Archive for the ‘WCTU’ Tag

Feast of Florence Spearing Randolph (August 9)   Leave a comment

Above:  Florence Spearing Randolph

Image in the Public Domain

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FLORENCE SPEARING RANDOLPH (AUGUST 9, 1866-DECEMBER 28, 1951)

First Female Ordained Minister in the African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church

Florence Spearing Randolph comes to this A Great Cloud of Witnesses:  An Ecumenical Calendar of Saints’ Days and Holy Days, via G. Scott Cady and Christopher L. Webber, A Year with American Saints (2006).

We mere mortals frequently mistake societal norms and mores for divine standards.  How we define proper gender roles provides many examples of this pattern.  Hence the subordination of women, dressed up as the law of God, becomes and remains socially acceptable.  Many women internalize these unjust societal patterns and ascribe them to God.  Many of them eventually change their minds and fulfill their sacred vocations, fortunately.

Florence Spearing, born in Charleston, South Carolina, on August 9, 1866, came from a free African-American family.  She was a daughter of Anna Smith Spearing and cabinet maker John Spearing.  Our saint, educated at Avery Normal Institute, Charleston, trained as a dress maker.  She moved to Jersey City, New Jersey, and lived with her sister Lena, there.  Making dresses in Jersey City was substantially more lucrative in Jersey City than in Charleston.

Florence married Hugh Randolph of Richmond, Virginia, in 1884.  He was a cook on Pullman trains.  The couple had one child, Leah Viola, born in 1887.  Hugh died in 1913.

Our saint, raised a Methodist, joined the church at the age of 13 years.  She remained a life-long member.  In Jersey City, she joined the local African Methodist Episcopal Zion (A.M.E. Zion) church.  Randolph taught Sunday School and became a youth leader.  She also studied the Bible under the tutelage of A.M.E. Zion minister, George E. Biddle, a scholar of Greek and Hebrew, as well as a Yale graduate.  Biddle encouraged Randolph to violate a specific gender norm; he told her she should preach.

Our saint, initially reluctant, eventually agreed; she became an exhorter.  Randolph, starting in 1888, exhorted in both White and African-American congregations.  Yet, for a while, she remained reluctant for anyone to call her a “preaching woman.”  Our saint continued to oppose the ordination of women, for a time.  Yet, as time passed, Randolph accepted her vocation.  She asked God for a sign.  Our saint prayed that, if she were supposed to preach full-time, that her dress-making business would fail within a year, and that her exhorting would succeed.  She received that sign.

Randolph had accepted her vocation.  Many within the A.M.E. Zion Church had not, however.  After much debate in denominational officialdom, our saint received her license to preach in 1897, became an ordained deacon in 1900, and received ordination as an elder in 1903.  She also served as a delegate to the Third Methodist Ecumenical Conference, London, in 1901.

Randolph excelled as a pastor.  From 1903 to 1922, she rehabilitated a series of small, problematic congregations in New Jersey and New York.  After she had done her work in one church, she moved on to another one.  A “nice young man” always succeeded her.  During this time, our saint also found the time for social reform.  She, having joined the Women’s Christian Temperance Union (W.C.T.U.) in 1892, lectured for them.  Randolph, organized the New Jersey Federation of Women’s Clubs in 1915.  She served as its president for 12 years.  Our saint also sat on the Executive Committee of the New Jersey Suffrage Association, starting in 1917.  Furthermore, Randolph served as the President of the Missionary Society of New Jersey.  And she was the chaplain of the Northeastern Federation of Colored Women’s Clubs in 1918 and 1919.

Our saint, a supporter of foreign missions, traveled in Liberia and Gold Coast (now Ghana) in 1922-1924.  This work was consistent with her collection of and distribution of supplies for missionaries.

Randolph’s final pastorate was Wallace Chapel A.M.E. Zion Church, organized in 1923.  When she arrived at the congregation in Summit, New Jersey, in 1925, the church was small; it had 35 members.  The appointment, initially meant to be temporary, terminated with her retirement, in 1946.  Our saint built up the congregation and presided over the construction of its edifice in 1937.  During this pastorage, she made history by becoming the first African-American woman to matriculate at Drew University, in 1926.

Our saint, aged 85 years, died in Jersey City, on December 28, 1951.   Many of her sermons, now published, have survived; relatives salvaged them.

Drew University’s Theological School grants the Reverend Florence Spearing Randolph Prize.

I wonder how much human potential well-meaning, even devout, people have squandered and suppressed in others or in themselves because of allegiance to misplaced societal norms.  I also wonder how much better society would be without that squandering and suppression of human potential.  And I thank God for those who have challenged and continue to challenge such destructive societal norms, for the common good.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

FEBRUARY 24, 2021 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF SAINT MATTHIAS THE APOSTLE, MARTYR

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Almighty God, we praise you for the men and women you have sent

to call the Church to its tasks and renew its life [such as your servant Florence Spearing Randolph].

Raise up in our own day teachers and prophets inspired by your Spirit,

whose voices will give strength to your Church and proclaim the reality of your kingdom;

through your Son, Jesus Christ our Lord.  Amen.

Jeremiah 1:4-10

Psalm 46

1 Corinthians 3:11-23

Mark 10:35-45

–Adapted from the Lutheran Book of Worship (1978), 37

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Feast of G. Bromley Oxnam (August 13)   1 comment

Above:  The Cover of the Dust Jacket to A Testament of Faith (1958)

Image Source = archive.org

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GARFIELD BROMLEY OXNAM (AUGUST 14, 1891-MARCH 12, 1963)

U.S. Methodist Bishop

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INTRODUCTION

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Bishop G. Bromley Oxnam comes to this, A Great Cloud of Witnesses:  An Ecumenical Calendar of Saints’ Days and Holy Days, via G. Scott Cady and Christopher L. Webber, A Year with American Saints (2006).

If you love me, you will keep my commandments.

–John 14:15, Revised Standard Version (1952)

Bishop Oxnam liked to quote that verse.  For him, Christian faith was not a doctrinal confession one signed at the bottom of the page.  No, Oxnam’s Christian faith was a love-infused lifestyle. This lifestyle entailed obeying Matthew 25:31-46.

“Truly, I say to you, as you did it to one of the least of these my brethren, you did it to me.”

–Matthew 25:40b, Revised Standard Version (1952)

Oxnam was, in many ways, a counterpoint to his fellow bishop and contemporary, Gerald Kennedy (1907-1980).  Yet both men had much in common.  And both of them earned their places here, on my Ecumenical Calendar.  (I admit, though, that I feel more affinity for Bishop Oxnam than with Bishop Kennedy.)

Richard Brookhiser, writing derisively of Oxnam in the February 1992 issue of First Things, commented:

Theologically, Oxnam was a liberal by default, since he barely thought of theology at all.

Yet, as I have written repeatedly in lectionary-based devotions at some of my other weblogs, deeds reveal creeds.  As one thinks, one is.  And as one thinks, one acts.  In Hebrew theology, God is like what God has done and does.  Ergo, we are like what we have done and do.  And, as the Letter of James tells us:

For as the body apart from the spirit is dead, so faith apart from works is dead.

–2:26, Revised Standard Version (1952)

Oxnam showed his faith by his works (James 2:26).

I could continue to paraphrase Oxnam, but his words are better than mine in expressing his faith.  So, without further ado:

I find it hard to understand men who “accept Christ” and then become sadistic as they deal with others who try to “love God with heart and mind and soul, and brother as self,” but who cannot in honesty accept the obscurantism that is presented as “the faith,” especially when the presentation is accompanied by the clanking of Inquisition chains and the fires at the stake.  The coercion by the bigoted is in itself a rejection of the spirit of Christ.  He relied on the compulsion of love.  If I were called upon to choose one word to describe Christianity, it would be love.  I believe nothing can separate us from the love of God.  I believe God was in Christ reconciling the world to Himself.  I believe God sent Jesus because He “loved the world.”

A Testament of Faith (1958), viii-ix

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THE FIRST FORTY-THREE YEARS

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Oxnam, born in Los Angeles, California, on August 14, 1891, moved away from his family theological roots.  They were conservative.  Our saint’s father, a mining engineer and a mine owner, oversaw the construction of chapels for inhabitants of mining camps.  Oxnam’s mother was a charter member of the Women’s Christian Temperance Union (W.C.T.U.).  At age 17, at a revival, our saint vowed to become a minister.

Oxnam left the conservative religion of his youth behind and embraced the Social Gospel.  He graduated from the University of Southern California (B.A., 1913) then Boston University (S.T.B., 1915).  Our saint, who married Ruth Fisher on August 19, 1914, had joined the Southern California Conference of the old Methodist Episcopal Church (1784-1939) as a licensed preacher the previous year.  The Conference ordained him a deacon in 1915 then an elder in 1917.

After serving in Poplar, California, Oxnam became the pastor at the Church of All Nations, Los Angeles, California (1917-1926), in the Eastside.  The Church of All Nations was a multi-ethnic, immigrant, and impoverished flock.  Our saint presided over an extensive network of social services, openly identified with labor unions, opposed nativism and xenophobia, suggested that teachers’ informed opinions should influence educational policies, aroused suspicions that he was a communist, and ran unsuccessfully for a seat on the school board.  He also taught social ethics at the University of Southern California.  In fact, Oxnam was neither a communist nor a Marxist; he was a Christian Socialist.

Then Oxnam turned to academia full-time.  He was a Professor of Social Ethics at Boston University (1927-1928).  Next, our saint made his mark as the President of DePauw University, Greencastle, Indiana (1928-1936).  Oxnam, a pacifist, first made participation in the R.O.T.C. optional.  (It had been mandatory.)  Then, in 1934, he presided over the end of the R.O.T.C. at DePauw University.  He also helped students to find jobs in New Deal programs, expanded library holdings, and increased attendance at voluntary chapel services.  These were dignified services; Oxnam insisted on that.

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BISHOP OXNAM

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Oxnam became the then-youngest Methodist bishop in the United States in 1936; he was 45 years old.  (Gerald Kennedy broke that record, at age 40, in 1948.)  Our saint was based in, in order:

  1. Omaha, Nebraska (1936-1939);
  2. Boston, Massachusetts (1939-1944);
  3. New York, New York (1944-1952); and
  4. Washington, D.C. (1952-1960).

Our saint was active on the denominational level of the old Methodist Episcopal Church (1784-1939) and the merged Methodist Church (1939-1968). 

  1. He chaired the Division of Educational Institutions, the General Board of Education (1939-1944).
  2. He chaired the Division of Foreign Missions, the General Board of Global Ministries (1944-1952).
  3. He led the Methodist Crusade for World Order (1944-1948).  The Methodist Crusade for World Order opposed a return to pre-World War II isolationism, favored an internationalist foreign policy, and supported the United Nations.
  4. He was active in the Methodist Federation for Social Service (later Social Action), which Frank Mason North (1850-1935) had helped to found in 1917.  The Federation, a target of conservative elements within the denomination, suffered a strong rebuke in 1952.  “Methodist” ceased to be in its name, and The Methodist Church established the new Board of Social and Economic Relations.

Oxnam was also an ecumenist.

  1. He served as the President of the old Federal Council of Churches (1946-1948).
  2. He helped to found the National Council of Churches (1950).
  3. He was one of the Presidents of the World Council of Churches (1948-1954).
  4. He sat on the Central Committee of the World Council of Churches.
  5. Oxnam’s ecumenism had its limits.  It did not extend to fundamentalists and pre-Vatican II Roman Catholics, who thought he was going to Hell anyway.

Despite what Red-baiting conservatives claimed, Oxnam was a patriot. 

  1. He was a staunch man of the Christian Left.
  2. He was a member of the Civil Advisory Committee to the Secretary of the Navy during World War II.
  3. After the war, he chaired the Commission to Study Postwar Relief Conditions in Germany.
  4. He opposed mandatory military training and service in peacetime.
  5. He argued that using atomic weapons was immoral.

In July 1953, Oxnam testified before the U.S. House Un-American Activities Committee, which was itself un-American.  He rebutted allegations that he was and ever had been a communist or a Marxist.  Our saint produced evidence to document that charges to the contrary from Representative Donald L. Jackson (1910-1981) were objectively false.  Oxnam also condemned McCarthyism and those who practiced it.

A new breed of self-appointed un-American vigilantes threatens our freedom.  Profaning our American traditions and desecrating our flag, masquerading as defenders of our country against the infiltration of communism and the aggression of Russia, they play the red game of setting American against American, of creating distrust and division, and of turning us from the problems that must be solved in order to become impregnable.  These vigilantes produce hysteria, prepare sucker lists, and live upon the generous contributions of the fearful.  They exploit the uninformed patriot.  They profiteer in patriotism.  These vigilantes do not carry the noosed rope, but they lynch by libel.  They prepare their lying spider-web charts.  They threaten educators and ministers, actors and broadcasters.  Unthinking boards and commissions bow to their tyranny, forgetting that to appease these forerunners of Hitler, of Mussolini, and of Stalin is to jeopardize freedom, and to prepare the wrists for the shackles and the mouth for the gag.  In the name of law, vigilantes break the law.

–Quoted in A Year with American Saints (2006), 281-282

Above:  Wesley Theological Seminary, American University, Washington, D.C,

Image Source = Google Earth

Bishop Oxnam, while based in Washington, D.C., helped to build up the denomination-affiliated American University.  In 1958, he supervised the relocation of Westminster Theological Seminary, Westminster, Maryland (founded in 1882) to the campus of American University.  The relocated seminary became Wesley Theological Seminary.  That year, our saint also helped to found the School of International Service at American University.

Above:  The School of International Service, American University, Washington, D.C.

Image Source = Google Earth

Oxnam, suffering from Parkinson’s Disease, retired in 1960.  He, aged 73 years, died in White Plains, New York, on March 12, 1963.

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EVALUATION

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When evaluating a historical figure, one ought to avoid two opposite errors:  relativizing everything or too much and relativizing nothing or too little.  Timeless standards exist, of course.  Yet context remains crucial.  Also, people change during a lifetime.  To be fair, one must consider that fact.

Oxnam was mostly correct.  He was correct to favor the rights of workers, for example.  He was correct to condemn the greed of those who exploited workers.  He was correct to oppose McCarthyism and to challenge practitioners of McCarthyism to their faces.  Like most Americans, traumatized by World War I, he overreacted in ways that seemed reasonable between the World Wars yet came across as naïve in retrospect after World War II.  

Just as I stand to the left of Bishop Gerald Kennedy, I stand slightly to the right of Bishop G. Bromley Oxnam.  I am a Neo-Orthodox, after all.  I stand with Reinhold, Ursula, and H. Richard Niebuhr in recognizing the limitations of the Social Gospel.  I do so while affirming what was positive about the Social Gospel.

Yet, as I have written in this post, I feel more affinity with Oxnam than with Kennedy.  And I count both of them as members of my family of faith.

I invite you, O reader, if you are so inclined, to read Oxnam’s writings available at archive.org:

  1. “The Mexican in Los Angeles from the Standpoint of the Religious Forces of the City” (1921),
  2. Contemporary Preaching:  A Study in Trends (1931),
  3. Personalities in Social Reform (1941),
  4. Preaching in a Revolutionary Age (1944), 
  5. I Protest (1954), and
  6. A Testament of Faith (1958).

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

FEBRUARY 23, 2021 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF SAINT IGNATIUS OF ANTIOCH, BISHOP AND MARTYR, 107/115; SAINT POLYCARP OF SMYRNA, BISHOP AND MARTYR, 155/156; AND SAINT IRENAEUS OF LYONS, CIRCA 202 

THE FEAST OF SAINT ALEXANDER AKIMETES, ROMAN CATHOLIC ABBOT

THE FEAST OF SAMUEL WOLCOTT, U.S. CONGREGATIONALIST MINISTER, MISSIONARY, AND HYMN WRITER

THE FEAST OF SAINT STEFAN WINCENTY FRELICHOWSKI, POLISH ROMAN CATHOLIC PRIEST AND MARTYR, 1945

THE FEAST OF SAINT WILLIGIS, ROMAN CATHOLIC ARCHBISHOP OF MAINZ; AND SAINT BERNWARD, ROMAN CATHOLIC BISHOP OF HILDESHEIM

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Holy and righteous God, you created us in your image.

Grant us grace to contend fearlessly against evil and to make no peace with oppression.

Help us [like your servant G. Bromley Oxnam] to use our freedom

to bring justice among people and nations, to the glory of your name;

through your Son, Jesus Christ our Lord.  Amen.

Hosea 2:18-23

Psalm 94:1-14

Romans 12:9-21

Luke 6:20-36

–Adapted from the Lutheran Book of Worship (1978), 37

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Feast of Frances Joseph Gaudet (December 30)   1 comment

Above:  Frances Joseph Gaudet

Image in the Public Domain

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FRANCES JOSEPH GAUDET (NOVEMBER 25, 1861-DECEMBER 30, 1934)

African-American Educator, Prison Reformer, and Social Worker

Frances Joseph, daughter of a slave father and a half-Native American, half-African American mother, devoted her life to God and social justice.  Our saint, born in Holmesville, Mississippi, on November 25, 1861, never knew her father; he became a soldier during the Civil War, in which he died.  In 1871, she, her mother, and grandmother moved to New Orleans, Louisiana.  Our saint began studies at Strait College (an HBCU), but had to leave it, to support her family financially.

Life continued to be hard for her.  At the age of 17 years, she married A. P. Gaudet.  The couple had three children.  Unfortunately, the husband was an alcoholic.  Our saint divorced him and became a single mother.  This stage of her life led her to become active in the Women’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU).

Gaudet made her positive mark on the world.  She held prayer services in the New Orleans jail.  These activities led to her advocacy for the wrongfully incarcerated.  Furthermore, Gaudet founded the Colored (later Gaudet) Normal and Industrial School, New Orleans, a boarding school with an orphanage attached to it, in 1902.  She led the institution, raised funds for it, and, in 1921, donated it to the Episcopal Diocese of Louisiana.  After continuing as principal for a few more years, our saint moved to Chicago, Illinois.  She did there on December 30, 1934.  She was 73 years old.

The school’s legacy outlived its founder.  The Gaudet Normal and Industrial School closed in 1950.  The Gaudet Episcopal Home (1954-1966) succeeded it.  Episcopal Social Services, New Orleans, has long awarded Gaudet scholarships.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

JULY 5, 2019 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF SAINT ANTONIO MARY ZACCARIA, FOUNDER OF THE BARNABITES AND THE ANGELIC SISTERS OF SAINT PAUL

THE FEAST OF GEORGES BERNANOS, FRENCH ROMAN CATHOLIC NOVELIST

THE FEAST OF HULDA NIEBUHR, CHRISTIAN EDUCATOR; HER BROTHERS, H. RICHARD NIEBUHR AND REINHOLD NIEBUHR, UNITED CHURCH OF CHRIST THEOLOGIANS; AND URSULA NIEBUHR, EPISCOPAL THEOLOGIAN

THE FEAST OF SAINT JOSEPH BOISSEL, FRENCH ROMAN CATHOLIC MISSIONARY PRIEST AND MARTYR IN LAOS, 1969

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Merciful God, who raised up your servant Frances Joseph

to work for prison reform and the education of her people:

Grant that we, encouraged by the example of her life,

may work for those who are denied the fullness of life

by reasons of incarceration and lack of access to education;

through Jesus Christ, who lives and reigns with

you and the Holy Spirit, one God, for ever and ever.  Amen.

Lamentations 3:26-36

Psalm 146

Acts 16:25-34

John 13:31-35

Holy Women, Holy Men:  Celebrating the Saints (2010), 147

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Second Sunday after the Epiphany, Year C   Leave a comment

Above:  Logo of the Women’s Christian Temperance Union

When God Acts

JANUARY 20, 2019

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Isaiah 62:1-5 (TANAKH:  The Holy Scriptures):

For the sake of Zion I will not be silent,

For the sake of Jerusalem I will not be still,

Till her victory emerge resplendent

And her triumph like a flaming torch.

Nations shall see your victory,

And every kin, your majesty;

And you shall be called by a new name

Which the LORD Himself shall bestow.

You shall be a glorious crown

In the hand of the LORD,

And a royal diadem

In the palm of your God.

Nevermore shall you be called “Forsaken,”

Nor shall your land be called “Desolate”‘;

But you shall be called “I delight in her,”

And your land “Espoused.”

For the LORD takes delight in you,

And your land shall be espoused.

As a youth espouses a maiden,

You sons shall espouse you;

And as a bridegroom rejoices over his bride,

So will your God rejoice over you.

Psalm 36:5-10 (New Revised Standard Version):

Your steadfast love, O LORD, extends to the heavens,

your faithfulness to the clouds.

Your righteousness is like the mighty mountains,

your judgments are like the great deep;

you save humans and animals alike, O LORD.

How precious is your steadfast love, O God!

All people may take refuge in the shadow of your wings.

They feast on the abundance of your house,

and you give them drink from the river of your delights.

For with you is the fountain of life;

in your light we see light.

O continue your steadfast love to those who know you,

and your salvation to the upright of heart!

1 Corinthians 12:1-11 (Revised English Bible):

About gifts of the Spirit, my friends, I want there to be no misunderstanding.

You know how, in the days when you were still pagan, you used to be carried away by some impulse or other to those dumb heathen gods.  For this reason I must impress upon you that no one who says

A curse of Jesus!

can be speaking under the influence of the Spirit of God; and no one can say

Jesus is Lord!

except under the influence of the Holy Spirit.

There are varieties of gifts, but he same Spirit.  There are varieties of service, but the same Lord.  There are varieties of activity, but in all of them and in everyone the same God is active.  In each of us the Spirit is seen to be at work for some useful purpose.  One, through the Spirit, has the gift of wise speech, while another, by the power of the same Spirit, can put the deepest knowledge into words.  Another, by the same Spirit, is granted faith; another, by the one Spirit, gifts of healing, and another miraculous powers; another has the gift of prophecy, and other the ability to distinguish true spirits from false; yet another has the gift of tongues of various kinds, and another the ability to interpret them.  But all these gifts are the activity of one and the same Spirit, distributing them to each individual at will.

John 2:1-11 (Revised English Bible):

Two days later there was a wedding at Cana-in-Galilee.  The mother of Jesus was there, and Jesus and his disciples were also among the guests.  The wine gave out, so Jesus’s mother said to him,

They have no wine left.

He answered,

That is no concern of mine.  My hour has yet to come.

His mother said to the servants,

Do whatever he tells you.

There were six stone water-jars standing near, of the kind used for Jewish rites of purification; each held from twenty to thirty gallons.  Jesus said to the servants,

Fill the jars with water,

and they filled them to the brim.

Now draw some off,

he ordered,

and take it to the master of the feast,

and they did so.  The master tasted the water now turned into wine, not knowing its source, though the servants who had drawn the water knew.  He hailed the bridegroom and said,

Everyone else serves the best wine first, and the poorer only when the guests have drunk freely; but you have kept the best wine til now.

So Jesus performed at Cana-in-Galilee the first of the signs which revealed his glory and led his disciples to believe in him.

The Collect:

Almighty God, whose Son our Savior Jesus Christ is the light of the world: Grant that your people, illumined by your Word and Sacraments, may shine with the radiance of Christ’s glory, that he may be known, worshipped, and obeyed to the ends of the earth; through Jesus Christ our Lord, who with you and the Holy Spirit lives and reigns, one God, now and for ever.  Amen.

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Some Related Posts:

Prayer of Praise and Adoration:

http://gatheredprayers.wordpress.com/2011/01/03/prayer-of-praise-and-adoration-for-the-second-sunday-after-epiphany/

Prayer of Confession:

http://gatheredprayers.wordpress.com/2011/01/03/prayer-of-confession-for-the-second-sunday-after-epiphany/

Prayer of Dedication:

http://gatheredprayers.wordpress.com/2011/01/03/prayer-of-dedication-for-the-second-sunday-after-epiphany/

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Once I read a story which might be apocryphal.  There was, in the days prior to the time of Prohibition in the United States, a certain woman who traveled along the Women’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) lecture circuit and spoke of the evils of alcohol.  God, she said, wanted people to abstain from it all times. She completed her remarks and asked if anyone had any questions.  One young man raised his hand.  The speaker called on him.  He asked,

If what you say is true, how do you explain Jesus turning water into wine?

She replied,

I would like him better if he had not done that.

The readings for this Sunday speak of ways in which God acts.  In Isaiah God will act in a spectacular fashion to restore exiles.  As one who has read certain other parts of the Hebrew Scriptures knows, some people objected to the rebuilding of Jerusalem, its walls, and the Temple.  1 Corinthians 12:1-11 contains an explanation of the gifts of the Holy Spirit.  All of them are manifestations of God yet the variety of them offends certain conformists.  And Jesus turning water into wine in John 2:1-11, his first miracle in that Gospel, caused discomfort for many advocates of temperance.  Once, years ago, I watched a documentary about Jesus movies.  The program mentioned a silent film from the United States.  Scenes from the wedding feast at Cana were there, but with an explanation about the use of wine in biblical times.

When God acts we might become uncomfortable.  That is our problem, not any indication of a fault with God.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

MARCH 30, 2012 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF SAINT JOHN CLIMACUS, ROMAN CATHOLIC MONK

THE FEAST OF SAINT INNOCENT OF ALASKA, RUSSIAN ORTHODOX BISHOP

THE FEAST OF SAINT JOAN OF TOULOUSE, CARMELITE NUN, AND SAINT SIMON STOCK, CARMELITE FRIAR

THE FEAST OF KARL RAHNER, ROMAN CATHOLIC THEOLOGIAN

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