with telling family stories, such as this one.

This family was nobility related to the Carolingian Dynasty.  Alberic and St. Wastrada (d. 760) were a married couple.  After Alberic died St. Wastrada became a nun.  Their son was St. Gregory of Utrecht, born in Trier in 703.  He, educated at the monastery at Pfalzel, met his mentor, the visiting St. Boniface of Mainz (675-754), there in 722.  St. Gregory became the Abbot of St. Martin’s Abbey, Utrecht, a center of missionary activities.  In 754 St. Eoban (feast day = July 7), Bishop of Utrecht for about a year, died, having become a martyr with St. Boniface.  St. Gregory, without formal consecration, served as the Bishop of Utrecht from 754 to 775, until failing health forced him to step down.  He died in 776.  St. Gregory, habitually quick to forgive, served as a mentor to many saints, including St. Ludger (742-809).

The next Bishop of Utrecht was St. Alberic of Utrecht, St. Gregory’s nephew.  St. Alberic, renowned for his great intellect, deep piety, and evangelistic zeal, had been a Benedictine monk in Utrecht and the Prior of the cathedral in that city.  He reorganized the school, evangelized pagan Teutons, and directed the missionary work of St. Ludger in Ostergau.  (St. Ludger had been a student of St. Alcuin of York, a friend of St. Alberic.)  St. Alberic died on August 2, 784.

We know little about St. Wastrada, but we can learn something about her faith by pondering her son and his nephew.  We can know that the direct and indirect influences of St. Wastrada were profound, surviving her for many generations.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

JUNE 10, 2018 COMMON ERA

PROPER 5:  THE THIRD SUNDAY AFTER PENTECOST, YEAR B

THE FEAST OF SAINT JAMES OF NISIBIS, BISHOP; AND SAINT EPHREM OF EDESSA, “THE HARP OF THE HOLY SPIRIT”

THE FEAST OF SAINTS GETULIUS, AMANTIUS, CAERAELIS, AND PRIMITIVUS, MARTYRS AT TIVOLI, 12O; AND SAINT SYMPHOROSA OF TIVOLI, MARTYR

THE FEAST OF SAINT LANDERICUS OF PARIS, ROMAN CATHOLIC BISHOP

THE FEAST OF THOR MARTIN JOHNSON, U.S. MORAVIAN CONDUCTOR AND MUSIC DIRECTOR

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Almighty God, you have surrounded us with a great cloud of witnesses:

Grant that we, encouraged by the good example of your servants

Saint Wastrada,

Saint Gregory of Utrecht, and

Saint Alberic of Utrecht,

may persevere in running the race that is set before us,

until at last we may attain with them to your eternal joy;

through Jesus Christ, the pioneer and perfecter of our faith,

who lives and reigns with you and the Holy Spirit, one God, for ever and ever.  Amen.

Micah 6:6-8

Psalm 15

Hebrews 12:1-2

Matthew 25:31-40

–Adapted from Holy Women, Holy Men:  Celebrating the Saints (2010), 724

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Feast of St. Bede of Jarrow (May 25)   1 comment

Above:  St. Bede of Jarrow

Image in the Public Domain

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SAINT BEDE OF JARROW (672/673-MAY 25, 735)

Roman Catholic Abbot of Jarrow and Father of English History

Also known as Beada, Beda, St. Bede the Venerable, and the Venerable Bede

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My chief delight has always been in study, teaching, and writing.

–St. Bede of Jarrow

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St. Bede of Jarrow, who built on the work of others, laid the foundations upon which successors based their great works.  He, known as “the venerable” since the 800s, left a brief biography of himself.  His surviving writings have revealed much about him, fortunately.

Our saint was, from the age of seven years, a monastic.  He, born in Wearmouth, England, in 672 or 673, became a resident of the Monastery of St. Peter, Wearmouth, when his parents left him there.  The abbot was St. Benedict Biscop (628-689), who became one of St. Bede’s spiritual and educational mentors and guides.  In 682, when Biscop established a second monastery, that of St. Paul, Jarrow, with Coelfrid serving as the abbot, our saint transferred to that abbey and acquired another mentor and guide.  St. Bede remained at Jarrow for the rest of his life and eventually rose to the rank of abbot.  Along the way St. John of Beverley (died in 721) ordained him to the diaconate (at the age of 19 years) then to the priesthood (at the age of 30 years).  Since St. Bede became a deacon six years before the minimum age for the diaconate, according to canons, Coelfrid and St. John of Beverly must have recognized at least one remarkable quality about him.

St. Bede was a life-long scholar.  Invaluable to his work was the great library (almost 300 volumes) of the monastery at Jarrow, gathered by St. Benedict Biscop over time.  St. Bede wrote poetry (lost, unfortunately); treatises (on subjects including mathematics, rhetoric, grammar, astronomy, philosophy, and music); an English-translation (lost, unfortunately) of the Gospel of John; Lives of the Abbots; and the Ecclesiastical History of the English People (731), his historical masterpiece.  His final work, completed immediately prior to his death, was the translation of the Gospel of John.

Just as Coelfrid and St. John of Beverley influenced St. Bede, he mentored others, who made their marks directly and indirectly.  For example, our saint taught one Egbert (died in 766), from 735 the Archbishop of York.  Egbert taught St. Alcuin of York (circa 735-804), the influential liturgist, educator in the Frankish Kingdom, and Abbot of Tours.

Pope Leo XIII canonized St. Bede and declared him a Doctor of the Church in 1899.

St. Bede is the patron saint of lectors.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

DECEMBER 2, 2017 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF CHANNING MOORE WILLIAMS, EPISCOPAL MISSIONARY BISHOP IN CHINA AND JAPAN

THE FEAST OF ALICE FREEMAN PALMER, U.S. EDUCATOR AND HYMN WRITER

THE FEAST OF SAINT BRIOC, ROMAN CATHOLIC ABBOT; AND SAINT TUDWAL, ROMAN CATHOLIC ABBOT AND BISHOP

THE FEAST OF SAINT OSMUND OF SALISBURY, ROMAN CATHOLIC BISHOP

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Almighty God, who has enriched your Church

with the learning and holiness of your servant Bede:

Grant us to find in Scripture and disciplined prayer

the image of your Son our Savior Jesus Christ,

and to fashion our lives according to his likeness,

to the glory of your great Name and benefit of your holy Church;

through the same Christ our Lord.  Amen.

A Great Cloud of Witnesses:  A Calendar of Commemorations (2016)

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Heavenly Father, you called your servant Bede, while still a child,

to devote his life to your service in the disciplines of religion and scholarship:

Grant that as he labored in the Spirit to bring the riches of your truth to his generation,

so we, in our various vocations, may strive to make you known in all the world;

through Jesus Christ our Lord, who lives and reigns with

you and the Holy Spirit, one God, for ever and ever.  Amen.

Wisdom of Solomon 7:15-22

Psalm 78:1-4

1 Corinthians 15:1-8

Matthew 13:47-52

Holy Women, Holy Men:  Celebrating the Saints (2010), page 387

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Feast of Sts. Willibrord and Boniface (November 7)   3 comments

Francia Map

Above:  Map of Francia

Image in the Public Domain

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SAINT WILLIBRORD (658-NOVEMBER 7, 739)

Apostle to the Frisians

Also known as Clement of Echternach

His feast day = November 7

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SAINT BONIFACE OF MAINZ (675-JUNE 5, 754)

Apostle to the Germans

Also known as Winfrid, Wynfrith, and Wynfryth

His feast transferred from June 5

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INTRODUCTION

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Sts. Willibrord and Boniface were missionaries whose stories I can recount most effectively in one post, not two.

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SAINT WILLIBRORD (658-739)

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St. Willibrord, born Clement,  was the Apostle to the Frisians and a relative of St. Alcuin of York (735-804).  St. Willibrord, a Northumbrian native, was son of St. Wilgils/Hilgis of Ripon (feast day = January 31), a convert to Christianity.  St. Wilgils/Hilgis entrusted his son to the Church and became a holy hermit.  Young Clement studied at Ripon Abbey under the tutelage of his mentor, St. Wilfrid of Ripon (634-709), then abbot there and later the Bishop of York, Lichfield, and Hexham, in that order.  Clement became a Benedictine monk and spent twelve years at Rathmalsigi Abbey (in Ireland).  The abbot was St. Egbert of Lindisfarne (639-739).

Frisia was coming under the influence of Francia.  Pepin II, Mayor of the Palace from 680 to 714, requested that St. Egbert send missionaries to Frisia.  The abbot sent twelve monks, including Clement.  Early efforts, headquartered at the court of Pepin II, proved unsuccessful most of the time.  Nevertheless, Clement established a base of operations at Utrecht.  On November 21, 695, Pope St. Sergius I (reigned 687-701) consecrated Clement a bishop and named him Willibrord.

[Aside:  Many of the sources I consulted identified the pontiff erroneously as Sergius III.  J. N. D. Kelly makes clear, however, in The Oxford Dictionary of Popes (1986) that it was Sergius I and that Sergius III reigned from 904 to 911.]

The first stage of the Frisian mission spanned 695-716 and met with much success.  St. Willibrord presided over the building of both a monastery and a cathedral at Utrecht, plus the founding of many congregations.  This frightened chieftain Rabdod, who conquered Frisia in 716 and spent the remaining three years of his life undoing the work of St. Willibrord and his missionaries by destroying all ecclesiastical structures and killing missionaries.  Meanwhile, St. Willibrord and companions attempted (without much success) to evangelize in Denmark.

The Frisian mission resumed in 719.  St. Willibrord and companions, including St. Boniface, who had evangelized in Frisia as early as 716, rebuilt the Church in the region.  St. Willibrord retired to Echternach Abbey, Echternach (now in Luxembourg), which he had founded.  He died at the abbey on November 7, 739.  Veneration of him as a saint began immediately.

St. Willibrord is the patron of convulsions, epilepsy, epileptics, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, and the Archdiocese of Utrecht.  According to a Medieval legend, an epidemic caused the cattle around Echternach Abbey to tremble then die.  Peasants in the region, the legend tells us, invoked St. Willibrord.  As they processed to his shrine, the story states, some of the peasants danced in a manner resembling the convulsions of the cattle, hence some of those patronages.

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SAINT BONIFACE OF MAINZ (675-754)

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St. Boniface of Mainz, born Winfrid and also known as Wynfrith and Wynfryth, assisted St. Willibrord in Frisia before becoming the “Apostle to the Germans.”  Winfrid/Wynfrith/Wynfryth was a native Exeter, in the Kingdom of Wessex, in England.  He, born in 675 and educated at monasteries, faced early opposition from his father to his plan to become a monk.  His father changed his mind eventually, however.  Our saint taught at the school attached to Nursling Abbey.  At the age of 30 years he became a priest.  He also wrote a Latin grammar, a series of riddles, and a treatise on poetry, participated in the Frisian mission, first in 716 then again in 719-722.  In 722 Pope St. Gregory II (reigned 715-731) appointed him to be a missionary bishop (without a diocese) in Germany and named him Boniface.  Ten years later our saint became a missionary archbishop.  He did not receive an appointment to a diocese until 743, when he became the Archbishop of Mainz.  The “Apostle to the Germans” led a successful missionary venture sponsored by Frankish rulers.  His immediate legacy included congregations, abbeys, and three dioceses.

St. Boniface and 52 others became martyrs near Dokkum, Frisia, on June 5, 754, prior to a planned confirmation service.  A band of violent pagans attacked them yet did not kill the Church there.

Our saint is the patron of brewers, Germany, file cutters, tailors, the Diocese of Fulda (in Germany), and the Archdiocese of Saint-Boniface (in Manitoba, Canada).

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CONCLUSION

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We of the Church in 2016 stand on the broad shoulders of saints such as Willibrord and Boniface, who risked much to share the Gospel of Jesus Christ and influenced civilization positively long after their lifespans ended.  We do not know how long-lasting our influences (direct and indirect, as well as positive and negative) will be.  May we strive, by grace, to be the most effective ministers of grace possible.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

AUGUST 3, 2016 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF SAINTS JOANNA, MARY, AND SALOME, WITNESSES TO THE RESURRECTION

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Almighty and everlasting God, we thank you for your servants

St. Willibrord, whom you called to preach the Gospel to the people of Frisia; and

St. Boniface of Mainz, whom you called to preach the Gospel to the people of Frisia and Germany.

Raise up in this and every land evangelists and heralds of your kingdom,

that your Church may proclaim the unsearchable riches of our Savior Jesus Christ;

who lives and reigns with you and the Holy Spirit, one God, now and for ever.  Amen.

Isaiah 52:7-10

Psalm 96 or 96:1-7

Acts 1:1-9

Luke 10:1-9

–Adapted from Holy Women, Holy Men:  Celebrating the Saints (2010), page 716

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Feast of St. Alcuin of York (May 20)   5 comments

Carolingian Empire 843

Above:  The Carolingian Empire, 843

Image in the Public Domain

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SAINT ALCUIN OF YORK (CIRCA 735-MAY 19, 804)

Abbot of Tours

Stating that one stands on the shoulders of giants is accurate is many contexts, including the life and legacy of St. Alcuin of York, a scholar, educator, and theologian.

St. Alcuin, a native of York, Northumbria, entered the world in the 730s.  Sources have proven to be inconsistent regarding the year, with some offering 732 and others stating 735, always with the caveat “circa.”  He attended the cathedral school at York, the most renowned institution of learning in England.  Our saint taught there form 766 to 778, became a Roman Catholic deacon in 770, and served as the headmaster from 778 to 782.

St. Alcuin made his greatest contribution in the Frankish Kingdom/Carolingian Empire.  In 781 he was returning from a visit to Rome when he met King Charles I “the Great,” a.k.a. Charlemagne (reigned 768-814; Holy Roman Emperor, 800-814) at Parma, Italy.  Our saint accepted the monarch’s offer to lead the Palace School at Aix-en-Chapelle.  St. Alcuin made that school the center of learning in the kingdom and organized schools throughout the realm.  He also encouraged the study of secular liberal arts as means of spiritual edification, taught members of the nobility and the royal family, wrote works on education and grammar, and played a crucial role in preserving knowledge and reviving education in Western Europe after the demise of the Western Roman Empire.

St. Alcuin was also an important liturgist.  He revised the liturgy of the Frankish Church, basing his revision on the Georgian and Gelasian sacramentaries.  Our saint also introduced the sung creed into the Frankish liturgy and arranged notive masses for each day of the week.  St. Alcuin’s work led the the Roman Missal and to liturgical uniformity in Roman Catholicism.  He was also responsible for preserving many prayers, including the Collect of Purity:

Almighty God, to you all hearts are open, all desires are known, and from you no secrets are hid:  Cleanse the thoughts of our hearts by the inspiration of your Holy Spirit, that we may perfectly love you, and worthily magnify your holy Name; through Jesus Christ our Lord.  Amen.

The Book of Common Prayer (1979), page 355

Many of St. Alcuin’s written works have survived.  There were, for example, 310 Latin letters, a treasure trove for historians who study the 700s.  He also left theological works (often refutations of heresies), hagiographies, and commentaries on the Bible.  His revision of the Vulgate has not survived, however.

St. Alcuin served as the Abbot of Tours, presiding over Marmoutier Abbey in Alsace, from 796 to 804.  The roles (if any) he played in politics during his final years have been unclear for a long time.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

FEBRUARY 15, 2016 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF THE NEW MARTYRS OF LIBYA, 2015

THE FEAST OF ALEXANDER VIETS GRISWOLD, PRESIDING BISHOP OF THE EPISCOPAL CHURCH

THE FEAST OF FRANCIS HAROLD ROWLEY, NORTHERN BAPTIST MINISTER, HUMANITARIAN, AND HYMN WRITER

THE FEAST OF THOMAS BRAY, ANGLICAN PRIEST

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Almighty God, in a rude and barbarous age you raised up

your deacon Alcuin to rekindle the light of learning:

Illumine our minds, we pray, that amid the uncertainties and confusions

of our own time we may show forth your eternal truth;

through Jesus Christ our Lord, who lives and reigns with you

and the Holy Spirit, one God, for ever and ever.  Amen.

Sirach/Ecclesiasticus 39:1-9

Psalm 37:3-6, 32-33

Titus 2:1-3

Matthew 13:10-16

Holy Women, Holy Men:  Celebrating the Saints (2010), page 379

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