Above: Howard Thurman
Image in the Public Domain
HOWARD WASHINGTON THURMAN (NOVEMBER 18, 1899-APRIL 10, 1981)
U.S. Baptist Minister, Mystic, and Theologian
The religion of Jesus makes the love-ethic central.
–Howard Thurman, Jesus and the Disinherited (1949; 1996 reprint, page 89)
Howard Thurman was an important force for social justice in the United States. Although he was not on the front lines of the civil rights movement, he did produce a theology of reaching beyond fear and hatred that inspired many who were on the front lines.
Thurman, born on November 18, 1899, at Daytona, Florida, was a son of the church. His father was Solomon Thurman (a railroad worker) and his mother was Alice Ambrose Thurman (a domestic worker). Our saint learned much about the Bible from his maternal grandmother, a former slave. Thurman, educated at Florida Baptist Academy, Jacksonville, Florida (1915-1919), then at Morehouse College, Atlanta, Georgia (1919-1923), became a Baptist minister in 1925. His first church as pastor was Zion Baptist Church, Oberlin, Ohio. The following year our saint graduated from Rochester Theological Seminary. Then Thurman continued his education at Oberlin School of Theology and Haverford College. At the latter institution he learned from Rufus Jones (1863-1948), a prominent Quaker philosopher. In 1929 Thurman became both a professor of religion and the director of religious life at both Morehouse and Spelman Colleges, Atlanta. While in Atlanta he married Sue Bailey, in 1932.
From 1932 to 1943 Thurman served on the faculty of Howard University, D.C. He, President Mordecai Johnson, and Dr. Benjamin Mays (the Dean of the School of Religion), provided leadership at that institution and beyond. Thurman’s titles were Chairman of the Committee on Religious Life and Professor of Christian Theology. Our saint worked behind the scenes with many of the early leaders of the civil rights movement. These great men and women included W. E. B. DuBois, A. Philip Randolph, and Mary McLeod Bethune. During a tour of India in 1935 and 1936 Thurman met Mohandas Gandhi and became convinced of the wisdom of applying nonviolence to the struggle for civil rights in the United States. Our saint also expanded his understanding of religious freedom with regard to human freedom and the struggle for it.
Thurman left Howard University in 1943 to co-found the Church for the Fellowship of All Peoples, San Francisco, California, an early example of a multicultural congregation in the United States. His co-pastor was Alfred G. Fisk, who was white. While in San Francisco, Thurman wrote Jesus and the Disinherited (1949), in which he laid the theological foundation for the use of nonviolence in the civil rights movement and portrayed Jesus as one who helped disinherited people as they dealt with oppression. Black Liberation Theology, which James Cone went on to develop, grew out of this volume, a copy of which Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., carried with him.
Our saint left San Francisco in 1953, when he accepted the job as Dean of the Marsh Chapel and Professor of Spiritual Disciplines and Resources at Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts. That year Life magazine described Thurman as one of the twelve greatest preachers of the twentieth century. He applied that rhetorical skill at the Marsh Chapel until 1965, when he retired.
For the rest of his life our saint directed the Howard Thurman Educational Trust.
Thurman died at San Francisco on April 10, 1981. He was 81 years old.
His message of nonviolent resistance to oppression is timeless, however.
KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR
APRIL 8, 2017 COMMON ERA
THE FEAST OF HENRY MELCHIOR MUHLENBERG, PATRIARCH OF AMERICAN LUTHERANISM; HIS GREAT-GRANDSON, WILLIAM AUGUSTUS MUHLENBERG, EPISCOPAL PRIEST, HYMN WRITER, AND LITURGICAL PIONEER; AND HIS COLLEAGUE, ANNE AYRES, FOUNDRESS OF THE SISTERHOOD OF THE HOLY COMMUNION
THE FEAST OF JOHANN CRUGER, GERMAN LUTHERAN ORGANIST, COMPOSER, AND HYMNAL EDITOR
THE FEAST OF SAINT JULIE BILLIART, FOUNDER OF THE CONGREGATION OF THE SISTERS OF NOTRE DAME
THE FEAST OF RANDALL DAVIDSON, ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY
O God, your Son came among us to serve and not to be served, and to give his life for the life of the world.
Lead us by his love to serve all those to whom the world offers no comfort and little help.
Through us give hope to the hopeless,
love to the unloved,
peace to the troubled,
and rest to the weary,
through Jesus Christ, our Savior and Lord, who lives and reigns
with you and the Holy Spirit, one God, now and forever. Amen.
—Evangelical Lutheran Worship (2006), page 60
Above: The Flag of The Episcopal Church
Image Source = Zscout370
EDWARD THOMAS DEMBY, V (FEBRUARY 13, 1869-APRIL 14, 1957)
Episcopal Suffragan Bishop for Colored Work, Diocese of Arkansas and the Province of the Southwest
HENRY BEARD DELANY, SR. (MAY 5, 1858-APRIL 14, 1928)
Episcopal Suffragan Bishop for Colored Work, Diocese of North Carolina
In 2016 the Presiding Bishop of The Episcopal Church is Michael Curry, an African American. The fact that he leads the denomination testifies to the reality of how much The Episcopal Church has changed for the better since the days of Bishops Demby and Delany, in large part due to their efforts. The fact that the denomination commemorates their lives on April 14 is also positive.
First I will explain the types of bishops germane to this post. A diocesan bishop leads his or her diocese. A bishop coadjutor serves under a diocesan prior to succeeding him or her automatically. A suffragan bishop serves under a diocesan bishop without the right of succession. A suffragan bishop can, however, become a diocesan bishop via election and confirmation to that post. An old joke illustrates the difference between a bishop coadjutor and a suffragan bishop. A suffragan bishop asks his her diocesan bishop,
How are you?,
but a bishop coadjutor asks his or her diocesan bishop,
How are you feeling?
Edward Thomas Demby, V, and Henry Beard Delany, Sr., were pioneers in the struggle for social justice in The Episcopal Church. In 1918 the Church consecrated them Suffragan Bishops for Colored Work. They were under the authority of White bishops and subject to an ecclesiastical establishment frequently insensitive to social equality. Suffragan bishops could not even vote in the House of Bishops until 1946. Demby and Delany were second-class bishops, but they remained faithful in their labors for Jesus.
Demby, some said after he died, could have eradicated racism by good example alone, if that were possible. He entered the world at Wilmington, Delaware, on February 13, 1869. His parents, who had never been slaves, were Edward Thomas Demby, IV, and Mary Anderson Tippett Demby. Our saint’s education started locally and in his community. Then he studied at the following schools, in chronological order:
- The Institute for Colored Youth, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania;
- Centenary Bible Institute, Baltimore, Maryland;
- Wilberforce University, Wilberforce, Ohio; and
- The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois.
Demby, originally a Methodist, left the church John Wesley made for the church that made John Wesley. Our saint became a minister of the African Methodist Episcopal Church (AMEC) in 1894, the same year he began to serve as Dean of Students at Paul Quinn College, Dallas, Texas. In 1895, however, Demby converted to The Episcopal Church. John F. Spalding, the Bishop of Colorado, became our saint’s mentor and sent him to Tennessee. There, 1898, Demby joined the ranks of the Sacred Order of Deacons. He became a priest the following year. In Tennessee our saint served as the Rector of St. Paul’s Church, Macon, the principal of the parochial school, and the vice principal of Hoffman Hall. From 1900 to 1907 Demby served churches in Cairo, Illinois; Kansas City, Missouri; and Florida. In 1902 he married his second wife, Antoinette Ricks, a nurse. (His first wife, Polly Alston Sherill Demby, had died a few years prior.) In 1907 Demby became the Rector of Emmanuel Church, Memphis, Tennessee. In time he came to double as the Secretary of the Southern Colored convocations and as the Archdeacon for Colored Work in the Diocese of Tennessee. In matters of racial policy he sided with W.E.B. DuBois against Booker T. Washington.
Demby had a difficult time as Suffragan Bishop for Colored Work. He began that work on September 29, 1918, when he became the first African-American Suffragan Bishop in The Episcopal Church. Until 1922 Demby had no salary, and the salary he received starting in 1922 was relatively meager. Neither did our saint have an official residence. He started with a few small congregations in Arkansas and sought to grow them and to found more churches in Arkansas and the Southwest, but financial restraints and White leadership hobbled those efforts. Nevertheless, Demby did help to found the Christ Church Parochial and Industrial School, Forrest City, Arkansas, and recruited teachers for it. He also recruited priests and worked with African-American orphanages, schools, and hospitals.
Matters went from bad to worse for Demby in 1932. The diocesan convention elected a new bishop, but Demby and White allies detected racism in the procedures. They protested the election and its result to the national church successfully, so The Episcopal Church overturned the election result. This angered certain prominent churchmen in Arkansas. They interfered with Demby’s work, rendering him a bishop in name only. He turned his attention to national church efforts to resist racism. This work continued after he retired in 1939.
Demby remained active in retirement. He served churches in Kansas and in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; and Cleveland, Ohio. At the General Convention of 1940 he stood up for the desegregation of The Episcopal Church, helping to defeat a proposal to place African-American congregations in separate missionary districts. Within 15 years the segregated dioceses integrated. Demby lived long enough to see that happen and to witness Brown v. Board of Education (1954) and the approving statement by the Bishop of Arkansas.
Demby died at Cleveland, Ohio, on April 14, 1957. He was 88 years old. His written legacy included devotional and theological books:
- Devotions of the Cross and at the Holy Mass;
- My Companion;
- A Bird’s Eye View of Exegetical Studies;
- The Writings of Saints Paul and James;
- The Holy Sacrament of the Altar and Penance; and
- The Manual of the Guild of One More Soul.
Demby’s co-saint for April 14 is Henry Beard Delany, Sr., the Bishop Suffragan, Diocese of North Carolina (1918-1928).
Delany rose from slavery to the episcopate. He entered the world at St. Marys, Georgia, on May 5, 1858. His father was Thomas Sterling Delany (1810-1890), a carpenter, plasterer, and brick layer. Our saint’s mother was Sarah Elizabeth Delany (1814-1891), a domestic servant. After the Civil War the family moved to Fernandina Beach, Florida, where Delany worked on the family farm and learned carpentry, plastery, and brick laying from is father. The Delanys were Methodists, but, in 1881, the local Episcopal priest funded a scholarship for our saint to attend St. Augustine’s College, Raleigh, North Carolina, a school founded by Episcopal priests for freedmen in 1867.
Delany lived on the campus of St. Augustine’s College for the rest of his life. He graduated in 1885 then joined the faculty, teaching masonry and carpentry as well as supervising building projects. In 1886 he married Nanny James (1861-1956). The couple had ten children from 1887 to 1906. Nanny taught at St. Augustine’s College also; the family lived on campus. Delany, Vice Principal from 1899 to 1908, became a deacon in 1889 and a priest in 1892. He served as the campus chaplain and musician, was the architect for the Norman-style chapel, and oversaw the construction of the library (1898) and the hospital (1909). That was the only hospital to serve area African Americans until 1940. In 1908 Delany became the Archdeacon for Negro Work in the Diocese of North Carolina.
As Suffragan Bishop for Negro Work Delany served not only in the Diocese of North Carolina but also in the Dioceses of East Carolina, Western North Carolina, South Carolina, and Upper South Carolina. He did this for ten years until he died at home, in Raleigh, on April 14, 1928. He was 69 years old.
Bishop Delany also resisted racism in The Episcopal Church and in society. He died prior to the civil rights movement, but at least four of his children blazed trails. Lemuel Delany (1861-1956) became a surgeon. Sarah Louise Delany (1889-1999) was an educator. Annie Elizabeth “Bessie” Delany (1891-1995) became a dentist. These two sisters were the topics of Having Our Say (1991), an oral history. Hubert Thomas Delany (1901-1990) became an attorney then a judge. His clients included Paul Robeson, Jackie Robinson, and Martin Luther King, Jr. The influence of Bishop Delany was evident in his children.
Michael Curry, who served as the Bishop of North Carolina prior to his elevation to Presiding Bishop, spoke of the arrangement of portraits of bishops at the diocesan headquarters to the 194th Annual Convention of the Diocese of North Carolina on January 22, 2010. He noted that, in the former, suburban Raleigh headquarters, the portraits of the diocesan bishops hung in one wing of the building and the portraits of the suffragan bishops hung in another wing thereof. The design of the building made integrating those sets of portraits difficult. In time, however, the diocese moved its headquarters into Raleigh proper. Curry ordered that, at the new Diocesan House, the portraits of the bishops–diocesan and suffragan–hang together and in chronological order of consecration. Curry explained the unintentional symbolism of hanging the portraits in separate wings and the intentional symbolism of integrating the sets of portraits:
Now the portraits hang not in any order that recalls Jim Crow, but int he gospel lineage of Simon Peter, Augustine of Canterbury, and Samuel Seabury.
—Crazy Christians: A Call to Follow Jesus (2013), page 122
Bishops Demby and Delany would have approved.
KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR
JANUARY 17, 2016 COMMON ERA
THE SECOND SUNDAY AFTER THE EPIPHANY, YEAR C
THE FEAST OF SAINT ANTONY OF EGYPT, DESERT FATHER
THE FEAST OF SAINT BERARD AND HIS COMPANIONS, ROMAN CATHOLIC MARTYRS IN MOROCCO
THE FEAST OF EDMUND HAMILTON SEARS, UNITARIAN PASTOR AND HYMN WRITER
THE FEAST OF RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES, PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Loving God, we thank you for the ministries of Edward Thomas Demby and Henry Beard Delany,
bishops of your Church who, though limited by segregation, served faithfully to your honor and glory.
Assist us, we pray, to break trough the limitations of our own time,
that we may minister in obedience to Jesus Christ;
who with you and the Holy Spirit lives and reigns,
one God, now and for ever. Amen.
1 Thessalonians 2:1-12
—Holy Women, Holy Men: Celebrating the Saints (2010), page 327