Archive for the ‘Saints of 1830-1839’ Category

Feast of Samuel Simon Schmucker (February 29)   Leave a comment

Above:  Samuel Simon Schmucker

Image in the Public Domain

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SAMUEL SIMON SCHMUCKER (FEBRUARY 28, 1799-JULY 26, 1873)

U.S. Lutheran Minister, Theologian, and Social Reformer

Samuel Simon Schumucker comes to this, A Great Cloud of Witnesses:  An Ecumenical Calendar of Saints’ Days and Holy Days, via G. Scott Cady and Christopher L. Webber, A Year with American Saints (2006).

I recall, while growing up as a good United Methodist boy in rural southern Georgia, hearing people say,

There are Baptists then there are Baptists.

That principle applies to Lutherans, too; degrees of Lutheran confessionalism exist.  If one, for example, labels The Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod, despite its strong confessionalism and social and theological conservatism, as being too liberal, one has a selection of Lutheran denominations from which to select a church home.

Samuel Simon Schumucker changed throughout his life; he was human, after all.  Lutheranism within the United States of America also changed during his lifetime.  Schmucker effected much of that change, but other change made him, once a prominent leader, an increasingly marginal figure in many quarters.  Yet Schmucker’s legacy has remained relevant within and beyond Lutheranism in North America.

Schmucker came from a devout and large Lutheran family.  He, born in Hagerstown, Maryland, entered the world on February 28, 1779.  Our saint’s mother was Elizabeth Catherine Gross (1771-1820).  His father was the Reverend John George Schmucker (1771-1854), the President of the German Evangelical Lutheran Ministerium of Pennsylvania and Adjacent States (the Ministerium of Pennsylvania, for short) in 1820 and 1821.  Our saint was one of the best-educated young Lutheran ministers in the United States.  He had graduated from the University of Pennsylvania and Princeton Theological Seminary.  In 1820, when young Schmucker was preparing to assume pastoral duties in New Market, Virginia, he and his father helped to found the General Synod of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in the United States of America (the General Synod, in short).  The General Synod was the first national confederation of Lutheran synods in the United States.  Schmucker, who grew quickly into a leader of the General Synod, attended every convention through 1870.  At its founding, the General Synod encompassed almost all of the U.S. Lutheran Synods and the vast majority of U.S. Lutherans.  Within a few years, however, doctrinal disputes reduced the membership of the General Synod; the Ministerium of Pennsylvania defected in 1823.  (Then it rejoined in 1853 and departed again in 1867.)  Proposed union with the German Reformed Church caused another controversy in 1830.  Our saint saved the General Synod in 1823 and 1830.  Although some synods left the General Synod, others formed and affiliated with it over the years.

The General Synod was too liberal for many Lutherans in the United States in the 1800s.  This was especially ironic in the 1820s.  Our saint was relatively conservative; he advocated for an increased prominence of the Augsburg Confession (1530) in U.S. Lutheranism.  He also sought to purge all traces of Deism from U.S. Lutheranism.  Schmucker, like many Christians of his time, held an overly strict position on “worldly amusements;” the following entertainments (a few of them actually sinful), among others, were forbidden:

  1. Playing games of chance,
  2. Playing checkers,
  3. Playing chess,
  4. Casting dice,
  5. Playing cards,
  6. Listening to opera,
  7. Attending vocal performances in concert halls,
  8. Using tobacco,
  9. Consuming liquor, and
  10. Wearing fashionable clothing.

If Schmucker was too liberal, what was the standard of conservatism?  Perhaps his position that intellectual rigor was no threat to Christianity marked him as a liberal and an alleged heretic.  As time passed, so did his abolitionism, opposition to the U.S.-Mexican War (1846-1848), and acceptance of Evolution.

Schmucker and his father recognized the need for a Lutheran seminary in the United States.  They helped to found Gettysburg Theological Seminary, Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, in.  Schmucker, Sr., served as a trustee.  Our saint served on the faculty and as the President for nearly four decades.  The seminary gave rise to another institution, Pennsylvania College (now Gettysburg College) in 1832.

Schmucker wrote a textbook, Elements of Popular Theology, with Special Reference to the Doctrines of the Reformation, as Avowed Before the Diet at Augsburg, in MDXXX (1834).  This volume indicated our saint’s concept of orthodox Christianity.  He defined orthodox Christianity according to a common creedal core, which he defined as

fundamental doctrines of Scripture,

while eschewing overly specific creeds and allowing for disagreement in secondary matters.  Parts of some creeds were optional, Schmucker argued.  Orthodox Christianity, according to our saint, was Protestant yet did not include all Protestants.  Roman Catholics, Unitarians, Campbellites, Baptists, and Deists were not orthodox Christians, according to Schmucker.

Schmucker’s critics, starting in the 1830s, in particular, found more and more theological ammunition to use against him.  The General Synod permitted much theological latitude.  Our saint’s Eucharistic and Baptismal theology was closer to that of Calvinism than to that of Lutheranism.  (He did graduate from a Presbyterian seminary.)  He, influenced by the Second Great Awakening, was also a revivalist, to a point.  Puritanism and Pietism were prominent in his theology.  (Pietism had been part of a segment of Lutheran theology for some time by the 1800s.)  Schmucker’s “American Lutheranism” made him open to ecumenical relations with non-Lutherans he defined as orthodox.

This became evident by 1838, when Schmucker proposed church union–confederation, really–on what he called

the apostolic basis.

This plan offered six points of union:

  1. Variety in liturgy, polity, and discipline;
  2. Toleration of theological diversity within the ecclesiastical confederation;
  3. A common creed;
  4. Full communion and open communion within the ecumenical confederation;
  5. Cooperation in matters pertaining to “the common cause of Christianity;” and
  6. The Bible as the main textbook for religious and theological instruction.

Schmucker manifested other evidence of his liberalism as he aged and the General Synod became increasingly confessional and conservative, yet never sufficiently conservative, according to many U.S. Lutherans.  In 1855 our saint worked on the proposed American Rescension of the Augsburg Confession.  The controversial proposal, which most synods of the General Synod refused to accept, deleted the condemnations of non-Lutheran groups, removed mentions of baptismal regeneration, denied Consubstantiation, and argued that the Augsburg Confession (1530) contained errors.

Schmucker was also a liturgist.  He, as the head of the General Synod’s Committee on Liturgy of 1866, in lieu of the Liturgy of 1856.  The Provisional Liturgy of 1866 influenced the Washington Service (1876), which, in turn, presaged the Common Service (1888).  The Liturgy of 1856 was noteworthy for reintroducing The Apostles’ Creed (complete with “the holy Catholic Church”) to corporate worship.  A greater influence on the Common Service was the Reverend Beale Melanchton Schmucker (1827-1888), the more conservative, formalistic, and confessional son of our saint.  Beale, whose liturgical sensibilities were evident in the Ministerium of Pennsylvania’s Liturgy for Use in the Evangelical Lutheran Church (1860) and the General Council’s Church Book for the Use of Evangelical Lutheran Congregations (1868), was one of the greatest experts on liturgy and liturgical development.  He was, according to accounts, a walking encyclopedia on the subjects.  He was one of the main reasons the General Council had a stronger liturgical  tradition than the General Synod.

Schmucker lived long enough to witness the General Synod divide twice.  The General Synod of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in the Confederate States of America organized in 1863.  This organization became the General Synod of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in North America in 1866 then the General Synod of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of the South in 1876.  Ten years later, with the addition of the Tennessee Synod, the Southern General Synod became the United Synod of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in the South.  The General Synod (1820) suffered another schism in 1867, when the General Council of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in North America came into existence.  The merger that created The United Lutheran Church in America (ULCA) in 1918 repaired the schisms of 1863 and 1867.  The General Synod (1820) moved to the right as the General Council moved to the left.  The two confederations moved toward each other.

Schmucker married three times and outlived his first two wives.  He married Eleanora Geiger (1799-1823) in 1821.  Wife number two was Mary Catharine Steenbergen (1808-1848).  Our saint’s third wife was Heisther (Esther), who died in 1882.  Schmucker fathered at least four children.

Schmucker, aged 84 years, died in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, on July 26, 1873.

I, as an Episcopalian, am creedal, not confessional.  I also accept science and oppose all forms of slavery.  Anglican collegiality is one of the defining characteristics of my faith.  Therefore, I find much to admire about Schmucker.  I also recognize points of strong disagreement with him.  Yet, whenever I ponder denominational full communion agreements, such as the one the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (ELCA) and The Episcopal Church share, I think Schmucker would approve.

Alex Haley advised,

Find the good and praise it.

I praise the good in the legacy of Samuel Simon Schmucker.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

OCTOBER 9, 2019 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF SAINT DENIS, BISHOP OF PARIS, AND HIS COMPANIONS, ROMAN CATHOLIC MARTYRS, 250

THE FEAST OF SAINT JOHN LEONARDI, FOUNDER OF THE CLERKS REGULAR OF THE MOTHER OF GOD OF LUCCA; AND SAINT JOSEPH CALASANCTIUS, FOUNDER OF THE CLERKS REGULAR OF RELIGIOUS SCHOOLS

THE FEAST OF ROBERT GROSSETESTE, ENGLISH ROMAN CATHOLIC SCHOLAR, PHILOSOPHER, AND BISHOP OF LINCOLN

THE FEAST OF WILFRED THOMASON GRENFELL, MEDICAL MISSIONARY TO NEWFOUNDLAND AND LABRADOR

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Almighty God, we praise you for your servant Samuel Simon Schmucker,

through whom you have called the church to its tasks and renewed its life.

Raise up in our own day teachers and prophets inspired by your Spirit,

whose voices will give strength to your church and proclaim the reality of your reign,

through Jesus Christ, our Savior and Lord, who lives and reigns

with you and the Holy Spirit, one God, now and forever.  Amen.

Jeremiah 1:4-10

Psalm 46

1 Corinthians 3:11-23

Mark 10:35-45

–Adapted from Evangelical Lutheran Worship (2006), 60

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Feast of Mary Lyon (February 29)   1 comment

Above:  Mary Lyon

Image in the Public Domain

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MARY MASON LYON (FEBRUARY 28, 1797-MARCH 5, 1849)

U.S. Congregationalist Feminist and Educator

Mary Lyon comes to this, A Great Cloud of Witnesses:  An Ecumenical Calendar of Saints’ Days and Holy Days, via G. Scott Cady and Christopher L. Webber, A Year with American Saints (2006).

Ideas that have become mainstream used to be revolutionary.  Consider, O reader, gender roles, especially those proscribed for women in the United States of America.  Astute students of women’s history know of Republican Motherhood and Separate Spheres.

Republican Motherhood was the idea that women were supposed to be mothers of the republic.  Their job was supposedly to raise good citizens, not to seek and hold public office or have careers, much less to vote.  Women could respectably lobby office holders, but not exercise power.  Men and women moved in Separate Spheres.  Education reinforced the subordinate roles of women; the curricula for male and female students differed.

Mary Lyon challenged this.  She, raised a Baptist, debuted in Buckland, Massachusetts, on February 28, 1797.  She, the sixth of eight children, grew up in a poor family on a farm.  Our saint’s father died when she was five years old.  Lyon mastered the essential skills of daily survival on a farm.  She was also inquisitive beyond the knowledge of social norms dictated for women; Lyon found geology fascinating.  She made time for studies.  Lyon found a mentor, Congregationalist minister Joseph Emerson, one of her teachers.  He, unlike many other men of the time and place, treated women as intelligent people.  Under his influence, she became a Congregationalist.

Lyon, a teacher at various schools, affirmed the right of girls and women to equal formal education (including college) with boys and men.  She linked this cause to the Great Commission, for she argued that well-educated women were better evangelists than poorly-educated women were.  Our saint proved instrumental in founding Wheaton Female Seminary (now College), Wheaton, Massachusetts, in 1835.  That school was the first one in the United States to offer female students a curriculum equal to that for male students.  Lyon founded Mount Holyoke Female Seminary (now College), South Hadley, Massachusetts, which opened on November 9, 1837.  She, having raised funds for the institution, served as its first principal for more than a decade.

Lyon, aged 52 years, died of natural causes in South Hadley, on March 5, 1849.

Her influence has continued.

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Living God, whose image all people bear, we thank you for the life and legacy of your servant Mary Mason Lyon,

who rejected social norms that mandated a curriculum that reinforced the subordinate roles of women in the United States of America.

May we, as a society and as individuals, cease to hold back segments of our society

from achieving their potential, and therefore, from holding our society back.

May we do this for your glory and for the common good.

In the Name of God:  Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.  Amen.

Genesis 1:26-27

Psalm 100

Galatians 3:23-29

Luke 10:38-42

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

OCTOBER 8, 2019 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF ERIK ROUTLEY, ENGLISH CONGREGATIONALIST HYMNODIST

THE FEAST OF ABRAHAM RITTER, U.S. MORAVIAN MERCHANT, HISTORIAN, MUSICIAN, AND COMPOSER

THE FEAST OF RICHARD WHATELY, ANGLICAN ARCHBISHOP OF DUBLIN, IRELAND

THE FEAST OF WILLIAM DWIGHT PORTER BLISS, EPISCOPAL PRIEST; AND RICHARD THEODORE ELY; ECONOMISTS

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Feast of Joseph Badger, Sr. (February 28)   1 comment

Above:  Joseph Badger, Sr.

Image in the Public Domain

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JOSEPH BADGER, SR. (FEBRUARY 28, 1757-APRIL 5, 1846)

U.S. Congregationalist and Presbyterian Minister

First Missionary to the Western Reserve

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There are false teachers now, who hold and preach a doctrine of falling from grace; for a final apostasy, after the renewing of the Holy Spirit; and perish in their sins.  There are many who profess to be Christians, who fall away from their profession, but not from grace.  But to return to the subject.  Let anyone read with an honest, unprejudiced mind the seventh chapter of Romans from the ninth verse to the end; he will see that St. Paul did not teach the doctrine of perfectionism.  There must be a great deal of twisting and perverting from the most obvious meaning of words and phrases to make scriptures referred to above, speak subversive to their true meaning.

–Joseph Badger, Sr., A Memoir of Joseph Badger (1853); quoted in G. Scott Cady and Christopher L. Webber, A Year with American Saints (2006), 331

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Joseph Badger, Sr., was, obviously, a Calvinist, not an Arminian.

The Western Reserve is in northeastern Ohio.  The Reserve’s nearly 3.3 million acres are south of Lake Erie and west of Pennsylvania.  The southern border is a line south of Youngstown, Akron, and Willard.  This area occupies land one part of the land claim of Connecticut.

Joseph Badger, Sr., once a weaver, became a minister and a missionary.  He, born Wilbraham, Massachusetts, on February 28, 1757, was a son of Henry Badger and Mary Langdon.  Our saint served in the Continental Army during the U.S. War for Independence.  In 1781 he matriculated at Yale College, to prepare for ordained ministry.  Badger graduated in 1785.  While at Yale, Badger married Lois Noble, in 1784.  The couple had six children:  Lucius, Joseph Jr., Henry, Sarah, Juliana, and Lucia.  Badger taught in Waterbury, Connecticut, in 1785-1786.  Our saint, whom the (Congregationalist) New Haven Association licensed to preach in 1786, served as a pastor in Northbury (now Plymouth), Connecticut, for a few months in 1786-1787.  Badger, ordained in Blandford, Massachusetts, on October 24, 1787, was a pastor there until October 1800.

When the Badgers left New England, they went to the Western Reserve of Ohio; our saint was the first missionary to the region.  He labored for God for about 36 years.  In 1801, when the Congregationalist-Presbyterian (Presbygationalist, actually) Plan of Union to evangelize the frontier went into effect, Badger became a Presbyterian minister, despite retaining his preference for Congregationalism.  He and his family lived in frontier conditions as he founded churches, some Congregationalist and others Presbyterian.  Our saint also founded schools.  Furthermore, Badger served as a brigade chaplain and as a guide for General William Henry Harrison during the War of 1812.

Lois Noble died in 1818.  Badger remarried the following year; he wedded Abigail Ely.

Badger finally retired in 1836, at the age of 79 years; his heath was failing.  Our saint, aged 89 years, died in Perrysburg, Ohio, on April 5, 1846.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

OCTOBER 4, 2019 COMMON ERA

 THE FEAST OF SAINT FRANCIS OF ASSISI, FOUNDER OF THE ORDER OF FRIARS MINOR

THE FEAST OF WILLIAM SCARLETT, EPISCOPAL BISHOP OF MISSOURI, AND ADVOCATE FOR SOCIAL JUSTICE

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Almighty and everlasting God, we thank you for your servant Joseph Badger, Sr.,

whom you called to preach the Gospel to the people of the Western Reserve.

Raise up in this and every land evangelists and heralds of your kingdom,

that your Church may proclaim the unsearchable riches of our Savior Jesus Christ;

who lives and reigns with you and the Holy Spirit, one God, now and for ever.  Amen.

Isaiah 52:7-10

Psalm 96 or 96:1-7

Acts 1:1-9

Luke 10:1-9

–Adapted from Holy Women, Holy Men:  Celebrating the Saints (2010), 716

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Feast of Sts. Agnes Tsao Kou Ying, Agatha Lin Zhao, Lucy Yi Zhenmei, Auguste Chapdelaine, and Laurentius Bai Xiaoman (February 19)   2 comments

Above:  Map of China, 1843

Image in the Public Domain

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SAINT AGNES TSAO KOU YING (CIRCA 1821-MARCH 1, 1856)

Chinese Roman Catholic Catechist and Martyr, 1856

Roman Catholic feast day (solo) = March 1

Roman Catholic feast day (as one of the Martyrs of China) = September 28

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SAINT AGATHA LIN ZHAO (CIRCA 1817-JANUARY 28, 1858)

Chinese Roman Catholic Catechist and Martyr, 1858

Roman Catholic feast day (solo) = January 28

Former Roman Catholic feast day (solo) = February 18

Roman Catholic feast day (as one of the Martyrs of China) = September 28

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SAINT LUCY YI ZHENMEI (JANUARY 17, 1815-FEBRUARY 19, 1862)

Chinese Roman Catholic Catechist and Martyr, 1862

Roman Catholic feast day (solo) = February 19

Roman Catholic feast day (as one of the Martyrs of China) = September 28

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SAINT AUGUSTE CHAPDELAINE (JANUARY 6, 1814-FEBRUARY 29, 1856)

French Roman Catholic Priest, Missionary, and Martyr, 1856

Roman Catholic feast days (solo) = February 28 and 29

Roman Catholic feast day (as one of the Martyrs of China) = September 28

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SAINT LAURENTIUS BAI XIAOMAN (CIRCA 1821-FEBRUARY 25, 1856)

Chinese Roman Catholic Convert and Martyr, 1856

Also known as Saint Lawrence Po-Men

Roman Catholic feast day (solo) = February 25

Roman Catholic feast day (as one of the Martyrs of China) = September 28

Roman Catholic feast day (as one of the Martyrs of Cochin) = November 24

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INTRODUCTION

These five saints come to this, A Great Cloud of Witnesses:  An Ecumenical Calendar of Saints’ Days and Holy Days, via two sources.  All of the five saints are official, according to the Roman Catholic Church.  All of them, as Martyrs of China, share the Roman Catholic feast day of September 28.  Sts. Agnes Tsao Kou Ying, Agatha Lin Zhao, and Lucy Yi Zhenmei share the feast day of February 19 in The Episcopal Church, as of the approval of Lesser Feasts and Fasts 2018 at the General Convention of 2018.  Sts. Auguste Chapdelaine and Laurentius Bai Xiaoman join the three women in this post because their stories overlap with that of St. Agnes Tsao Kou Ying.

I, as an anti-imperialist, affirm that anti-imperialism does not justify religious persecution.

Western imperialism in China led to abuses, including the British Empire selling opium and various powers exercising extra-territoriality.  Chinese anti-imperialism, although justified, led to violent excesses, notably the Boxer Rebellion (1899-1901).  Chinese anti-imperialism also led to occasional persecutions of Christians over time.  Our five saints died because of this policy.

SAINTS AUGUSTE CHAPDELAINE, LAURENTIUS BAI XIAOMAN, AND AGNES TSAO KOU YING

St. Auguste Chapdelaine, despite experiencing obstacles, eventually fulfilled his vocation as a priest and a missionary.  He, born in La Rochelle-Normande, France, on January 6, 1814, was a son of Nicolas Chapdelaine and Madeleine Dodeman.  Our saint dropped out of grammar school to work on the family farm.  He eventually discerned his vocation to the priesthood, but his family objected until after two of his brothers died suddenly.  Finally, on October 1, 1834, Chapdelaine, aged 20 years, matriculated at the minor seminary, Mortain.  He, being twice as old as many of his classmates, became “Papa Chapdelaine.”  Chapdelaine, ordained to the priesthood on June 10, 1843, worked as an associate parish priest in 1844-1851.  Our saint, having discerned his vocation to be a missionary, applied to join French Foreign Missions, which accepted him, although he was, technically, two years too old to join.

Chapdelaine completed his days as a missionary in China.  He, having left France on April 30, 1852, arrived in Singapore on September 5.  When the time to depart for his mission station in China came, our saint was ready.  Robbery delayed him en route to the mission station in Kwang Si province, though.  Our saint finally arrived in 1854.  Ten days later, authorities arrested him and incarcerated him for three weeks.  Chapdelaine, released, spent the next two years or so well; he converted hundreds of people.

St. Laurentius Bai Xiaoman, born Loulong, was one of those converts.  He, born in Shuicheng, Guizhou, circa 1821, came from a poor family.  Loulong, orphaned as a boy, worked as a day laborer in Guangxi then in the village of Yaoshan.  He married in his early thirties and had a daughter.  Chapdelaine converted Loulong circa 1855.

Chapdelaine also met St. Agnes Tsao Kou Ying.  She, born in Wujiazhou circa 1821, came from a Roman Catholic family.  Her parents died during her adolescence, prompting our saint to move to Xingyi.  St. Agnes married a young farmer when she was 18 years old.  Their marriage was brief; about two years later, she became a widow when her husband became a martyr.  The widowed saint became a catechist.  Eventually Chapdelaine asked our saint to assist him in his missionary work; she agreed.  St. Agnes cared for children, taught cooking, and catechized.

Authorities arrested Chapdelaine and St. Agnes in late February 1856.  Our saints, incarcerated and tortured, refused to renounce their faith. So did St. Laurentius, arrested after he protested the arrests of Chapdelaine and St. Agnes.  All three received death sentences.  St. Laurentius died on February 25.  Chapdelaine became a martyr on February 29.  St. Agnes received the crown of martyrdom on March 1.

Holy Mother Church recognized these saints formally.  Pope Leo XIII declared them Venerable in 1899 and beatified them the following year.  Pope John Paul II canonized the three saints in 2000.

SAINT AGATHA LIN ZHAO

St. Agatha Lin Zhao was another catechist and martyr.  She, born in Quinlong, Guizhou circa 1817, grew up in a Roman Catholic family.  She, an only child, discerned her vocation to live as a single woman and operate a church-related girls’ school.  Her parents reluctantly agreed to release her from plans for an arranged marriage.  St. Agatha, having earned her university degree, returned to her hometown and opened a school for girls.  Our saint, arrested in late 1857, refused to renounce her faith.  She died via beheading on January 28, 1858.

The Church formally recognized this saint.  Pope Pius X beatified St. Agatha in 1909.  Pope John Paul II canonized her in 2000.

SAINT LUCY YI ZHENMEI

St. Lucy Yi Zhenmei was a catechist and a martyr.  When she was 20 years old and recovering from a severe illness, St. Lucy deepened her faith.  She continued to reside with and to support her family, but she adopted a semi-monastic lifestyle.  Our saint also began to teach the catechism to children.  After St. Lucy’s priest asked Lucy to become a missionary, she initially refused.  She, citing safety concerns, moved to a convent instead.  In 1862, however, our saint and Father Wen Nair opened a mission in Jiashanlong.  Almost immediately, they became victims of a provincial persecution of Christianity.  Authorities arrested the priest and three others then, without conducting a formal trial, sentenced them to die.  The priest and the three other condemned persons were en route to die on February 18, 1862, when St. Lucy met them on the road and spoke up.  Authorities arrested her immediately.  Before the end of the day, she had received her death sentence.  She received the crown of martyrdom on February 19.

The Roman Catholic Church recognized St. Lucy formally.  Pope Pius X declared her a Venerable in 1908 then beatified her the following year.  Pope John Paul II canonized her in 2000.

CONCLUSION

Writing about martyrs is easy.  Living as a Christian in a country with religious freedom is also easy.  Asking oneself if one would rather die or remain faithful may lead one to examine one’s faith more closely.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

SEPTEMBER 25, 2019 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF SARAH LOUISE “SADIE” DELANY, AFRICAN-AMERICAN EDUCATOR; HER SISTER, ANNIE ELIZABETH “BESSIE” DELANY, AFRICAN-AMERICAN DENTIST; AND THEIR BROTHER, HUBERT THOMAS DELANY, AFRICAN-AMERICAN ATTORNEY, JUDGE, AND CIVIL RIGHTS ACTIVIST

THE FEAST OF SAINT EUPHROSYNE AND HER FATHER, SAINT PAPHNUTIUS OF ALEXANDRIA, MONKS

THE FEAST OF SAINT HERMAN OF REICHENAU, ROMAN CATHOLIC MONK, LITURGIST, POET, AND SCHOLAR

THE FEAST OF SAINT SERGIUS OF RADONEZH, ABBOT OF THE MONASTERY OF THE HOLY TRINITY, SERGIYEV POSAD, RUSSIA

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Lord Jesus Christ, who willingly walked the way of the cross:

Strengthen your church through the witness of your servants

Saint Agnes Tsao Kou Ying,

Saint Agatha Lin Zhou,

Saint Lucy Yi Zhenmai,

Saint Auguste Chapdelaine, and

Saint Laurentius Bai Xiaoman,

to hold fast to the path of discipleship even unto death;

for with the Father and the Holy Spirit you live and reign,

one God, for ever and ever.  Amen.

Ephesians 3:13-19

Psalm 27

Matthew 25:1-13

–Adapted from Lesser Feasts and Fasts 2018, 141

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Feast of Henry B. Whipple (February 18)   2 comments

Above:  A Former Flag of Minnesota

Image in the Public Domain

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HENRY BENJAMIN WHIPPLE (FEBRUARY 15, 1822-SEPTEMBER 16, 1901)

Episcopal Bishop of Minnesota

Bishop Henry B. Whipple comes to this, A Great Cloud of Witnesses:  An Ecumenical Calendar of Saints’ Days and Holy Days, via G. Scott Cady and Christopher L. Webber, A Year with American Saints (2006).

Whipple was simultaneously a man of his time and ahead of it.  His paternalistic attitude toward Native Americans was indefensible.  However, our saint was a vocal critic of abuses indigenous people suffered at the hands of civilians and the federal government.  This made him politically unpopular and out of step with many of his fellow whites, especially in Minnesota.

Whipple was a priest and missionary prior to becoming a bishop.  He, born in Adams, New York, on February 15, 1822, was a child of John Hall Whipple (1795-1859) and Elizabeth Wager (1798-1870).  Our saint married Cornelia Wright (1816-1870) on October 5, 1842.  The couple had six children.  Whipple, raised a Presbyterian, became an Episcopal priest in 1848.  He served as the Rector of Zion Episcopal Church, Rome, New York, before transferring to the Episcopal Church of the Holy Communion, Chicago, Illinois, in 1857.  Then, in 1859, at the age of 37 years, Whipple became the first Bishop of Minnesota and the youngest member of the House of Bishops.

During his long episcopate (1859-1901), Whipple accomplished much.  He transformed the fledgling Diocese of Minnesota into a stable see.  Our saint also worked to improve the lives of indigenous people, who suffered from poverty and whom the federal government exploited.  Federal management of Indian Affairs was, in the bishop’s words,

a stupendous piece of wickedness.

Whipple, while presiding over missionary outreach to tribes, stuck his neck out to speak out on their behalf.  In August 1862, white-Native tensions erupted into the U.S.-Dakota War.  The United States Army, having tried and convicted 303 Dakota men, prepared to hang them.  Whipple argued publicly on the condemned men’s behalf and interceded on their behalf with President Abraham Lincoln.  The bishop cast blame onto the federal government for violating treaties and treating indigenous people badly.  He also questioned the legality of the trials and condemned the lack of a proper defense in court.  His appeal to Lincoln was mostly successful; 38 Dakota men hanged and 265 received pardons.

Whipple, simultaneously praised and condemned for his relatively liberal attitude toward Natives, served on various commissions and boards.  These included the Sioux Commission (1876), the Northwest Indian Commission (1887), and the U.S. Board of Indian Commissioners (1895-1901).

Whipple, a widower, remarried on October 22, 1896.  His second wife was Evangeline Marrs (d. 1830).

Whipple, aged 79 years, died in Faribault, Minnesota, his home since 1860, on September 16, 1901.  “Straight Tongue,” as Natives had called him because of his honesty and outspokenness, fell into the silence of death.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

SEPTEMBER 22, 2019 COMMON ERA

PROPER 20:  THE FIFTEENTH SUNDAY AFTER PENTECOST, YEAR C

THE FEAST OF PHILANDER CHASE, EPISCOPAL BISHOP OF OHIO, AND OF ILLINOIS; AND PRESIDING BISHOP

THE FEAST OF C. H. DODD, WELSH CONGREGATIONALIST MINISTER, THEOLOGIAN, AND BIBLICAL SCHOLAR

THE FEAST OF CHARLOTTE WEBB, JULIA ANNE ELLIOTT, AND EMILY ELLIOTT, ANGLICAN HYMN WRITERS

THE FEAST OF JUSTUS FAULKNER, LUTHERAN PASTOR AND HYMN WRITER

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Heavenly Father, Shepherd of your people, we thank you for your servant Henry B. Whipple,

who was faithful in the care and nurture of your flock:

and we pray that, following his example and the teaching of his holy life,

we may by your grace grow into the stature of fullness of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ;

who lives and reigns with you and the Holy Spirit, one God, for ever and ever.  Amen.

Ezekiel 34:11-16

Psalm 23

1 Peter 5:1-4

John 21:15-17

–Adapted from Holy Women, Holy Men:  Celebrating the Saints (2010), 718

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Feast of Charles Todd Quintard (February 16)   4 comments

Above:  Charles Todd Quintard

Image Source = Library of Congress

Reproduction Number = LC-DIG-cwpbh-01430

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CHARLES TODD QUINTARD (DECEMBER 22, 1824-FEBRUARY 16, 1898)

Episcopal Bishop of Tennessee

Bishop Charles Todd Quintard comes to this, A Great Cloud of Witnesses:  An Ecumenical Calendar of Saints’ Days and Holy Days, via The Episcopal Church.  Quintard is one of many saints listed in the side calendar (Holy Women, Holy Men:  Celebrating the Saints, 2010; and A Great Cloud of Witnesses:  A Calendar of Commemorations, 2016), but not the main calendar (Lesser Feasts and Fasts, most recently revised in 2018, and in 2006, immediately prior to that).  Likewise, many saints listed in Lesser Feasts and Fasts are not in the side calendar.  Episcopal hagiography is not a simple matter.

Charles Todd Quintard, son of Dr. Isaac Quintard, M.D., was a physician prior to entering ordained ministry.  He, born in Stamfort, Connecticut, on December 22, 1824, descended from Huguenots.  Quintard studied at University Medical Center, New York University, and Bellevue Hospital prior to becoming an M.D. in 1847.  Our saint, a physician in Athens, Georgia, and a parishioner at Emmanuel Episcopal Church, from 1848 to 1851, moved to Memphis, Tennessee, to each at Memphis Medical College.  Our saint, with the support of James Hervey Otey, the Bishop of Tennessee, began to study for Holy Orders in 1854.  Otey ordained Quintard in 1856.

Quintard was a priest for about nine years before joining the ranks of bishops.  He was briefly the Rector of Calvary Episcopal Church, Memphis (1856-1857), then the Rector of the Episcopal Church of the Advent, Nashville (1857f).  Our saint, a High Churchman, served as a surgeon and a chaplain in the Confederate Army.  He compiled the Confederate Soldiers’ Pocket Manual of Devotions (1863) and Balm for the Weary and the Wounded (1864).

Quintard became the Bishop of Tennessee, succeeding the deceased James Hervey Otey, serving from October 1865 to February 1898.  He built up the Diocese of Tennessee and The University of the South, founding its School of Theology, as well.  The Diocese of Tennessee, Quintard insisted, had to be open to all who came, so he opposed any barriers.  Our saint, therefore, opposed pew rentals.  Although race-based chattel slavery had been the cornerstone of the Confederacy, as Vice President Alexander Hamilton Stephens had said openly in Savannah, Georgia, in March 1861, the bishop, a former Confederate Army chaplain, opposed racially-segregated congregations.  He also established programs to help poor people.  Furthermore, Quintard helped to found Hoffman Hall, Fisk University, Nashville, as a seminary for African Americans.

Quintard was in Meridian, Georgia, in McIntosh County and near Darien, for health reasons, when he died on February 16, 1898.  He was 73 years old.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

SEPTEMBER 19, 2918 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF SAINT THEODORE OF TARSUS, ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY

THE FEAST OF SAINT EMILY DE RODAT, FOUNDRESS OF THE CONGREGATION OF THE HOLY FAMILY OF VILLEFRANCHE

THE FEAST OF WALTER CHALMERS SMITH, SCOTTISH PRESBYTERIAN MINISTER AND HYMN WRITER

THE FEAST OF WALTER DALRYMPLE MACLAGAN, ARCHBISHOP OF YORK AND HYMN WRITER

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Mighty God, we bless your Name for the example of your bishop Charles Todd Quintard,

who opposed the segregation of African Americans in separate congregations and condemned the exclusion of the poor;

and we pray that your Church may be a refuge for all, for the honor of your Name;

through Jesus Christ, who with you and the Holy Spirit lives and reigns, one God, for ever and ever.  Amen.

Sirach (Ecclesiasticus) 34:14-19

Psalm 94:2-15

Romans 14:10-13

Luke 14:15-24

Holy Women, Holy Men:  Celebrating the Saints (2010), 227

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Feast of Henry Williams Baker (February 12)   1 comment

Above:  Henry Williams Baker

Image in the Public Domain

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HENRY WILLIAMS BAKER (MAY 27, 1821-FEBRUARY 11, 1877)

Anglican Priest, Hymnal Editor, Hymn Writer, and Hymn Translator

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Praise, O praise our God and King;

Hymns of adoration sing;

For His mercies still endure,

Ever faithful, ever sure.

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Praise Him that He made the sun

Day by day his course to run; —

For His mercies still endure,

Ever faithful, ever sure; —

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And the silver moon, by night

Shining with her gentle light;

For His mercies still endure,

Ever faithful, ever sure.

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Praise Him that He gave the rain

To mature the swelling grain; —

For His mercies still endure,

Ever faithful, ever sure; —

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And hath bid the fruitful field

Crops of precious increase yield;

For His mercies still endure,

Ever faithful, ever sure.

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Praise Him for our harvest-store;

He hath filled the garner floor; —

For His mercies still endure,

Ever faithful, ever sure; —

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And for richer food than this,

Pledge of everlasting bliss;

For His mercies still endure,

Ever faithful, ever sure.

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Glory to our bounteous King!

Glory let creation sing,

Glory to the Father, Son,

And blest Spirit, Three in One!

–Henry Williams Baker, 1861

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Henry Baker Williams left a fine legacy of hymnody.

Our saint, born in London, England, on May 27, 1821, spent most of his adult life as a priest.  His father was Admiral Henry Loraine Baker, Baronet.  Our saint, educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, then ordained to the priesthood of The Church of England in 1844, served faithfully as the Vicar of Monkland from 1844 to 1877.  He, a High Churchman, practiced priestly celibacy.  Baker also wrote Family Prayers for the Use of Those Who Work Hard.

Baker composed hymn tunes, wrote hymn texts, and translated other hymn texts.  He composed the tunes “Quebec” and “Stephanos.”  Baker, the Editor-in-Chief of Hymns, Ancient and Modern (1861), translated “Of the Father’s Love Begotten” and wrote wonderful hymns such as “The King of Love My Shepherd Is.”

Baker, Baronet since 1851, died in Monkland on February 11, 1877.  He was 55 years old.

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

SEPTEMBER 18, 2019 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF DAG HAMMARSKJÖLD, SECRETARY-GENERAL OF THE UNITED NATIONS

THE FEAST OF EDWARD BOUVERIE PUSEY, ANGLICAN PRIEST

THE FEAST OF HENRY LASCALLES JENNER, ANGLICAN BISHOP OF DUNEDIN, NEW ZEALAND

THE FEAST OF JOHN CAMPBELL SHAIRP, SCOTTISH POET AND EDUCATOR

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Dear God of beauty,

you have granted literary ability and spiritual sensitivity to

Henry Williams Baker and others, who have composed and translated hymn texts.

May we, as you guide us,

find worthy hymn texts to be icons,

through which we see you.

In the Name of God:  Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.  Amen.

Sirach/Ecclesiasticus 44:1-3a, 5-15

Psalm 147

Revelation 5:11-14

Luke 2:8-20

KENNETH RANDOLPH TAYLOR

APRIL 20, 2013 COMMON ERA

THE FEAST OF SAINTS AMATOR OF AUXERRE AND GERMANUS OF AUXERRE, ROMAN CATHOLIC BISHOPS; SAINT MAMERTINUS OF AUXERRE, ROMAN CATHOLIC ABBOT; AND SAINT MARCIAN OF AUXERRE, ROMAN CATHOLIC MONK

THE FEAST OF JOHANNES BUGENHAGEN, GERMAN LUTHERAN PASTOR

THE FEAST OF SAINT MARCELLINUS OF EMBRUN, ROMAN CATHOLIC BISHOP

THE FEAST OF OLAVUS AND LAURENTIUS PETRI, RENEWERS OF THE CHURCH

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